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FIFTH AMUAL REPORT 



SEOEETA-RY 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH 



STATE OF MICHIGAN, 



Fiscal Year Ending Sept. 30, 1S77. 




BY AUTHORITY. 



LANSING: 
W. S. GEOKGE & CO., STATE PEINTEKS AND BrN"DERS. 

1878. 



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■3 



Mitt of tl]c Sttntitrg 0f i\t ^Mt ^§m^ d "§^1% 
f ansiug, pitljtgau, gettmkr, 1577. 



2 To Hox. CHAELES M. CROSWELL, Governor of Michigan: 

Sir : — lu compliance 'witli the laws of this State, I present to you the accom- 

panying Keport for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1877. 
5 Very respectfully, 

3 HENRY B. BAKER, 

Secretary of the State Board of Health. 



RESOLUTION OF THE BOARD RELATIVE TO PAPERS PUBLISHED IN 

ITS ANNUAL REPORT. 



liesolved, That no papers shall be published in the Annual Report of this Board 
except such as are ordered or approved for purposes of such publication by a major- 
ity of the members of the Board; and that any such paper shall be published over 
the signature of the writer, who is entitled to the credit of its production, as well as 
responsible for the statements of facts and opinions expressed therein. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 
Secretary's Eeport of the Work of the Office and of the Board, for the fiscal 

year ending September 30, 1877 vii-lxxviii 

Names and Residences of Members of tlie Board vii 

Standing Committees of this Board viii 

By-Laws and General Resolntions viii-x 

General Plan of Work of the Office of the Board xi-xiv 

General Plan of the Collection of Information xi-xiii 

Meteorological Observations, General Plan, and During Year 1877. . xii-xiii, xxii 
Official Correspondence, General Plan, and During Year 1877. xiil, xxvi-xxvii, xxxvi 

General Plan of Dissemination of Information. • xiii-xiv 

Collection of Information,— Fiscal Year 1877 xiv-xxvii 

Circulars, Blank Forms for Ke turns, etc., sent out from the Office of the 

Board during the year, and Eemarks concerning xiv-xxxix 

Dissemination of Information, — Fiscal year 1877, Correspondence, Reports 

and Documents distributed, etc. xxvii--xxxix 

Document on the Restriction and Prevention of Scarlet Fever. . . xxix— xxxii 
Resolution Concerning the Prevention and Restriction of Small-pox. . xxxv, 109 

Document on Treatment of tlie Drowned xxxvii-xxxix 

Secretary's Report of Property xl-liv 

Abstracts of the Proceedings at the Meetings of the State Board of Health 

During the Year ending Sept. 30, 1877 liv-lxiii 

Special Reports and Communications, Outbreaks of Typhoid Fever and Scar- 
let Fever, Sickness due to Emanations from Decomposing Organic Mat- 
ter, etc Ixiii-lxxxiii 

Trichiniasis in Otsego Township, Allegan Co Ixxii-Ixxiii 

Illuminating Oils: Memorial to the Legislature, Death of Girl, Experi- 
ments, etc Ixxiii-lxxviii 

Heredity: Address by Homer O. Hitchcock, M. D 1-19 

Labelling Medicines: Paper by Robert C. Kedzie, M. D. .... 21-2G 

Recreations and Health: Paper bj'^ Rev. Charles II. Brigliam 27-40 

Healthful Dwellings: Paper by Henry F. Lyster, M. D 47-07 

Illuminating Oils in Michigan: Address by Prof. R. C. Kedzie, M. D. . . G9-80 

Law Relating to Illuminating Oils 80-83 

Inspection of Illuminating Oils in ^Michigan: Report by Perry Averill, State 

Inspector 85-90 

Report of Proceedings of the Health Department of the American Social 

Science Association (Saratoga Meeting) : Paper by Hon. LeRoy Parlcer. 91-98 
Remarks on Infant Diet: Paper by Arthur Hazlewoocl,M.D. . . . 09-104 



vi CONTENTS. 

Page. 
Small-pox in the City of Detroit : Paper bj^ Henry F. Lyster, M. D. . . 105-109 

Baths and Bathing: Paper by Henry F. Lyster,M.D 111-130 

Persistence in Efforts to Kesuscitate the Drowned: Paper by Eobert C. Ked- 

zie, M. D 131-142 

The Water-snpply of Localities in Michigan, its Eelations to Health, Ke- 

plies of Regular Correspondents of the Board. 143-16G 

Relative to the Diseases in Michigan during the year 187G, Summary for the 

State, and replies by Correspondents to Circular 15. .... . 1G7-23G 

Weekly Reports of Diseases in Michigan, Year ending Sept. 29, 1877, Compi- 
lation of the Weekly Reports from Health Officers of Cities and from reg- 
ular Correspondents 237-343 

Relative to Erysipelas and Peurperal Fever 345-350 

Contributions to the Study of the Spread of Diphtheria 351-390 

Relative to Scarlet Fever 397-447 

Report of Proceedings of the American Public Health Association: Reports 

by H. O. Hitchcock, M. D., and Henry B. Baker, M. D 449-4G4 

Special Danger Near Railroad Switches : Letter by Wm. Worsfold, M. D., and 

Remarks by Henry B. Baker, M. D 459-457 

Alphabetical Index 465 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Method of. Resuscitating the Drowned and Suffocated xxxvii 

Positions of Houses in Kendall, Van Buren Co., in which Typhoid Fever oc- 
curred Ixv 

House, with surroundings, in which were many cases of Typhoid Fever. . Ixvi 

Position of Houses in Lansing, where Typhoid Fever occurred. . . . Ixviii 

Graphic representation of Genealogy of familj' of Titian. .... 7 

Diagram of relations of Pauperism, Crime, etc 10 

Illustration of Postal Weekly Reports of Diseases 242 

Surroundings of a House in Saginaw City where Diphtheria occurred. . 3G1 
Portion of the Village of Brooklyn, Mich., Showing Tenement House where 

Diphtheria occurred 370 

Position of Houses where were several cases of Diphtheria. . . . 37G 
Outline map of Plainfield and adjoining Townships in Kent Co., showing lo- 
cation of cases of Diphtheria 380 

Premises of the Pattersons, where Diphtheria occurred, and adjacent lot, 

showing relation of Privies and Well. 383 

Methods of Lessening the Danger because of Angles in Railroad Frogs and 

Guard-rails 463 



REPORT. 



This is the Fifth Annual Report of the Secretary of the Michigan State 
Board of Health, and is for the fiscal year ending Septemher 30, 1877. In 
addition to the report of the work of the office of the Board, special reports, 
communications, etc., prepared by the Secretary, it contains nineteen papers 
upon different Sanitary subjects. Thirteen of these were mostly written by 
members of the Board, two of the thirteen are partially, and the six others 
largely, made up of valuable material contributed by the regular correspond- 
ents of this Board. 

Inasmuch as the article on AVeekly Reports of Diseases during this fiscal 
year is a comparatively new feature in these Reports, it may be proper to ask 
attention thereto. The amount of work required to make the compilation has 
been even greater than was anticipated, but it is hoped that the value of the 
article will more than compensate therefor. The Registration of Disease has 
for some time been considered very desirable ; but, although several times 
attempted in different parts of the world, has never been successfully practiced 
for any considerable time. It remains to be seen what the result of this 
attempt will be. Thus far the undertaking promises grand results. 

Excepting the first part of tlie Report whicii is paged in Roman numerals, the 
papers are publislied under the same resolution that lias governed the subject 
in previous Reports, and wliicli is reprinted here because it states definitely the 
conditions of their publication : 

" Jiesolved, That no papers shall be published in tlie Annual Report of this 
Board except such as are ordered or approved for purposes of such publication 
by a majority of the members of the 13oard ; and that any such paper shall be 
publislied over the signature of the writer, who is entitled to the credit of its 
production, as well as responsible for the statements of facts and opinions 
expressed tliereiu.'' 

ilEJIlSEKS OF THE STATE EOAKD OF HEALTlf. 

At tlie close of the fiscal year, the names and postoffice addresses of the 
members of this Board are as follows : 

Robert C. Kedzie, jM. 1)., President, . . Agr'l College, Lansing. 
HoMEii 0. Hitchcock, M. D., . . . . Kalamazoo. 
Henry F. Lyster, M. D,, . . . . Detroit. 

Rev. Charles H. 13RiGnAM, Ann Arbor. 

Hon. LeRoy Parker, Flint. 

Rev. D. C. Jacokes, D. D Pontiac. 

Henry B. Baker, M. D., Secretary of the Board, and 

Supt. of Vital Statistics, Office at Lansiug. 



viii STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— EEPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

STANDING COMMITTEES. 

Ill order to facilitate its work, the Board has assigned certain lines of work 
especially to particular members, constitutmg them standing committees on 
their resjDective subjects. This is not intended to limit any member to the 
subjects especially assigned to him, or to prohibit any other member from work 
upon the same subject. Each of these standing committees consists of one 
member. The numbers, subjects, and names of members of these regular 
committees are now as follows : 

1. Epidemic, Endemic, and Contagious Diseases — Homer 0. Hitch- 

cock, M. D. 

2. Sewerage and Drainage — Henry F. Lyster, M. D. 

3. Food, Drinks, and AVater-Supply— Robert C. Kedzie, M. D. 

4. Buildings, Public and Private, including Ventilation, Heating, etc. — 

Rev. D. C. Jacokes. 

5. Climate as Relates to Age of Inhabitants — Henry F. Lyster, M. D. 

6. Disposal of Excreta and Decomposing Organic Matter — Homer 0. 

Hitchcock, M. D. 

7. Poisons, Explosives, Chemicals, Accidents, and Special Sources of 

Danger to Life and Health — Robert C. Kedzie, M. D. 

8. Occupations and Recreations — Rev. C. H. Brigham. 

9. Education, the Relation of Schools to Health, etc. — Rev. D. C. Jacokes. 

10. Geology, Topography, Influence of Vegetation on Health, etc. — Rev. 

C. H. Brigham. 

11. Death-Rate, as influenced by Age, Climate, and Social Condition — 

Henry B. Baker, M. D. 

12. Legislation in the Interests of Public Health. — Hon. LeRoy Parker. 

13. Finances of the Board — Hon. LeRoy Parker. 

14. Mental Hygiene — Homer 0. Hitchcock, M. D. 



BY-LAWS OF THE MICHIGAN STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 

ARTICLE I. — MEETINGS OF THE BOARD. 

Section 1. The regular meetings of the Board shall be held at Lansing, in 
the office of the Secretary of State, on the second Tuesdays of January, April, 
July, and October in each year, at nine o'clock A. M. ; and the meeting in 
April shall be the annual meeting. 

Sec. 2. Special meetings of the* Board may be called at any time and place 
by the President. The President shall also call special meetings of the Board 
on the written request of a majority of the members of the Board, by giving a 
proper and sufficient notice of the time, place, and object of tlie meeting to all 
the members of the Board. 

ARTICLE II. — OFFICERS. 

Section 1. The President of the Board shall hold his office for two years, 
and until a successor is elected. The election shall take place at the annual 
meeting of the Board in each alternate year, beginning with 1875. 

Sec, 2. In the absence of the President, a President j^ro tern, may be chosen 
by the members present at any meeting of the Board. 

' Sec. 3. The duties of the President and Secretary shall be those specified hi 
the law, in these by-laws, and those usually performed by such officers. 



BY-LAWS OF THE STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. IX 

Sec.*4. At the meeting of the Board in April in each year, it shall be the 
duty of the President to present his annual address. 

Sec. 5. At the October meeting in each year, the Secretary shall make to 
the Board a written rej^ort for the fiscal year, which report shall include a true 
account of the nature and amount of property belonging to the Board, which 
has been received, issued, expended, and destroyed since the last report, and of 
the property remaining on hand, and also iu whose care each item of property 
is intrusted. 

Sec. 6. The Secretary shall receive a salary of two thousand dollars per 
annum. 

ARTICLE III. — COMMITTEES. 

Section 1. Standing Committees shall be appointed on the following 
subjects : 

1. Epidemic, Endemic, and Contagious Diseases. 

2. Sewerage and Drainage. 

3. Food, Drinks, and Water-Supply. 

4. Buildings — Public and Private ; including Ventilation, Heating, etc. 

5. Climate — General and by Season of Year ; and as related to Age of 

Inhabitants. 

6. Disposal of Excreta and Decomposing Organic Matter. 

7. Poisons, Explosives, Chemicals, Accidents, and Special Sources of 

Danger to Life and Health. 

8. Occupations and Recreations. 

9. Education : the Pelation of Schools to Health, the kind and methods of 
instruction in use, and methods to be proposed. 

10. Geology and Topography: Influence on health, of Forests and their 

removal. Shade Trees near Dwellings, etc. 

11. The Death-Rate as influenced by Age, Climate, and Social Condition. 

12. Legislation in the Interests of Public Health. 

13. Finance. 

14. Mental Hygiene. 

Sec. 2. Standing committees shall consist of one member. 

Sec. 3. At the first meeting of the Board and at the meeting in April in 
€ach alternate year thereafter, the chairman of each standing committee shall 
be nominated by the incoming President and confirmed by the Board, unless 
otherwise provided by a majority vote of the members present at such annual 
meeting. 

Sec. 4. Special committees may be appointed at any time by the Board, or 
by the President of the Board. 

Sec. 5. Each committee may employ assistance, but only with the consent 
of the Board where the expenditure of money is required. 

Sec. G. All papers for the Annual Report shall be in the hands of the Secre- 
tary on or before the day of the October meeting in each year. 

article IV. — supplies axd expenditures. 

Section 1. No unusual expenditures shall be ordered except by a majority 
-of the members of the Board, and then only at a regular meeting, or at a 
special meeting called to consider the subject of tlie unusual expenditure. 

Sec. 2. Orders for stationery, postage, and other supplies for the use of 



X STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPOET OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

members, and for the office of the Secretary, shall be executed by the Secre- 
tary, -who shall, at the first subsequent regular meeting, present to the Board 
bills or accounts therefor to be audited. 

ARTICLE V. — ORDER OF BUSINESS. 

Section 1. The order of business at regular meetings shall be as follows: 

1. Calling the roll. 

2. Eeading of minutes of last meeting. 

3. Eeports of standing committees. 

4. Eeports of special committees. 

5. Communications by the President. 

6. Communications by the Secretary. 

7. Communications by members of the Board. 

8. Introduction of new business. 

9. Auditing bills and accounts. 
10. Miscellaneous business. 

At the annual meeting, the President's address shall follow the reading of 
the minutes ; and at each alternate annual meeting, the election of President 
shall follow the President's address. 

Sec. 2. At special meetings the same order shall obtain as at regular meet- 
ings, except that the consideration of the special subject for which the meeting 
is called may precede the usual order. 

Sec. 3. When not conflicting with established rules of the Board, the rules 
of the Senate of Michigan shall apply to the action of this Board, so far as 
they are applicable. Points of order for the settlement of which no other pro- 
vision is made shall be decided by the usual rules of parliamentary practice. 

Sec. 4. The order of business may be suspended at any meeting by a major- 
ity vote of the members present. 

article YI. — AMENDMENTS. 

Section 1. These by-laws may be amended or repealed at any regular meet- 
ing of the Board by a majority vote of the members of the Board. 



GENERAL RESOLUTIONS. 

Resolved, That the chairman of each committee be and is hereby authorized 
to procure, through the Secretary of the Board, such circulars pertaining to his 
committee, — not exceeding in each instance five hundred copies, — together with 
the envelopes and postage stamps necessary to convey the same ; and that on 
presentation of proper vouchers such accounts will be allowed by the Board. 

Eesolved, That no papers shall be published in the Annual Eeport of this 
Board except such as are ordered or approved for purposes of such publication 
by a majority of the members of the Board ; and that any such paper shall be 
published over the signature of the writer, who is entitled to the credit of its 
production, as well as responsible for the statements of facts and opinions ex- 
pressed therein. 

The Secretary is directed to communicate to every person asked to prepare 
a paper for this' Board, a copy of the above resolution relative to the publication 
of papers in the Annual Eeport. 



GENERAL PLAN OF AVORK. 3a 

WORK OF THE OFFICE. 

Ill accordance with custom, a report of the principal items of work in the 
office of the Secretary during each quarter has been presented at the regular 
meetings of the Board. At one of the meetings, on the suggestion of llev. D. 
C. Jacokes, a resolution was adopted directing the Secretary to prepare a 
report of the main items of work done in his office during the year, and to pub- 
lish the same in his Annual Report. 

In order fully to explain the work of the year, it will be necessary to show 
how these efforts have originated. 

The principal objects of the work of the Board being the collection and dis- 
semination of knowledge tending to promote the public health, the work of the 
office may well be considered with reference to the accomplishment of these two 
objects. 

While all the documents sent out by this Board are, to a certain extent, in- 
structive, those primarily intended for the collection of facts have been placed 
in a group by themselves. 

GENERAL PLAN OF COLLECTION OF INFORMATION. 

For the collection of information relative to sanitary affairs, the principal 
lines of effort have been for the reception of annual reports, and reports of 
cases of diseases dangerous to the public health, from clerks and health officers 
of local boards of health ; the securing of daily observations of meteorological 
conditions in as many different representative points as practicable throughout 
the State ; the securing of reports of special sources of danger to life and health, 
— as contagious, infectious, and epidemic diseases, and facts concerning contam- 
ination of drinking-water; reports of special investigations concerning the 
causes of considerable outbreaks of disease, such, for instance, as the outbreaks 
of diphtheria at Union City and at Rochester; of yearly reports of prevailing 
diseases, by correspondents througliout the State, and their replies to circulars 
on special subjects, as, for instance, the circular on Scarlet Fever ; the secur- 
ing of additional correspondents in different parts of the State, to report to this 
office facts bearing on public health, as occurrences prompt, or whenever re- 
quested in reply to circulars. 

The regular correspondents of tiie Board are mostly physicians, prominent 
in their respective localities, and by means of this Board a large amount of 
hitherto neglected and unused information on sanitary subjects in the possession 
of these men is now brought out and utilized for the benetit of the people. 

Section 8 of the law establishing this Board is as follows : 

Sec. 8. It shall be the duty of the health physician, and also of the Health phy- 
clerk of the local hoard of health in each township, city, and village ^',g'^'5kg^*j."j^gjj, 
in this State, at least once in each j'ear, to report to the State Board boards to report 
of Health their proceedings, and such other facts required, on blanks, to state Board. 
and in accordance with instructions received from said State Board. 
They sliall also make special reports whenever required to do so by 
the State Board of Health. 

Acting under this provision, soon after the organization of the Board, a cir- 
cular of instructions and a blank report were prepared and sent to clerks of 
local boards of health throughout the State. This circular and blank, printed 
on pages 9 and 10 of the First Annual Report, was issued to get in communi- 



xii STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

cation with local boards of health, to gain a knowledge of the name aucl 
address of the liealth ofhcer, and to ascertain the nnmber of cases of contag- 
ious or infectious diseases, then prevailing throughout the State. Subsequently, 
each local board of health was requested to keep a record of the name, age^ 
and sex of each person sick with a disease which endangers the public health, 
the name of the disease, when taken sick, the length of time sick, and whether 
died, living, or recovered, etc., — a copy of this record to be sent to this office 
"whenever called for. Such reports have been demanded at the close of each 
year. 

Health Officers and Clerks of local boards of health were also directed to 
promptly notify the State Board of Health of the outbreak of any communi- 
cable disease. Efforts have been made to trace such outbreaks to their sources 
and causes, when possible. This made it necessary to communicate freely with 
the physicians having charge of the cases. Considerable valuable material has 
thus been collected. 

This Board has always felt the need of men Avho should, whenever asked, 
reply to questions of a general nature, as, for instance, the Circulars on Water- 
Supply, Prevailing Diseases, etc. At first the circulars, with stamped envelopes 
for return, were sent to prominent physicians throughout the State, but they 
did not reply to the circulars. It was then determined to ask such information 
of men who should specially undertake the task. Accordingly, a circular (see 
page xviii., Third Annual Report) was planned and printed, asking the person 
to whom it was addressed to promise to answer such questions as might bo asked, 
and to report freely facts bearing on the subject of public health. By this 
means, over 100 correspondents have been secured who gratuitously render 
extremely valuable aid in the collection of information relative to public liealth 
and sanitary affairs. 

From reporting on general topics, such as the facts relating to water-supply, 
the diseases prevailing during the year, etc., their field of labor has gradually 
increased until now it also includes answers to circulars on special subjects ; and 
some correspondents also contribute weekly reports of the diseases present in 
their vicinity, etc. 

METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 

It has been considered desirable to secure a corps of Meteorological Observers 
in this State, to supply data for a study of the relations between meteorological 
conditions and the various diseases and causes of death that are known to be so 
largely influenced by heat, cold, moisture, and other atmospheric conditions. 
Quite a number of observers of meteorological phenomena have been secured 
for this purpose at different stations about the State. As the amount of money 
at the disposal of the Board, after the numerous other imperative uses for it had 
been attended to, has not been sufficient to equip these meteorological stations 
with complete outfits of standard instruments, some of these Observers are con- 
tributing observations of instruments procured at their own expense, while 
others contribute only so much as is possible with the instruments they have, 
including those supplied by this Board. An effort has been made to secure 
observations at each of the prominent State institutions. The names, locations, 
and time covered by reports of the Observers or persons under whose direction 
observations have been made in this State for this Board are as follows : 



WORK OF THE OFFICE. 



NAME. 



Henrv F. Tliom.as, M. D 

J. H. Kellogg, M. D 

Joha Bell, M. D 

Lyjnan P. Alden 

C. Henri Leonard, M. D 

F. W. Higgins, Supt. 

Theo. V. Van Heusen, U. S 

Signal Service 

James S. Reeves, M. D 

H. T. Calkins, M. D... 

E. H. Van Deusen, M. D 

R. C. Kedzie, M. D 

Edwin Stewart, M. D 

W. C. West, M. D 

James S. Reeves, M. D 

Lee S.Cobb 

A. W. Nicholson, M. D 

Dr. E. Hause 

C. M. Woodward 

John S. Caulkins,M. D 

Prof. L. McLouth 



LOCATION. 



Allegan 

Battle Creek 

Benton Harbor 

State Pub. School, Coldwater. 
Detroit 

Woodmere Cemetery, Detroit 

Detroit 

East Tawas 

FyfeLake.. 

Asylum for Insane, Kalamazoo 
Agi-1. College, Lansing 

Mendon 

Monroe 

Niles 

Nirvana, Lake Co 

Otisville 

Tecumseh 

Tecumseh 

Thornville 

State Normal Sch'l, Ypsilanti 



Time Covered by Reports: 

FOR MONTltS OP 



Nov. 187.") to Dec. 1876. 
Jan. 187(J to Oct. 1877. 
Nov. 1875 to Oct. 1877. 
Oct. 1875 to Oct. 1877. 
Dec. 1875 to Oct. 1877. 
Jan. 1870 to Oct. 1877. 

Dec. 1875 to Oct. 1877. 
Feb. 187G to April 1877, 

except Sept. 1876. 
Jan. 1875 to Oct. 1877. 
Dec. 1875 to Oct. 1877. 
Oct. 1875. Feb. 1876, and 

Jan. 1877 to Oct. 1877. 
.Ian. 1877 to Oct. 1S77. 
Feb., March, April, May, 

Sept., Oct. 1876, and 

Jan. 1877 to Julvl877. 
June 1877 to Oct. 1877. 
Nov. 1873 to Oct. 1877. 
May 1877 to Oct. 1877. 
Dec. 1875 to Oct. 1877. 
March and April 1876. 
Dec. 1876 to Oct. 1877. 
Dec. 1875 to Oct. 1877. 



Three observations are taken each day, and at the close of each month a copy 
of the observations for that month is forwarded to this office. The kinds of 
information received may in this way be seen by referring to the copy of a bhxuk 
''Monthly Register of Meteorological Observations" printed on pages xxxiv.- 
xxxviii. of the Third Annual Eeport of this Board. The data thus secured 
furnish one of the most important factors in nearly all questions relating to 
public health, and each year it grows more important. 

OFFICIAL CORRESPONDENCE. 

Another extensive source of information has been tlie correspondence of the 
office. The Secretary is in communication with leading sanitarians throughout 
the world, and the best Sanitary and Medical Journals are received, read, and 
placed in the library. The exchange with Boards of Health and other sauitary 
organizations is large, and the reports, etc., thus received constitute a valuable 
portion of the library, which now numbers over one thousand volumes. Each 
year a few books, bearing on sanitary subjects, are purchased and placed in the 
library. By these sources of information, it may be seen, the best knowl- 
edge of the world on sanitary subjects is brought side by side with the facts 
collected in this State. 



GENERAL PLAN OF DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION. 

The methods of disseminating tlie information collected are three, viz. : by 
Annual Reports, by circulars of instruction, and by official correspondence. 
An Annual Report is published for each year, consisting of the Report of the 



xiv STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

Secretary, which gives an outline of the work of the office of the Board ; 
of papers, by the members of the Board and others, on subjects of impor- 
tance relating to Public Health or Sanitary Science, and which arc intended 
to embody the best information that can be obtained on the subjects treated ; 
and,, last, but by no means least, the contributions by the corps of Correspond- 
ents and Observers which this Board has organized and from which it receives 
a portion of the vast fund of information in the possession of physicians, aud 
disseminates it among the people who are to be benefitted by this information. 
Circulars of instruction are planned, printed, and distributed, whenever ma- 
terial is ready on a subject which seems of sufficient importance to warrant 
the effort and outlay. Examples may be found in the "'Shadows from the 
Walls of Death," relative to poisonous wall-papers, etc.; in the ''Eules and 
Kegulations recommended for adoption by Local Boards of Health through- 
outthe State;" in the placard and pamphleton ''Treatment of tlie Drowned;'' 
in the little pamphlet on the "Kestriction and Prevention of Scarlet Fever;" 
and in the resolutions on the "Prevention and Restriction of Small-Pox." 
It often hapjaens that circumstances arise which are as deserving of attention 
by this Board as were the examples mentioned above, except that from their 
local nature they may not be as extensive, and they cannot well be met in the 
same way. These wants are met by working up each individual case, and 
communicating by direct correspondence. Such instances are numerous and 
are increasing as the work of the Board becomes better understood. They 
greatly increase the work of the office, but it is believed that good results 
follow. 

Thus in brief is sketched some of tlie principal lines of effort thus far entered 
upon by this Board. It now remains to be shown more explicitly what has 
been done in each of these directions during tlie year covered by this Report. 



COLLECTION OF IXFORMATIOX— FISCAL YEAR 1877. 

CIRCULAR TO CLERKS OF LOCAL BOARDS OF HEALTH, TRANSMITTING BLANK FOR 
THEIR REPORT FOR THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1876. 

At the close of the year 1876, the following circular was planned, printed, 
and sent to 1,202 clerks of local boards of health, transmitting to them the 
blank form [D.] for their annual report. The information sought is evident 
on reading the documents. About 350 reports were received, and many of these 
were imperfect and required that a new blank with a letter of instructions for 
properly filling it be sent to the clerk making the return, before a correct report 
could be obtained. Those received were valuable and many important facts in 
regard to public health were learned from them, yet the number received is still 
too small to correctly represent the State in any compilation that might be 
made. They are on file in this office. Those officers of local boards of health 
who do not make their reports as the law requires, not only violate their official 
oaths, but do great injustice to those faithful officers who do report ; because 
even the work of these faithful men is rendered less valuable by reason of 
the breaks in the ranks of townships, cities, aud villages, where the local officers 
do not comply with the law. 

The circular was as follows : 



COLLECTIOX OF IXFORMATIOX— 1877 xv 

[14.] 

Ol'l'ICE OP THE SkCRETARY OF THE STATE BOARD OP HEALTH, > 

Lansing, Michigan, December, 187G. !i" 

To the Clerk of the Local Board of Health : 

Sir:— Herewith I send yon a blank form [D] for your use in making your Animal 
Report to this Board, required by law,* for the year ending December 31, 187G. 
Please FILL OUT AND RETURN this report as soon as possible apter the close 
OP THE YEAR 1S7G. ]n making this report, you will probably do well to confer with 
the President, and also with the Health Officer of your Board. The blank is similar 
to one previously used, except that the questions relative to permanent conditions, 
such as soil, streams, timber, etc., are omitted for this year. In the meantime, replies 
to those questions will gladly be received from any clerk prepared to give them for 
localities for which accurate and full replies have not j-et been given; and a blank 
will be set to any clerk requesting it for that purpose. 

I send you a blank sheet for your Report of Cases of Diseases Dangerous to the 
Public Health. If you have any cases on your Record, which have not heretofore 
been reported to tliis office, please pill out and return this report as soon as 
possible after the close of the year 1876. If you have more cases to report than can 
be reported upon one side of a sheet (27). please write to this office for blanks, stating 
the additional number of sheets you iieed. If you have no case to re'povl please semi 
a definite statement to that ejfect ; and whether you have cases recorded or not, please 
state your belief as to the member of cases of each of such diseases that have occurred 
loithin your jurisdiction that hnve not been reported to you officially. You will find blank 
spaces for this near the bottom of the first page of the blank form [D], 

The blank which I send for your report of Cases of Diseases is essentially the same 
form as the one several times recommended by this Board as a proper form for your 
Record of such cases. For the purpose of beginning or continuing such a Record, 
you can obtain sheets, or books of sheets similar to this one, except that they are for 
a Record instead of a Report, at the place and for the price specified in note on page 
18 of the First Report and on page xix. of the Second Report of the Secretary of 
this Board, which Reports are or should be in your possession. 

The law requires that a )iotice be given to the Local Board of Health, or to the 
Health Officer, by every householder, whenever he shall know that any person within 
his family is taken sick with the small-pox, or any other disease dangerous to the public 
health. The law also requires physicians to report all such cases. See Sections (1734), 
(1735), 43 and 44, chapter 46 of Compiled Laws of Mich., 1871. 

It is not expected that it will always be possible, from the notices which you 
receive, to fill every column of your record; but so much as it is possible to learn 
concerning each case should be recorded and reported, because the single fact of the 
number of cases of sickness from each such disease will be of value in connection 
with the records of deaths and other knowledge collected at this office. 

It is again recommended that your Board of Health have a sufficient number of 
blank notices printed for the use of householders and physicians within your jurisdic- 
tion, and distribute them in order to call attention to the law, and secure the material 
for a complete record in your office. The two sections of law, referred to above, 
should be printed on the back of each blank. You can find the torm for such blanks 
for notices on pages 13 and 14 of the First Report, and on pages xiii. and xiv. of the 
Second Report of this Board. 

In case any disease should appear in your locality as an epidemic, please make a 
Special Report of the fact to this office as soon as possible, in order that the condi- 
tions of its progress and decline may be thoroughly studied. 

By directioji of the State Board of Health. 

Very respectfullv. 

HENRY B. BAKER. 

Secretary. 

The blank form [D.] and the blank for report of cases of diseases, men- 
tioned in the foregoing circular as accompanying it, were as follows (reduced 
in size) : 

* Act No. 81, Laws of 1S73, SEC. S. It shaU be the rtutr of the health physician, anil also of the clerk 
of the local board of health in each township, city, and villajje in this State, at least once in each 
year, to report to the State Board of Health their proceedings, and such other facts required, on 
blanks and in accordance with instructions received from said .State Board. They shall also make 
special reports whenever reiiuired to do so by the State Board of Health. 



xvi STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

[Before filling any blanks, please read carefully through the entire form, including foot-notes and 

instructions^] 

[D.] 

To the Secretary of the State Board of Health : Sir : — 

Herewith is' sent, on a separate siieet, a Report of cases of Diseases Dan- 
gerous to the Puhlic Health. AVith ...that sheet, the following constitutes the 

ANNUAL REPORT TO THE STATE BOARD OF HEALTH, by the Clerk of the 

Board of Health for the* of , County of , 

State of Michigan, for the j^ear ending December 31. 1876, 

Compared with previous years, the proportion of deaths to inhabitants in this* 
...during the year ending December 31, 1876, was^ 

Compared with previous years, the proportion of sickness among the people of 
this* during tlie year ending December 31, 1876, was- 

The greatest number of the deaths were from the diseases or causes (named in the 
order of greatest number), as follows: 

The greatest number of cases of sickness was from diseases as follows: 

To the best of my knowledge and belief, during the year ending December 31, 
1876, cases have occurred of epidemic, infectious, or contagious diseases, as follows: 

Of small-pox, cases; of cholera, cases; of scarlet fever, cases; 

of typhoid fever, cases ; of measles, cases ; of whooping-cough,. 

cases; of cerebro-spinal meningitis, ...cases; of diphtheria, ...cases; of 

, cases. 

The date of the first case of each disease was as follows : Of small-pox, ; 

of cholera, ; of scarlet fever, ; of typhoid fever, ; 

of measles, ; of whooping-cough, ; of cerebro-spinal menin- 
gitis, ; of diptheria, ; of 

The date of the last case was as follows: Of small-pox, ; of cholera, 

; of scarlet fever, ; of typhoid fever, ; of measles, 

...; of whooping-caugh, ; of cerebro-spinal meningitis, 

; of diptheria, ; of 

Cases of epidemic, infectious, or contagious diseases now prevail as follows : Of 

small-pox, cases; of cholera,.. cases; of scarlet fever, 

cases; of typhoid fever, cases; of measles, cases; of whooping- 
cough, .cases; of cerebro-spinal meningitis, cases; of diphtheria, 

.cases; of , cases. 

The number of deaths during the year ending December 31, 1876, from epidemic, 

infectious, or contagious diseases, is as follows: From small-pox, ; from 

cholera, ; from scarlet fever, ; from typhoi d fever, ; 

from measles, ; from whooping-cough, ; from cerebro-spinal 

meningitis, ; from diphtheria, ; from 

So far as known, the sources from which the diseases were derived were as follows:^ 

Of small-pox ..; of cholera , ; 

of scarlet fever ; of tj^phoid fever ; 

of measles ; of whooping-cough : 

of cerebro-spinal meningitis ; of diphtheria 

Inmy opinion, cases of disease have occurred within the jurisdiction of this board, 
during the year ending December 31,1876, that have not been reported to me officially, 

as follows: Of small-pox, cases; of cholera,.. cases; of scarlet 

fever, cases; of typhoid fever, cases; of measles, 

cases; of whooping-cough, cases; of cerebro-spinal meningitis, 

cases; of diphtheria, cases. These cases are included in the foregoing 

statement. 

The number of cases of diseases on my record which have not hei'etofore been 
reported to tlie State Board of Health, and which I report at this time in detail, on 

the blank for that purpose,^ are as follows: Of small-pox, cases; of 

cholera, cases; of scarlet fever, cases; of typhoid fever, 

cases; of measles, cases; of whooping-cough, cases; of cerebro- 
spinal meningitis cases; of diphtheria, cases; of 

, cases. 

I attribute the^. in this* during the year ending December 

31, 1876, to the following causes or circumstances: 

In my opinion the principal sources of danger to life or health in this* 

at the present time are as follows: 

During the year ending December 31, 1876, the climatic conditions observed by me 



COLLECTION OF INFORMATION.— 1877. xvii 

were as follows: 

During the year ending December 31,1876, this Board of Ilealth has met as a 
board time.., and the following is a condensed abstract of its proceedings: 

The name of the pbj'sician appointed as Health Officer of this Board is 

- His P. O. address is 

My own P. O. address is , 

I hereby certify that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, the statements in 
the foregoing report are correct. 

Dated , 1877. 

Signed 

Clerk of the Board of Ileallh^ for the* ...of. 



FOOTNOTES AND OTHER INSTRUCTIONS, 

* Insert the word township, city, or village. 

3 If not sent, insert the word "not." 

2 Insert the word "greater," "less," or " the same," as the fact may be. 

3 After each disease insert the words "the disease was contracted in the city of ," "or at 

the school in ," "in a room occupied by persons sick with the same disease time 

since," "by means of clothing worn by patient with same disease," etc., etc., as the facts may be. 
In the case of typhoid fever, if the privy was near the well, or within the dwelling, state the facts. 

4 If there is absolutely no case to report, the blank form for cases need not be sent in as a part of 
your report. 

5 Insert the words "excessive mortality," "excessive sickness," "general healthfulness," or 
otherwise express the facts. 

6 Section (169-2) 1, of Chapter XLVL, Compiled Laws of 1871, provides that "The supervisor and 
justices of the peace of every township, respecting which no other provision is or shall be made by 
law, shall be a board of health for their respective townships, and the totvnship clerk shall be the 
clerk of such board, and shall keep a record of their proceedings in a book to be provided for that 
purpose at the expense of the township." 

In filling blanks followed by such words as "deaths," "cases," etc., numbers should be stated if 
possible, either in words or figures, and "0 " should be written where that expresses the truth, for 
the reason that a blank space indicates that the item has been overloohed. 

Please answer the questions as they are printed, and in the blanks left for the purpose. Do not 
change or mark out any of the printed matter. If you wish to communicate any item which will not 
go in the blank as printed, please write on a separate sheet of paper. 

Please fill all blanks in some wav, to snow that none have been overlooked. 



xviii STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 






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COLLECTION OF INFORMATION.— 1877. xix 

CIRCULAK TO PRESIDENTS OF LOCAL BOARDS OF HEALTH, TRANSMITTING BLANKS 
FOR RETURN OF NAME AND POST-OFFICE ADDRESS OF HEALTH OFFICER. 

The Legislature during its session in 187G-7 passed an act requirimj each 
township board of health to appoint a health ofiticer within thirty davs after 
the annual township meeting, and constantly to have a health officer. In 
order that as many townships as possible might appoint health officers for that 
year, a circular was planned embodying a copy of the law, and transmitting a 
blank for the return of the name and post-office address of the health officer 
appointed. The circular and blank were sent to each supervisor in the State. 
They are as follows : 

[18,] Office op the State Board op Health, ) 

Lansing, Mich., April, 1817. ) 

To the Supervisor, as President of the Toionship Board of Health: 

Sir:— HereAvith I send you a certified copy of an act just passed, and ordered to take 
immediate eilect, by the legislature of this State, and which necessitates action by 
your local board of healtli '"within tiiirty days after the annual township meeting." * 
Herewith please find a blanic form and a printed envelope for the use of your board in 
sending to this oflice the statement of name and post-ofiice address of your health 
ofiicer, as required by this law. 

If any change sluill occur in the health ofllcer* or in his post-office address, it will 
facilitate our work if your board will cause a notice of such change to be sent to this 
oftice. 

In addition to his services as sanitary adviser of your local board of health, it is 
desirable that your health ofiicer correspond freel}' with this office, concerning sub- 
jects connected with the public health in your locality. Any important sanitary 
experience of your board may, if thus reported, be made useful to other boards of 
health throughout the State. 

By direction of the State Board of Health. 

Very respectfully, 

HENEY B, BAKER, 

Secretary, 



* Section 2 of this act requires tliat "r:very township Ijoard of health shaU * * * con- 
stantly have a health oflicer," and proviitos for calling special meetings of the boaril, for any pur- 
pose. If no health oflicer is aiipointed "within thirty days after the annual township meeting," it 
will become necessary to ajjpoint one after that time to till the vacancy. Vacancies also occur 
■whenever the incumbent of an oftice ceases to be an inhabitant of the district, county, township, 
city, or village for which he was elected or appointed an oflicer,— see section 617 Compiled Laws of 
Mich., 1S71. 

Before entering upon his duties, the health oflicer should take and subscribe the oflicial oath re- 
qiiired by Sec. 1, Art. xviii. of the Constitution of this State, and file the same in the oflice of the 
township clerk. 

AN ACT to amend sections 1G92 and 1G93, chapter 46, of the compiled laws of 1871, 
relative to boards of health and health officers in townships. 

The People of the State of Michigan enact, That sections 1G92 and 1G93, chapter 4G,. 
of the compiled laws of 1871, be and the same are hereby so amended as to read as 
follows : 

(1G92.) Section 1. In every township the township board shall be the board of 
health. The supervisor shall be the president, and the township clerk sliall be the 
clerk of said board. The clerk shall keep a record of the proceedings of the board 
in a book to be provided for that purpose at the expense of the townsliip. 

(1G93,) Sec 2. Every township board of health shall appoint and constantlj'' have 
a health officer of the township who shall where practicable, be a physician and san- 
itary adviser, and an executive ofiicer of tlie board: Provided, That in townships 
where it is not practicable to secure the services of a well educated and suitable 
physician, the board may appoint the supervisor or some other person as such health 
officer. The board of health shall establish his salary or otlier compensation, and 
shall regulate and audit all fees and charges of persons employed by them in the- 
execution of the health laws and of their own regulations. ^Vitliin thirty days after 



XX STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

the annual township meeting in each year, the board of health shall meet for the 
transaction of business and shall appoint or re-appoint a health officer, and shall im- 
mediately cause to be transmitted to the Secretary of the State Board of Health, at 
Lansing, the full name and post-ofhce address of such health officer, and a statement 
whether he is a physician, the supervisor, or some other person not a physician. A 
special meeting of the board may be called by the order of the president or of any 
two members of said board. 
Sec. 1. This act shall take immediate eifect. 

Approved April 20, 1877. ALONZO SESSIONS, 

CHARLES M. CKOSWELL. President of the Senate. 

JOHN T. RICH, 
Speaker of the House of Bepresentatives. 

STATE OF MICHIGAX, ) „ 
Office of Secretary of State. \ "*• 

I, E. G. D. HOLDEX, Secretary of State of the State of Michigan, DO herebt certify that I 
have compared the annexed copy of an act entitled "An act to amend sections 1692 and 1693, chap- 
ter 46, of the compiled laws of 1871, relative to boards of health and health officers in townships," 
with the original as enrolled and now on file in this office, and that it is a true and correct tran- 
script therefrom, and of the whole of such original. 

IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and affixed the Great 
[l. s.] Seal of the State of Michigan, at Lansing, this twenty-third day of April, in 

the vear of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy-seven. 

E. G. D. HOLDEN, Secretary of State. 
BY WM. CROSBY, Deputy. 

[Please fill every blank, by words or figures, or as directed in the foot-notes. Do not mark out 
any printed word. J 

[E.] 
To the Secretary of the State Board of Health: 

Sir:— On the day of ,187.., the Board of Health of the town- 
ship of ,County of ,State of Michigan, met for the transaction 

of business and* appointed a Health Officer. 

The name of the Health Officer of this township is 

His post-office address is ,County of , Michigan. 

He t a physician. 

He t the Supervisor of this township. 

X ,Supervisor of the towhship of 

P.O. Address: 

X ,Township Clerk and Clerk of the Board of Health. 

P. O. Address: 

This return is made out by § - 

Dated at ,this day of ,187 . .. 

* If re-appointed, write " re-," if not, draw a line here. 

t Insert the word " is," or " is not," as the case may be. 

jit is not essential that more than one of the officers sign this return, but it is desirable to have 
the name and P. O. address of each given. If either officer writes in the name of the other, this 
fact should appear on this return, so that the officer making the return may be known. 

§ Insert the words " the Clerk." "the Supervisor," " the Clerk and Supervisor," or otherwise state 
the facts. 

In some of the townships, no health officer was appointed within thirty days 
after the annual township meeting, and in some of these townships the board 
of health did not seem to understand that the law requires that there shall con- 
stantly be a health officer. In order to secure the appointment of a health 
officer in all the townships, the circular was marked so as to call attention to 
the fact that a special meeting could be called, and that such a case should be 
considered as a vacancy in office, and the vacancy filled as soon as practicable, 
and the marked circular was sent to the supervisors of such townships as had 
not returned the name and post-office address of their health officer. 

About 850 townships appointed health officers, and made the proper returns 
to this office. This was a long way in advance of anything that had hitherto 
been done to render local boards of health active and efficient, and it is believed 
to be the beginning of good work in this direction among township boards of 
health. 



COLLECTION OF INFORMATIOX.— 1877. xxi 

CIRCULAR TO THE MAYOR AND ALDERMEN OF THE CITY, OR THE PRESIDENT 
AND COUNCIL OF THE VILLAGE, TRANSMITTING A BLANK FOR THE RETURN 
OF THE NAME AND POST-OFFICE ADDRESS OF THE HEALTH OFFICER. 

It was believed that the law requiring townsliips to appoint health officers Avas 
equally applicable to cities and villages whose charters did not conflict with this 
general enactment.* Accordingly a circular, setting forth the law, and the 
opinion of the Attorney General on the subject, was planned, printed, and 
sent to eacii city and village in the State. 

The circular and accompanying blank were as follows: 

[20.] Office of the State Board of Health, } 

Lansing, Mich., August, 1877. \ 

To the Mayor and Aldermen of the City, or the President and Council of the Village: 

Gentlejien: — Your fittention is respectfully asked to the general law relative to 
Boards of Health in this State, as amended at the last session of the legishxture. Act 
jSTo. 56, Laws of Michigan, 1877, amends section (1693), being section 2 of chapter 46 
Compiled Laws of 1871, and section 2 of chapter 35 of the Revised Statutes of 1S46, 
The amendment is such that whereas hei-etofore a health officer might be appointed 
by the board of healtli, it is now required that such officer shall be appointed; and if 
practicable he must be a physician. The amended law also requires that notice of 
such appointment shall be sent to the Secretary of the State Board of Health. The 
section as amended is as follows: 

(1693.) Sec. 2. Every township board of health shall appoint and constantly have 
a health officer of the towhship who shall where practicable, be a physician and sani- 
tary adviser, and an executive officer of the board: Provided, That in townships 
where it is not practicable to secure the services of a well educated and suitable phy- 
sician, the board may appoint the supervisor or some other person as such health 
officer. The board of health shall establish his salary or other compensation, and 
shall regulate and audit all fees and charges of persons employed by them in the exe- 
cution of the health laws and of their own regulations. Within thirty days after the 
annual township meeting in each year, the board of health shall meet for the transac- 
tion of business and shall appoint or re-appoint a health officer, and shall immediately 
cause to be transmitted to the Secretary of the State Board of Health, at Lansing, 
the full name and post-office address of such health officer, and a statement whether 
he is a physician, the supervisor, or some other person not a physician. A special 
meeting of the board may be called by the order of the president or of any two 
members of said board. 

This section, as amended, refers, as heretofore, only to township boards of health; 
but section 49 of the same cliapter (chapter 35 of the Revised Statutes of 1846, and 
chapter 46 of the Compiled Laws, 1871) makes it apply to cities and villages. That 
section is as follows: 

(1740.) Sec. 49. The maj^or and aldermen of each incorporated city, and the presi- 
dent and council, or trustees, of each incorporated village in this State, shall have 
and exercise all the powers and perform all tlie duties of a board of health, as pro- 
vided in this cliapter, within the limits of the cities or villages, respectively, of 
which they are such officers. 

The force and application of this section having been questioned in one instance, 
in order to dispel any doubts that have arisen or that might otherwise arise because 
of the recent amendments of the chapter, the opinion of the Attorney General of the 
State, has been obtained on this subject. His opinion is as follows: 

"In reply, 1 beg leave to say that the officers mentioned in section 1740, Compiled 
Laws of 1871, are re(iuired to carry out, in all respects, the provisions of chapter 46 
Compiled Laws, unless the charters of the respective cities and villages have made 
other provision for guardin<^- the public health. It is imjiossible to say in the 
abstract how far charter provisions may stand side by side with general enactments, 
such as chapter 46 Compiled Laws, or how far one may modify the other. Each case 
must stand upon its own basis. Of course, it follows from what I have stated that a 

* A letter was sent to each city in the State asking a copy of its charter; and, altliough manv 
were received, none has been foun(i which conflictedVith this general provision. 



xxii STATE BOAED OF HEALTH-EEPORT OF SECRETAEY, 1877. 

'health officer' must be appointed in cities and villages whose charter provisions do 
not conflict with the general law. 

Verv respectfully, 

OTTO KIECHNEE, 
Attorney General^ 

It is believed that there is notliing in your cliarter that conflicts with this provis- 
ion of the general law. In complying therewith please use the printed envelope and 
blank form herewith transmitted, to return to this office the name of the physician 
whom j'our honorable body appoint, or have appointed, as your health officer. Have 
the kindness to add a statement of the time when his term of office will expire. In 
this blank, provision is made for reporting a health officer not a physician, although 
it is believed to be *' practicable to secure the services of a well-educated and suitable 
physician" in every city and incorporated village in this State. Please have the 
fact stated in the return, as i)rovided for in the blank form. 

If the person who is in fact the Health Physician for your corporation is known by 
some other title, will you have the kindness to give this information also in tlie 
return? 

A return is expected from your corporation, even though some of the duties of a 
board of health are delegated to other persons tiian the Mayor and Aldermen, or 
President and Council, as the case may be. It is believed that the duty of making 
a return in accordance with section (1693) as lately amended, is not delegated, but is 
one of "the duties of a board of health as provided in this chapter" that must be per- 
formed by your honorable body in accordance with the general law hereinbefore 
referred to. 'namely, Sec. (1740) Sec. 49, Chapter 46. Compiled Laws of 1871. If your 
charter contains such provisions as make it clear that this dutj^ should be performed 
bj^ some other body than your own. will j'ou have the kindness to transmit this com- 
munication to that body, and to inform tliis Board of the fact? 

The law requires that the local board of health shall "constantly have a health 
officer." If, by reason of the death, resignation, or removal of j^our health officer, 
another person shall be chosen to that oftice, it will facilitate our work if j'ou will 
cause a notice of such change to be sent to this office. 

The recent amendment relative to the Health Officer very properly requires that 
"The board of health shall establish his salary or other compensation." In one 
instance a person who acknowledged that he had been appointed Health Officer of a 
city has declined to report to this Board, giving as a reason that his appointment 
was simply nominal, that he received no compensation, and had taken no oath of 
offlce or in anj' way signified his acceptance of the office. This leads to the sugges- 
tion that the person whom yon appoint, or have appointed, as your Health Officer be 
directed to take and subscribe the official oath required by Sec. 1, Art. xviii.. of the 
Constitution of this State, and file the same with the clerk of your corporation, and 
that in case his acceptance of the office be not thus signified, it should be considered 
that the office is not accepted, and another appointment be made. 

In addition to his services as sanitary adviser of j'our local board of health, the law 
also requires that your health officer shall report to this Board annually, and " when- 
ever required to do so by the State Board of Health." (Sec. 8, Act 81,1873.) It is 
also desirable that he correspond freely with tliis oflice, concerning subjects connected 
with the public health in your locality. Any important sanitary experience of your 
board may, if thus reporte\l, be made useful to other boards of health throughout the 
State. 

By direction of the State Board of Health. 

Very respectfullv. 

'HEXRY B. BAKEE, 

Secretary. 

[Please fill every blank, by words or figures, or as ilirectGvl in the foot-notes. Do not mark out 
any printed word."] 

[F.] 
To the Secretary of the State Board of Health: 

Sir:— The name of the Health Officer of this* is 

His full postoffice address is , County of .., 

Michigan. 

Het a physician. 

His term of office expires 



COLLECTIOX OF INFORMATION —1877. xxiii 

The person wlio is in fact tlie llealtli Physician of tliis* is eutitletT 

by our charter: + 



By direction of the§.. 



Signed, - , Clerk 

of the* of 

Dated at - , this dav of 

..,187... 



♦Insert the -word "city" or "village," as the case may be. 

t Insert the word "is" or "is not," as the case may be. 

t Please insert the words: "Health Officer," "President of the Board of Health," or state that 
the Healtli Officer is ap))ointed by your )jody and not mentioned in the charter; or otherwise con- 
vey knowledge of the facts as tliey may be. 

§ Insert the words "Mayor and Aldermen of the City of ," or "President and Council 

of the Village of ." ," or "Board of Health of the City (or village) of ," if 

this return is not made by the Common Council. 

A majority of the cities responded, and returned the names of the health 
officer appointed. In several instances health officers were appointed where the 
office had been vacant. Not all cities complied with the law. 

The villages were not as prompt as the cities in responding to the demand. 
Althougli quite a number complied with the law, many failed to do so. 

Instances freqnently come to notice which show the beneficial influence that 
this Board, as an advisory body, has already had over local legislation by city 
and village councils and by other local boards of health. In localities where 
no boards of health were recognized, they have been brought into working 
order; and where they existed only in name they have become efficient bodies ; 
the powers and duties of such boards have been better exercised, their health 
officers are becoming such in reality, common councils have passed ordinances 
tending greatly to improve the sanitary conditions of their cities and villages, 
and generally tliroughout the State more intelligent attention is being given 
to the interests of the people in life and health than was formerly devoted 
to such subjects. 

METEOEOLOGY. 

Nearly two hundred monthly Meteorological Kegisters have been received dur- 
ing the year, on the blanks furnished by this office, and mentioned on page 
xiii of this volume. These meteorological statements are studied as they 
come in, and compared with the weekly reports of diseases; their main 
value, however, is as permanent records for use in long series of years. They 
are now being computed, compiled, and tabulated for jiublication. 

As before stated, not all the observers have a complete set of instruments; 
hence some of the Registers are incomplete. This deficiency in instruments is 
being sui)plied by the Board as rapidly as its limited means will permit. 

The following instruments have been placed during the year, viz. : 

Seven psych rometers. 

Two wet-bulb thermometers, for psychrometers. 

One Kobinson's Anemometer with self-registering apparatus. 

One Green's Standard barometer. 

One maximum thermometer. 

One minimum thermometer. 

Two rain gauges with measures. 

These were all standard instruments and are now being used for good work 
in the cause cf public health. 
c 



xxiv STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

EEGULAR CORRESPONDENTS. 

During the year, 42 new correspondents have been added to the list, 
making 113 in aU. They are located as nearly as possible at representative 
points throughout the State, and the aim is to secure the best physicians, and 
those whose practice is a good representative of the diseases of their vicinity, 
or whose knowledge of the facts is likely to be general. This corps of corres- 
pondents probably contribute more and better information on the subject of 
health and disease than any other class of men in the State, and this is the 
more praiseworthy because it is done gratuitously. Much of the valuable work 
of this Board depends upon their action. They are looked to for facts con- 
cerning the physical conditions in their several localities, the diseases of differ- 
ent seasons of the year, and in different years, tlie study of special diseases and 
their causes, unsanitary conditions generally, and to supplement the informa- 
tion supplied by local health officers concerning the rise and progress of, and 
other facts relating to, epidemics and outbreaks of communicable diseases. A 
majority of the meteorological observers are also correspondents. Much of the 
work done by correspondents for this Board during the year has been in reply 
to circulars, and in the weekly reports of diseases. 

CIRCULAR TO CORRESPONDENTS, RELATIVE TO PREVAILING DISEASES, 1876. 

This circular, with some amendments and additions, is similar to the one 
sent out in 1875 ; and is replied to much more fully, both as to the numbers 
and completeness of replies. A general summary of these replies may be 
found on pages 169-184 of this Report, and the replies themselves are printed 
on pages 187-233. As the circular is printed on pages 185-186, it is unneces- 
sary to print it in this connection. 

CIRCULAR TO CORRESPONDENTS, RELATIVE TO SCARLET FEVER. 

This circular was prepared with a view of gaining further information on 
the subject of this alarmingly fatal disease. An account of the action which 
led to its preparation can be seen on pages 393-394 of this volume. It 
was issued at about the same time that the document on Restriction and 
Prevention of Scarlet Fever was published (for a copy of which see pages 
xxix-5xxii inclusive, of this volume), — a document which was made in accord- 
ance with the present state of Sanitary Science, without waiting for the 
valuable contributions by the regular correspondents of the Board, which 
are now given in full in this volume. The circular was planned with care, 
after considerable thought and study on the subject, and was intended not only 
to gain present information, but to start investigation in some new channels, 
and prepare the way for a better understanding of the disease in the future. 
A summary of the replies to this circular may be found on pages 398-408 of 
this volume, and the replies themselves are printed on pages 408-447. As the 
circular is printed on pages 394-397, it is unnecessary to repeat it in this con- 
nection. 

Two circulars by Henry F. Lyster, M. D., member of tliis Board, and its 
Committee on Sewerage and Drainage, were printed and sent to correspond- 
ents by this office. One was in reference to tlie surroundings and location of 
dwellings, and may be found in his article on Ilealtliful Dwellings, page 57 of 
this Report. The second was in relation to Baths and Bathing, and is printed 
in the article on that subject in this Report, page 120. 



COLLECTION OF INFORMATION —1877. xxv 

WEEKLY REPORTS OF DISEASES. 

This work, begun before the last Keport, has been continued during the 
present year. It has steadily increased in value, both as to the accuracy of the 
individual reports, the regularity of their receipt, and in the number and rep- 
resentative jjosition of Observers who report. During the year, 3,900 blank 
postals for reports, and 300 blank record-books were printed and distributed 
to the Observers of diseases, by quarterly distributions. The compilations of 
these reports in this volume (pages 248-343) cover the reports during the entire 
fiscal year. As the meteorological and other data to be compared -with these 
disease reports must almost of necessity be compiled for the calendar year, au 
attempt will be made, in future Reports, to render this comparison easier by com- 
puting the whole for the calendar year. Altliough the amount of work necessary 
to successfully compile and publish a registration of diseases was known to be 
great, it has exceeded all expectations. The ability of the office has been severely 
taxed in order to make the the compilations, and the publication of the Report 
has been delayed in consequence, in spite of all efforts to the contrary. That 
the attempt has once failed in England, on account of the labor required, 
does not now seem strange. Some of the over- work has been due to imper- 
fecte d plans, and the changes always necessary in beginning a work of this 
kind ; and, although there is still room for improvement, it is believed that the 
plans and blanks for compilation have been so improved that, in future 
years, the Avork will be better and more easily done. The benefits to be 
expected from such a system are numerous. When it is possible to compare 
the sickness-rate with the death-rate, even approximately, it is hoped that 
much light will be thrown upon the importance of certain diseases, and their 
consideration will be correspondingly modified. By comparing the sickness- 
rate with meteorological data much will probably be learned concerning the 
causes that produce or modify disease, and thereby we will be better able to 
favorably infiuence, and to prevent much sickness which now seems unavoidable. 

PRINTED LETTER TO OBSERVERS OF DISEASES ASKING FOR MISSING REPORTS. 

Those Correspondents and Health Officers who make weekly reports of 
diseases, are, for convenience at this office, denominated ''Observers of 
Diseases." 

It has frequently happened that complete reports had not been received from 
the Observer at the time of compilation, and to obviate the necessity of writing 
to each one, the following letter-blank was planned and printed. It has been 
used when occasion demanded. The letter-blank was as follows : 

[Printed letter to Observers of Diseases, asking for missing reports.1 

Office of the Secketary of the State Board of Health, I 
Lansing, Michigan, 187... ) 



Dear Sir: — If you have the record, and can conveniently do so, will you have the 
kindness to send nie, on the enclosed postal blank..., statements of the Order of 
Prevalence and of the Severity of the Diseases in your locality during each of the 

-weeks ending on Saturday, as follows: ? 

Your report for the above mentioned week lia... never reached this office; and 

as a compilation of the w^eekly reports of diseases is being made, I desire that each 
observer's reports shall be as fall and as nearlj' complete as possible. 

If you cannot supply the desired information, please send me a postal statement to 
that effect. If you can do so, I shall be thankful if you will comply with the above 
request soon. Very respectfullv, 

HENRY B. BAKER, 
<S'ecretory. 



XXVI STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1S77. 

CIKCULA.R TO DELIXQX'E>'T HEALTH OFFICERS OF CITIES, DEMAXDIXG WEEKLT 

REPORTS OF DISEASES. 

At the beginuiug of January, 1877, many of the Health Officers of cities 
Avere not complying with the demand for weekly reports of diseases. In order 
to bring their attention to their duty under the law, and to secure future 
reports, the following circular was planned, printed, and sent to those health 
officers of cities who were not reporting : 

[16,] Office of the Secretaky op the State Board op Health, / 

Lansing, Michigan, Januaki', 1877. f 

_ ,M. D.^ Health Physician, 

Of the city of , 

Michigan : 
Doctor : 

In August last I sent to you a copy of Circular [13], a blank Record, and a number of 
postal-card Blanks for the return of prevailing diseases. The Circular contained an 
official request that you make to this Board weekly reports of diseases prevalent in 
your city, on the blanks furnished you from this office. Such reports fi'om you have 
not been regularly received. 

The law provides for special reports from medical officers of health to this Board 
whenever this Board requires tliem.* It is particularly desirable that for the year 
1877 complete reports maybe received from all the cities in the State, and that tlie 
reports be continuous for the full year. It is hoped and expected that, as a Medical 
Otiicer of Health, you will see your duty in this direction, and contribute promptly 
from this time forward. 

This demand is made of j'ou because this Board has been informed that you are the 
Health Phjsician of your city. If you are not sucli officer, will you have the kind- 
ness to return the blanks sent to you, with a statement to that effect? If you are 
such officer, please respond immediately. 

A stamped envelope is enclosed for your use in communicating with this office. 

By direction of the State Board of Health. 

Very respectfully, 

. HENRY B. BAKER, 

Secretary. 



* Laws of 1873, Act No. 81, "Sec. 8. It shaU be the rlutyof the health physician, and also of the clerk 
of the local board of health in each township, city, and A'iilapre in this State, at least once in each 
year, to report to the State Board of Health their proceeding:s, and such other facts required, on 
blanks and in accordance with instructions received from said State Board. They shall also make 
special reports whenever required to do so by the State Board of Health." 

BOOKS AND PERIODICALS. 

A list of the books and periodicals received, by purchase and otherwise, and 
placed in the library, may be found in the Secretary's "Report of Property," 
commencing on page xli of this volume. 

INFORMATION BY CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. 

In addition to these general means of collecting information, very much has 
been gathered by piecemeal. In this way the letters on diplitheria, and also 
those on erysipelas and puerperal fever, published in this Keport, were collected. 
But space will not permit the enumeration of the work that has been done in 
this direction. It is, perhaps, enough to say that much lias been received from 
men in all parts of the State, who report facts of interest relative to public 
health; that an extensive correspondence has been carried on with sanitarians 
in other states ar.d countries; that members of the Board liave observed and 
reported the proceedings of meetings of societies and associations whose aim is 
the promotion of public health ; that special outbreaks of disease have been in- 



DISSEMINATIOX OF IXFORMATIOX— 1877. xxvii 

vestigated and studied ; and that whenever a favorable opportunity for gaining 
sanitary knowledge has occurred, the Board has endeavored to improve it. 

DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION —FISCAL YEAR 1877. 

Reports, documents, etc., containing information concerning sanitary sub- 
jects have been distributed as follows : 

FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT. 

The Fourth Annual Eeport is a work of over 250 pages, and contains twelve 
special papers bearing closely upon different subjects relating to tlie public 
health and safety; besides the report of the Secretary, which contains an 
abstract of the proceedings of the Board, its members and committees, the 
Secretary's report of property, etc. ; the circulars and blanks issued during the 
year; special reports, communications, etc., — the whole of which is carefully 
indexed. Six thousand copies were published and nearly all have been distrib- 
uted. Besides those distributed under the law by the Secretary of State, this 
Board has sent out over three thousand two hundred copies to members of local 
boards of health, other civil officers, and ''persons interested in and laboring 
for the promotion of the public health." Nearly half of these were sent out 
singly ; the remainder in boxes to the county clerks, to be delivered to such 
persons as were each directed, by a communication from this office, to call for 
them. The following circular was sent to each county clerk at the time the 
books were sent : 

Office of the Seciietary of the State Board of Health, } 
Lansing, Mich.. , 2S77. ) 

To the County Clerk : 

Dear Sir:— I have this day forwarded to you by , copies of the 

Fourth Annual Report of the Secretary of the State Board of Health. Will you 
have the kindness to distribute them as follows: One copy to each Health Officer of 
a Township, one copy each to the Health Officer, President, and Clerk of each incor- 
porated Village, and one copy each to the Mayor and Health Officer of each City. 
These officers will be notified that the books have been sent for them in your care. 

I send a sufficient number of copies to supply all the above-mentioned officers in 
your county. If because of vacancies, or for other reasons, the Reports are not all 
delivered to the proper persons, please preserve any that may remain for sucli dis- 
position by this office as may be found will best meet the intentions of the law. 

Have the kindness to acknowledge the receipt of the books, stating the number 
received, on the enclosed postal card, and oblige, 

Very respectfully, 

HENRY B. BAKER, 

Secretary. 

Circulars were prepared and a copy sent to each Health Officer of a local 
board of health, to each President of the village as president of the local board 
of health, to each Clerk of the village as Clerk of the local board of health, and 
to each Mayor of a city. The circular as sent to the President of the vil- 
lage as President of the local board of health was as follows : 

Office of the Secretary op the State Board of Health, \ 
Lansing, Michigan, September, 1S77. i 

To the President of the Village, as President of the Local Board of Health: 

Sir: — Please call on j^our County Clerk for a copy of the "Fourth Annual Report of 
the Secretary of the State Board of Health," for the year 1876, which has been for- 
warded in his care for you as President of a local Board of Health. 



xxviii STATE BOAKD OF HEAT.TIl— KEPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

Please preserve the Report for the use of yourself and your successors in office. 

The number of copies printed is not sufficient to furnisli one to every member of 
the local Boards of Health: but, as has been done with the previous Reports, one 
copy has been sent from the State Department for each City and Township Library, 
and' from this office, for the President and Clerk of each village, as President and 
Clerk of the local Board of Health. 

It is hoped that, if it has not already done so, j^our board will immediately have 
printed and distributed among i)hyslcians and houseliolders within its jurisdiction, 
the blank for Notices of '• Diseases dangerous to the public health," recommended by 
this Board. A copy of the blank notice was sent with the circular [19] to the Health 
Officers of local Boards, in June last. 

The form may also be found on page xiii. of the Second Annual Report of this 
Board. A sample copy, amended to show its application to cities and villages, is 
also sent to you herewith. 

If the Clerk and Health Officer of your Board have not already begun Records of 
diseases which endanger the public health, it is respectfully suggested that your 
Board direct each of them to procure a blank Record-book, and to begin recording as 
soon as cases of diseases are reported to them or brought to tlieir notice. 

Sections 1734 and 1735, Compiled Laws of 1871, provide that notices may be given 
"to the Board of Health, or to the Health Officer." It is not probable that many 
will give notice to more than one officer, so that if the clerk records all cases reported 
to tlie '• Board of Health," and the Health Officer records all cases reported to him, 
an annual report from each of these officers to this Board should include all cases 
reported during the year. 

The form of Record recommended by this Board is printed on page xxii. of the 
Second Annual Report of this Board, and a sample was sent to the Health Officers in 
this State in June last. You can procure similar printed sheets from ^V. S. George 
& Co., of Lansing, for eighty cents per quire, or three dollars per hundred. If desired, 
the same dealers will bind them at usual rates. 

Very respectfully. 

HEXRY B. BAKER, 
Sec7-etary. 

The circular to the Clerk of the Village was, in substance, essentially the 
same as that to the President, with such differences in the wording as should 
make it apply to the officer addressed. The circular to the Health Officer was 
also similar to the two mentioned, and in addition called his attention to circu- 
lar 19, which gives an outline of his duties as sanitary adviser. The circular 
to the Mayor of the City simply asked him to call on the County Clerk for a 
copy of the "Fourth Annual Report of the State Board of Health." 

RESTKICTIOX AXD PREVENTION OF SCARLET FEVER. 

The mortality from scarlet fever in this State has been great. In fact, for 
some time, only one or two diseases have been reported as causing a greater 
number of deaths. Believing that many of these deaths might be prevented, 
the Board made arrangements for issuing a document on the restriction and 
prevention of the disease, as may be seen on pages 393-394 of this volume. 
The document as issued was intended to embody the best thought and experi- 
ence available on the subject, and if its directions are faitlifuUy carried out, it 
is believed that in every year hundreds of valuable lives will be saved for 
future usefulness. It was printed in the form of an eight-page pamphlet, 
and 20,000 copies were printed. They were distributed freely throughout the 
State, it being intended that every member of a local board of health, every 
newspaper, every physician, every justice of the peace, every township and city 
superintendent of schools in the State should receive at least one copy. They 
were also sent to many sanitarians; and extra copies were sent to places where 
scarlet fever prevailed. The document was as follows : 



DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION —1877. xxix 

RESTRICTION AND PREVENTION OF SCARLET FEVER. 



[document issued by the MICHIGAN STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.] 



Scarlet Fever is now believed to be one of the most contagious diseases.* One 

attack usually prevents subsequent attacks. The greatest number of deaths 
from this disease are of children under ten years of age. Adult persons do 
sometimes have the disease. Scarlet Fever is believed to arise from a special 
contagiuni or poison Avhicli may be conveyed, to persons previously unaffected, 
by personal contact, by infected clothing or paper rags, or by any of the dis- 
charges from the body of a person affected with the disease. 

The discharges from the throat, nose, and mouth are considered extremely 
dangerous, but those from the skin, eyes, ears, kidneys, and bowels are also 
dangerous, and remain so for a considerable time. 

Filth, all forms of uncleanliness, and neglect of ventilr.tion increase the 
danger of spreading the disease. 

Commmunication. — It is believed that the disease may be communicated by a 
person recovering therefrom, so long as the usual subsequent scaling or peeling 
of the skin continues, which sometimes is not completed before the lapse of 
seventy or eighty days, although usually completed sooner. 

The interval of time which may elapse after exposure to the contagiuni of 
scarlet fever, and during which a susceptible person so exposed may expect to 
be taken sick with the disease, varies from one to fourteen days. 

Separation of the sick from the well. Whenever a child has sore throat and 
fever, aud especially when this is accompanied by a rash on the body, the child 
should be immediately isolated as comjiletely as possible from other members 
of the household, and from other persons, until a physician has seen it and 
determined whether it has scarlet fever. All persons known to be sick with this 
disease should be promptly and thoroughly isolated from the public. 

That this is of more importance than in the case of smaU-pox is indicated hv the fact of the 
much greaternumber of cases of sickness and of deaths from scarlet fever,— a 'disease in which 
there is no such preventive known as vaccination. 

The room into which one sick with the disease is placed should previously be 
cleared of all needless clothing, carpets, drapery, and other materials likelv to 
harbor the poison of the disease, except such articles as are essential to the 
well-being of the patient. The sick-room may have no carpet, or only jjieces 
which can afterwards be destroyed. Provision should be made for the intro- 
duction of a liberal supply of fresh air aud the continual change of the air of 
the room without sensible currents or drafts. 

Pocket-handkerchiefs, that need to be saved, should not be used by the patient ; 
small pieces of rag should be substituted therefor, and after being once used 
should be immediately burned. 

Soiled bed and body linen should be placed in vessels of water containing 
chlorinated soda, chlorinated lime, or other disinfectant, before removal from 
the sick-room. 

For this purpose chlorinated soda is the neatest and most convenient, because it can be used 
"with soap, but it is apt to lose its disinfecting properties by age. Chlorinated lime, if used too 
freely, may destroy articles of clothing with which it comes in contact, but if properly used it is the 
safest as a disinfectant. 

The discharges from the patient should all be received into vessels containing 

» This disease is sometimes called "Scarlatina," "Scarlet Rash," "Canker Rash," etc. 



XXX STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

chlorinated lime (commonly called '^'chloride of lime"), sulphate of iron, or 
some other known disinfectant,* and the same buried at once, and not by any 
means be tlirown into a running stream, nor into a cesspool, or water-closet, 
except after having been thoroughly disinfected. All vessels should be kept 
scrupulously clean and disinfected. 

Perfect cleanliness of nurses and attendants should be enjoined and secured. 
As the hands of nurses of necessity become frequently contaminated by the 
poison of the disease, a good supply of towels and two basins — one containing 
solution of chlorinated soda (Labarraque's solution), chlorinated lime, or 
other disinfecting solution, and another for plain soap and water, should be 
always at hand and freely used. 

Persons who are attending upon children or other persons suffering from 
Scarlet Fever, and also the members of the patient's family, should not mingle 
with other people, nor permit the entrance of children into their house. 

Funerals of those dying from Scarlet Fever should be strictly private and 
the corpse not exposed to view. To avoid mistakes, notices of such deaths in 
the papers should state that the deceased died of Scarlet Fever. 

All persons recovering from Scarlet Fever should be considered dangerous, and 
therefore should not attend school, church, or any public assembly, or use any pub- 
lic conveyance, so long as any scaling or peeling of the skin, soreness of the 
eyes or air passages, or symptoms of dropsy remain. No person recovering 
from Scarlet Fever should thus endanger the public health or appear in public 
until after having taken four times, at intervals of two days, a thorough bath. 
This cleansing, however, should be deferred until the physician in charge con- 
siders it prudent. After recovery from Scarlet Fever, no j^erson should appear 
in public wearing the same clothing worn while sick with or recovering from 
this disease, except such clothing has been thoroughly disinfected by some such 
method as is herein specified. 

Gaseous Disinfection, or Fumigation, can be completely and entirely effectual 
only in tlie absence of living persons, as fumes strong enough for the purpose 
are destructive of human life. This need not deter from doing so much as is 
possible, without injury to sick persons, for the purification of tlie air of rooms 
occupied by them, — a liberal supply of pure air should be secured ; but after 
the sick have recovered, the room, furniture, and other contents not to be 
destroyed, should be thoroughly exposed for several hours to strong fumes of 
chlorine gas, or to fumigation by burning sulphur; or the paper on the walls, 
if any, removed and burnt, the furniture scrubbed or polished, and the rooni 
thoroughly scrubbed and whitewashed. 

When a room and contents are to be disinfected, all articles therein should be 
spread out so as to expose the greatest amount of surface to tlie action of the 
disinfectant, and all openings to the room should be closed. 

To generate Chlorine, take peroxide of manganese (to be obtained at any drug 
store), place in an earthern dish, and add one pound of hydrochloric acid (some- 
times called muriatic acid) to each four ounces of the peroxide of manganese. 
Care should be taken not to inhale the gas. After being certain that continu- 
ous evolution of chlorine has been secured, leave the room and close the door 
of exit. 

The bleaching properties of clilorine may destroy the color of colored goods exposed to it, but as 
a disinfectant it ia one of the best. 

* Carbolic acid in dilute form as generally used is not believed to be a disinfectant. 



DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION— 1877. xxxi 

To generate Sulphurous Acid gas, put live coals on top of the ashes in a metallic 
pan, and place on the coals sulphur in powder or fragments. 

A convenient wav is to place tlie coals and aulpliur on a heated stove plate or cover turned bot- 
tom upward in a pan half lilled with ashes. To disinfect 100 culjic feet ot air reiiuires the thorough 
combustion of about one and one-half ounces of sulphur. 

Rooms should be kept closed and subjected to the action of the disinfecting gas for 
six or eight hours, ami afterwards thoroughly aired by opening doors and windows : 

Heat as a disinfectant— It is believed that heat sufficient to be disinfectant for 
this disease may be secured without destroying ordinary articles of clothing, 
say at 240° to 250° F. 

In cities and villages it may be practicable for the local boards of health to provide a central dis- 
infecting oven or room where a large amount of material may be carried, in a closed conveyance, 
from houses where the disease has jirevailed, and, after disinfection by heat under the direc- 
tion of some competent officer of the board, returned in another conveyance to the owners. For 
certain articles, this may well sui)plement the gaseous disinfection "at private houses, which 
cannot in every case be conveniently and thoroughiy applied to all articles. 

Whenever a case of this disease occurs in a locality, prompt and vigorous action 
should be taken for the restriction of the disease, by early isolation of those 
sick with the disease, and by the destruction or disinfection of all articles 
likely to be infected. 

Plain and distinct Notices should be placed upon the premises or house in which 
there is a person sick with Scarlet Fever, and no child that has not had the disease 
should be allowed to enter, or to associate witli persons who do enter such house 
or room. 

Householders, Physicians, and Boards of Health, have duties to the public, some 
of which are speci tied in sections 1734, 1735, 1732, and 1695 of the Compiled 
Laws of Michigan, 1871, as follows : 

"(1734.) Sec. 43. Whenever any householder shuU know that any person within his family is 
taken sick with the small-pox or any other disease dangerous to the public health, he shall immedi- 
ately give notice thereof to the Board of Health, or to the health officer of the township in which he 
resides; and if he shall refuse or neglect to give such notice, he shall forfeit a sum not exceeding 
one hundred dollars." 

" (1735.) Sec. 44. Whenever any physician shall know that any person whom he is called to visit 
is infected with the small-pox, or any other disease dai\gerous to the public health, such physician 
shall immediately give notice thereof to the Board of Health or health officer of the township in 
which such diseased person may be; and every physician who shall refuse or neglect to give such 
notice, shall forfeit, for each offense, a sum not less than fifty nor more than one hundred dollars." 

" (1732.) Sec. 41. When the small-pox, or any other disease dangerous to the public health, is found 
to exist in any township, the board of health shall use all possible care to pi-event the spreading of the 
infection, and to give public notice of infected places to travelers, by such means as in their judgment 
shall be most effectual for the common safety." 

(1695.) Sec. 4. The said board shall also make such regulations as they may deem necessary for the 
public health and safety, respecting any articles ichich are capable of containing or conveying any 
infection or contagion, or of creating any sickness, Avhen such articles shall be brought into or con- 
veyed from, their township, or into or from any vessel; and if any person shall violate any such 
regulation, he shall forfeit a sum not exceeding one hundred dollars." 

The prompt and efficient action of local Boards of Health relative to infected cloth- 
ing and other articles is further specified in sections 1710, 1711, and 1713, Compiled 
Laws of Michigan, 1871. 

The general laws of this State provide that the mayor and aldermen of cities, and the president 
and council or trustees of villages, "Shall have and exercise all the powers, and perform all the 
<lutics of a board of health as provided in this chapter." This is in cliapter 46, sec. (1740) 49, Com- 
piled Laws of 1871, from which chapter all of the foregoing sections are taken. See also in Laws of 
Mich., 1873, the general act for the incorporation of cities, chapter XIV., sections 1, 7, and 8. 

It therefore appears that, except possibly some special charter may exempt a city or village, the 
foregoing provisions of law are probably applicable and in force iu the cities and villages, as well 
-iis in all the townships, throughout the State. 

The local Hoard of Health and the physician in charge of cases of this disease should co-operate 
for its restriction. The local Board ot Health should particularly guard against its spread by cases 
where no intelligent physician is employed. 

All clothing, carpets, curtains, furniture, and other substances that are to be 
destroyed should be dealt with in a way to avoid conveying the poison to any 
person in the process ; they should not be simply thrown away, or into some 
stream or body of water ; and if burned should be completely burned, and not 
simply heated or dealt with in a way to diffuse the poison of the disease. 



xxxii STxVTE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

All such infected substances, whicli are not destroyed, should be thoroughly 
boiled, subjected to a dry heat of 250° F. in a closed room or disinfecting oven, 
or be thoroughly exposed to fumes of chlorine or of burning sulphur. Books 
and furs that have been used or handled by those convalescing from this dis- 
ease are jiarticuiarly liable to convey the poison to children wiio have never had 
the disease. Great care should be used to thoroughly disinfect any such arti- 
cles that are not destroyed ; and caution should be exercised before allowing 
children Avho have not had Scarlet Fever to handle any such articles tliat have 
been used by persons liable to communicate the disease. 

Fresh air. — Although not so active for the destruction of the coutagium as 
is chlorine or sulphurous acid gas, pure air, in liberal amount, is a very useful 
and important agent for the dilution and destruction of the poison of the dis- 
ease ; it should be employed freely ; but with this, as Avith other procedures for 
the safety of the unaffected, great care should be taken not to increase the dan- 
ger to those already sick from any cause, who are usually endangered by exposure 
to drafts of cold air, and this is especially true of persons convalescing from 

Scarlet Fever. 

^ 

AVlth the view of lessening the number of cases of and deatlis from Scarlet Fever in Michigan, the 
foregoing is published by the State Board of Health for distribution throughout the State. 
Physicians being to some extent the custodians, and as a matter of fact, effective conservators of 
the public health, copies of this document are also sent to the physicians in Michigan, in the liope 
and with the expectation that they will aid in (Ufl'using among the people such knowledge of the 
nature of Scarlet Fever as will enable the people better to co-operate with them and with Boards 
of Health for the restriction of the disease and a decrease of sickness and deaths therefrom. 

Any communication upon the subject may be addressed to: Office of State Board of Health, 
Lansing, Michigan. 



Lansing, Mich., April, 1877. 



Please read this "witli sufficient eai'e to r"eiiieiii"t>ei* 
the principles involved, and then preserve it for fu- 
ture reterence. 



CIRCULAR TO HEALTH OFFICERS OF TOWNSHIPS. 

After their appointment, many health officers of townships wrote to this 
office for an outline of their duties as '"'sanitary advisers." In response to 
these requests, a circular, intended to give them a general idea of the objects 
to be accomplished by local boards of health, was planned, printed, and sent 
to each health officer of a township. With this circular was also sent to 
Health Officers a blank form for a Eecord of cases of diseases wdiich endanger 
the public health, sin)ilar to the blank for the Report of such diseases, printed 
on page xviii of this Eeport, and a blank for the use of householders and phy- 
sicians in giving notice of the occurrence of such communicable diseases, printed 
on pages 13 and 14 of the First Annual Report of this Board. The circu- 
lar was as follows : 

CIRCULAR TO HEALTH OFFICERS OF TOWNSHIPS. 
[19.] 

Office of the Secretary of the State Board of Health, [ 
Lansing, Michigan, Jicne, 1877. \ 

To the Ilealtli Officer of the Township: 

Sir: — A miniber of Health Officers, appointed under the recent act of the legislature 
which provides for a health officer in every township in the State, have asked for an 
outline of the duties of this officer as a "sanitary adviser" of the local board of 



DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION— 1877. XXxUi 

health. In order to respond to these inquiries more fully than by the letters and 
docninents already sent, and in anticipation of comnumications from others, this 
circular is issued. 

Althouf^li as '-an executive officer of the hoard" your power and authority to act 
will be only that oiven you by your board, as a " sanitary adviser" 3'ou should, and 
doubtless will, liave inlluence in determining the action of your board, in proportion 
to your knowledge of sanitary science and j^our honest eflbrt for the promotion of 
the public health. 

One great object in securing a Physician as health officer was to enable each local 
board of health to lead and not, as too frequently heretofore, to follow the people in 
sanitary knowledge and action. As a rule our ph3'sicians are our leading sanitarians, 
and they know much better than other people what are the sources of danger to the 
public health in their several localities; and, as a rule, they know best how to avoid 
those dangers. It is therefore for the interest of the people to secure the benefits of 
that knowledge by paying for the services and advice of the best sanitarians, who 
will usually be the best physician, in their locality. 

If it is true that responsibilities are in proportion to capacities and powers, then, 
a local board of health, which, as in this State, has almost absolute power, must be 
held responsible for any sickness or death which might have been prevented by a 
proper use of its legal powers; and an individual health officer employed and paid 
for sanitary advice, who does not use the sanitary knowledge of which he is pos- 
sessed, in a way to make it as effective as possible for preventing sickness and deaths 
in his vicinity, is also culpable. 

There are many directions in which you can advise your local board of health how 
to put forth eflbrt for lessening sickness and deaths within its jurisdiction: 

I. Epidemics should be prevented. This can generally be done, if local boards 
of health will but act efficiently in studying out and applying methods which are 
now practicable. One of the first requisites is that your board shall promptly re- 
ceive notice of every case of communicable disease. The law makes provision there- 
for. See sections 1734 and 1735, Compiled Laws of Michigan, 1871. To complete the 
provision for such notices is one of the first duties of j'our board. A form of notice 
recommended by this State Board is herewith transmitted. It is again recommended 
that your board of health have a sufficient number of such blank notices printed for the 
use oi householders and physicians within your jurisdiction, am? distribute them in order 
to call attention to the law, and secure the material for a complete record in your 
office and in the office of the clerk of your board. The two sections of law, referred 
to above, should be printed on the back of each blank. You can also find the form 
for such blanks for notices on pages 13 and 14 of the First Keport, and on pages xiii. 
and xiv. of the Second Report of this Board. These blanks can be purchased of W. 
S. George & Co., of Lansing, for one dollar per hundred. 

When notice or knowledge of a case of communicable disease reaches the local 
board, it should act promptly for the restriction of the disease. The prominent 
duties in this direction are: 1, Prompt, thorough, and persistent isolation of the 
pei'sons sick; 2, tiiorough disinfection of rooms occupied, and all articles likely to be 
infected, before allowing their use by other persons;* 3, as regards small-pox, the 
vaccination and re-vaccination of all inhabitants. 

II. (Jases of Diseases which endanger the public health should be Re- 
corded. Another duty incumbent upon local boards of health is the recording of 
the sickness and deaths of citizens under its care, so that when grouped with records 
of other localities the conditions may be studied, and new methods of prevention 
learned from such unhappy experiences which otherwise will continually be repeated. 
A blank form of '"Record of Diseases Dangerous to the Public Health" is herewith 
transmitted. You can procure similar printed slieets of W, S. George & Co., of 
Lansing, for eightj^ cents per quire or three dollars per hundred. If desired, the 
same dealers will bind them at usual prices. It is hoped that hereafter you will, as 
Health Otticer, be prepared and make a record of all important facts concerning 
''diseases dangerous to the public health" which may come under your observation 
or be reported to you. Aside from the importance of such a local record, it will 
enable you when called upon to make a full report of such cases to this State Board.t 

*For methods, sec pamphlet sent to vou from this oflice, entitled "Restriction and Prevention of 
Scarlet Fever." 

t Act No. 81, Laws of 1S7.3, Sec. 8: "It shall be the duty of the health physician, and also of the 
local board of health in each township, city, and village In this State, at least once in each year, to 
report lo the State Board of Health their proceedings, and such other facts requireil, on blanks and 
in accordance with instructions received from said State iSoai'd. They shall also make speciaL 
reports whenever required to do so by the State Board of Health." 



^xxiv STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH— EEPOKT OF SECRETAEY, ]877. 

III. Much sickness and maxy deaths froji oudixary diseases should be pre- 
vented. A field of labor, perhaps even wider than that with the commuuicable 
diseases, is open to your local board of health; iianiel}', the inauguration of measures 
:for preventing sickness and deaths from the ordinary diseases in this State, a very 
great proportion of which being now believed by our best sanitarians to be prevent- 
able. Some of the prominent measures to be inaugurated are: 1, More thorough 
drainage of the soil, especially near dwellings; 2, better securities against the con- 
tamination of the water-supply, particularly in wells, by filth-saturated soil, etc.; 3, a 
strict guard over the purity of the air, and freedom from nuisances and unclean 
places; 4, better sanitary and hygienic arrangements and plans in the public schools, 
and in public buildings and institutions. 

Although you do not, by virtue of your oflice as health officer, become a voting 
member of the local board of health, it will be possible for you to do much toward 
-giving character to its work. Some of the powers and duties of local boards of 
health are specified in Chapter 46 of the Compiled Laws of Michigan, 1871. The con- 
stitution of township boards of health was lately changed, sections 1692 and 1693 
being so amended as to read as follows: 

(1692.) Section 1. In every township the township board shall be the board of 
health. The supervisor shall be the president, and the township clerk shall be the 
clerk of said board. The clerk shall keep a record of the proceedings of the board iu 
a book to be provided for that purpose at the expense of the township. 

(1693.) Sec. 2. Every township board of health shall appoint and constantly have 
a health officer of the township* who shall, where practicable, be a physician and 
sanitary adviser, and an executive officer of the board: Provided, That in townships 
where it is not practicable to secure the services of a well educated and suitable phy- 
sician, the board may appoint the supervisor or some other person as such health 
officer. The board of health shall establish his salary or other compensation, and 
shall regulate and audit all fees and chai-ges of persons employed by them in the exe- 
cution of the health laws and of their own regulations. Within thirty days after the 
annual township meeting in each year, the board of health shall meet for the trans- 
action of business, and shall appoint or re-appoint a health officer; and shall immedi- 
ately cause to be transmitted to the Secretary of the State Board of Health, at 
Lansing, the full name and postoffice address of such health officer, and a statement 
whether he is a physician, the supervisor, or some other person not a physician. A 
special meeting of the board may be called by the order of the president or of any 
two members of said board. 

The local board of health should be a center of sanitary and hygienic intelligence for 
its locality; its meetings should not be infrequent, and should be so managed as to 
encourage progress in sanitary knowledge, among its members as well as among the 
people. Charged with the duty of guarding the life and health of fellow citizens, the 
•duty of members and officers of boards of health to seek out the best that is known 
.in public hj'glene and sanitary methods, seems to be plain. 

Manj"- sources of information in sanitary science and public hygiene are now acces- 
sible to those who can secure the literature of these subjects. You can doubtless find 
something of value, without great effort. A knowledge of some of the sources of 
greatest danger to life in this State may be gained by a study of the Eegistration 
Keports on Vital Statistics of Michigan, published by the Secretary of State. These 
are, or should be, in your township library. About one year ago, a pamphlet copy of 
the public health laws of this State was sent to the health officer of each township, to 
be delivered to the superviser if no other health officer was appointed. The first 
three Annual Reports of this State Board of Health have been sent as issued, and are, 
or should be, in your township library. The Fourth Report will soon be sent to the 
township library, and it is expected that a copy can be sent to the health officer of 
each township. You will find something relative to work of local boards of health 
and health officers on pages 6,11, 15,16, 29, and 30 of the First Report; on pages 
xi.-xv., XXV., xxviii.-xxix. of the Second Report; on pages xliii.-xlv. and 1-10 of the 
Third Report; and on pages xxxvi., xxxvii., 6, 7, 11-12, 127, 128, 129, and 130 of the 
Fourth Report. 

* This act requires that "Everv township board of health shall * * constantly have a 
health officer," and provides for calling special meetings of the board, for any purpose. If no health 
officer is appointed "within thirty days after the annual township meeting" it will become neces- 
sary to appoint one after that time, to fill the vacancy. Vacancies also occur whenever the incum- 
bent of an office ceases to be an inhabitant of the district, county, township, city, or village for 
which he was elected or appointed an officer,— see section 617, Compiled Laws of Michigan, 187L 

Before entering upon his duties, the health officer should take and subscribe the official oath 
required by Sec. 1, Art. xviii. of the Constitution of this State, and lile the same in the office of the 
township clerk. 



DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION —1877. XXXV 

Your local board of health has two kinds of functions: 1, To utilize for your own 
people the sanitary knowledge already accessible; 2, to add to the stock of such 
knowledge. You can do tiiis latter by original research, by means of records of 
experience, — vital statistics supplying an important basis for public hygiene, — and 
by reporting to this board, whicli will then eventually be able to give to each local 
board the benefits of the experience of all the others. It is lioped that you will cor- 
respond freely witli this Board. Incase any disease appears in your locality as an 
epidemic, please send a Special Report of the facts to this office as soon as possible. 
It is hoped and expected that you will study and record the conditions coincident 
with the rise, progress, and decline of any such epidemic, and thus be pi-epared to 
contribute a valuable report thereof to this Board. J^very such instance of suffering 
in your locality should be made to yield some valuable data useful for advancing the 
cause of public health. 

By direction of the State Board of Health. 

Very respectfully, 

HENRY B. BAKER, 

Secretary. 

[Please preserve the circulars received from this office.] 

CIRCULAR TO HEALTH OFFICERS OF CITIES AXD VILLAGES. 

In September, u circular giving an outline of the duties of Health Officers of 
cities and villages, similar to the one sent to Health Officers of townships, was 
planned, printed and sent to Health Officers of cities and villages. The ends 
to be accomplished w^ere generally the same as in the townships, hence the cir- 
cular was the same, excepting that the law in reference to the officers who shall 
constitute the board is different. For this reason the text of the circular is 
not repeated here, and the reader is referred for its substance to the circular 
to health officers of townships, just preceding. 

THE PREVENTIOX AXD RESTRICTION OF SMALL-POX. 

During the outbreaks of small-pox that occurred in some parts of the State- 
during the winter of 187G-7, the need of more general vaccination became so 
evident that this Board deemed it advisable to issue the following resolution. 
It was sent to health officers of local boards of health, and quite liberally distrib- 
uted to others. The statement concerning reliable vaccine virus at the close 
was put in in answer to numerous letters of inquiry on the subject. The doc- 
ument, as sent out, was as follows : 

THE PREVENTION AND RESTRICTION OF SMALL-POX. 

At the regular meeting, July 10, 1877, the Michigan State Board of Health adopted' 
the following pi-eamble and resolution: 

Wliereas, By means of vaccination and revaccinatiou the people may secure com- 
plete immunity from small-pox; 

Resolved^ That all local boards of health be advised and requested to direct their 
health physicians to offer, every year, vaccination with bovine vaccine virus to every 
child not previously vaccinated, and to all other persons not vaccinated w^ithin five 
years, -without cost to the vaccinated, but at the general expense of the locality, as 
provided for townships in Section 1736, Compiled Laws, 1871. 

(Reliable bovine vaccine virus can be obtained of Dr. George E. Ranney, Lansing, 
Michigan.) 

Office of the 1 HENRY B. BAKER, 

Secretary of the State Board of Health, > Secretary, 

Lansing, Michigan, August, 1S7T. ) 

In addition to the documents mentioned in this Report, as having been 
printed during the year, many others, published previously, have been distrib- 
uted during the year, such as the preceding Annual Reports, Registration Re- 



xxxvi STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— EEPOKT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

ports concerning Vital Statistics, Public Health Laws, etc., etc., of which no 
special account has been given in this article. 

COERESPONDENCE. 

A letter meets the requirements of a 2)articular need somewhat in the same 
way that a circular meets the requirements of a general need ; and the differ- 
ence is principally in the broader or narrower field and the greater frequency 
of the former. It is possible in this report to do little more than to name 
some of the classes of information desired. The opinion of this Board, or of 
its Secretary, is often asked on the subject of sewerage, drainage, water-sup- 
ply, ventilation, cemeteries, epidemics, nuisances, duties of health officers, 
construction of health laws, etc. ; the reply to each of these enquiries requires 
to be suited to a particular occasion, and many of them require extensive read- 
ing and mature consideration before they can be i:)roperly answered. The 
opinion of the Attorney General was sometimes obtained on such questions of 
"which the following, which was printed on postal cards and sent where required, 
and afterwards used in a circular, is an example : 

Inquiries came to the office of the State Board of Health as to whether 
township health officers, appointed under the recent act providing for them, 
are required to take and subscribe the oath of office, and as to where such oath 
should be filed. In reply to these inquiries, the Secretary of the Board 
obtained the following from the Attorney General of this State : 

Henry B. Baker, Secretary of the State Board of Health : 

Dear Sir:— The act of April 20, 1877, amends sections 1G92 and 1693 of the Com- 
piled Laws so as to provide for the appointment of a "health officer" by the town- 
ship board of health. Tliis act contemplates the possibility of the office being held 
by a person holding no other official position in the township. The act malves no 
provision for the taking or filing of any official oath by the "health officei'." There 
is no general statutory provision covering the case, and tlie healtli officer is not by 
any law exempted from taking the official oatli required by Section 1, Article XVIII. 
of the Constitution. I am, therefore, inclined to concur in your opinion that the 
"healtli officer" appointed under the act above named should take and subscribe the 
constitutional oath of office, and that the office of the township clerk is, in the 
absence of any statutory provision, a proper place for filing the same. 

Very respectfully yours. 

Otto Kirciiner, AtVy General. 

TREATMENT OF THE DROWNED. 

During the year the document on Treatment of the Drowned has been 
reprinted, substantially the same in form and matter as before. The last issue 
had been exhausted, and they were frequently asked for. They were printed 
ia the form of a placard, and also in pamphlet form, and were as follows : 



DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION,— 1877. 



xxxvn 



THE TREATMENT OF THE DROWNED. 



TWO THINGS TO BE DONE :— RESTORE BREATHING; restore 

ANIMAL HEAT. 




Rule 1. — Remove all ob- 
structions to breathing. In- 
stantly loosen or cut apart all 
neck and waist bands ; turn the 
patient on his face, with the head 
down hill ; stand astride the hips 
Avith your face towards his head, 
and, locking your fingers togeth- 
er under his belly, raise the body 
as high as you can without lift- 
ing the forehead off the ground 
(Fig. 1), and give the body a 
smart jerk to remove mucus from 
the throat and water from the 
windpipe : hold the body suspended long enough to slowly count one, two, 
three, four, five, — repeating the jerk more gently two or tliree times. 

Rule 2. — Place the patient 



face downward, and maintain- 
ing all the while your jjosition 
astride the body, grasp the 
points of the slioulders by the 
clothing, or, if the body is 
naked, thrust your fingers into 
the armpits, clasping your 
thumbs over the points of the 
slioulders, and raise the 
chest as high as you can 
(Fig. 2) without lifting the 
head quite off the ground, and 
hold it long enough to dowly 
count one, two, three. Re- 




place him on the ground, with 
his forehead on his flexed arm, 
the neck straightened out, and 
the mouth and nose free. Place 
your elbows against your knees, 
and your hands upon the sides of 
his chest (Fig, 3) over the low- 
er ribs, and press downward 
and inward with increasing 
force long enough to slowly 
count ONE, TW'O. Then sudden- 
ly let go, grasp the shoulders as 




xxxviii STATE BOARD OF HEALTII-REPOllT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

before and raise the chest (Fig. 2) ; then press upon tlie ribs, &c. (Fig. 3). 
These alternate movements should be repeated 10 to 15 times a minute for aii 
hour at least, unless breathing is restored sooner. Use tlie same regularity as 
ill natural breathing. 

KuLE 3. — After breathing has commenced, kestore the animal heat. 
"Wrap him in warm blankets, apply bottles of hot water, hot bricks, or any- 
thing to restore heat. Warm the head nearly as fast as the body, lest convulsions 
come on. liubbing the body with warm cloths or the hand, and slapping the 
fleshy parts, may assist to restore warmth, and the breathing also. If the pa- 
tient can SURELY swallow, give hot coffee, tea, milk, or a little hot sling. Give 
spirits sparingly, lest they produce depression. Place the patient in a warm 
bed, and give him plenty of fresh air; keep him quiet. 



BEWARE 



Avoid delay. A moment may turn the scale for life or death. Dry ground, 
shelter, warmth, sdmulants, etc., at this moment are nothing, — artlficial 
breathing is everything, — is the one remedy, — -ul! others are secondary. 

Do not stop to remove wet clotliiug before efforts are made to re- 
store breathing. Precious time is wasted, and the patient may be fatally 
chilled by ex])0sure of the naked body, even in summer. Give all your atten- 
tion and effort to restore breathing by forcing air into, and out of, the lungs. 
If the breathing has just ceased, a smart slap on the face or a vigorous twist of 
the hair will sometimes start it again, and may be tried incidentally, as may, 
also, pressing the finger upon the root of the tongue. 

Before natural breathing is fully restored, do not let the patient lie on his 
back unless some person holds the tongue forward. The tongue by falling back 
may close the windpipe and cause fatal choking. 

If several persons are present, one nu^y hold the head steady, keeping the 
neck nearly straight ; others may remove wet clothing, replacing at once cloth- 
ing which is dry and warm ; they may also chafe the limbs, and thus promote 
the circulation. 

Prevent friends from crowding around the patient and excluding 
fresh air ; also from trying to give stimulants before the patient can swallow. 
The first causes suffocation ; the second fatal choking. 

Do NOT give up too soon : You are working for life. Any time within two 
hours you mav be on the very threshold of success witliout there being any sign 
of it. 



In suffocation by smoke or any poisonous gas, as also by hanging, pro- 
ceed the same as for drowning, omitting effort to expel water, etc., from wind- 
pipe. 

In suspended breathing from effects of chloroform, hydrate of 
chloral, etc., proceed by Rule 2, taking especial pains to keep the head 
very low, and preventing closure of the windpipe by the tongue falling back. 



The foregoing Methods and Rules, devised and prepared by the Committee 
on Accidents, etc., being a modification of Rules furnished by Dr. Beech of 



DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION —1877. xxxix 

Coldwater, and of those published by the Life Saving Society of New York, 
have been adopted and printed by the State Board of Health of Michigan, 
for distribution throughout the State as a life-saving measure. Any communi- 
cation upon the subject may be addressed to office of STATE BOAKD OF 
HEALTH, Lansing, MicinoAN. 



Please fasten this up in a conspicuous place. 

Study it thoughtfully, in order to act efficiently if occasion requires. 



During the year, in addition to the six thousand copies printed by this Board, 
the electrotype plates for illustrating the document were lent to J. F. Baldwin, 
M. D., editor of the Ohio Medical Recorder, Columbus, Ohio, and to Gr. B. 
Balch, M. D., Health Officer of Yonkers, N. Y. ; and new electrotype plates 
were procured from the woodcuts in the possession of this office "for S. C. 
Stacy, editor of the Tecumseh Herald, Tecumseh, Mich., and for J. T. 
Eeeve, M. D., Secretary of the Wisconsin State Board of Health, each of 
whom printed an extensive edition for distribution in their respective localities. 
This shows that the document is appreciated not only in this but in other 
States. Evidence is continually being received that the work already done in 
this direction is bearing good fruit. The following cases are printed as 
examples : 

The ilocuments issued by this Board occasionally do good outside the State. A 
young man who had received one of our documents on " Treatment of the Drowned," 
was present at Atlantic City, New Jersey, when a person apparently dead from 
drowning was taken from the water, and prompted and instructed bj' the document, 
he succeeded in his efforts for resuscitation. 

Dr. J. L. Lanternian, formerly of Lansing, resuscitated a girl about Ave years of 
age who had fallen into the river back of his residence, the girl having apparently 
drowned, fallen to the bottom of the river, and floated down'stream about live rods. 
I do not remember all tlie details, but this will give an ic\ea of tlie time that elapsed, 
as he was notified by children, went to the river, made search and found the body of 
the girl, and resuscitated her by shaking and rolling the body and inflating tl'.e lungs 
by artificial means. 

The following is a copy of a communication received from J. ^McDermott, Collector 
of Customs at Bay City, Michigan: 

Custom House, Bay City. Marcli 10, 1877. 
H. B. Baker, Secretary, etc.: 

Dear Sir :— I would like to trouble you for a few more cards of your " Treatment of 
the Drowned." I have distributed tliose received last season, and I am glad to say, 
with some good results. On one occasion I was an eye witness, and took part in the 
operation, when a deck hand fell from the steamer Dnnlap and was said to have been 
in the water over fifteen minutes, life gone, body turned perfectly black when taken 
out of the river, and by adhering strictly to your mode of treatment, within a 
space of fifteen or twenty minutes, the man was breathing freely and talked. He 
Avas moved to a boarding house where he died in twenty-four hours afterwards; 
said to be from want of proper care. 

Trnlv yours, 

J. McDERMOTT. 



xl STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 



REPORT OF SECRETARY RELATIVE TO PROPERTY, ETC., FOR THE 
FISCAL YEAR ENDING SEPTEMBER 30, 1877. 

To the President and 3Iembers of the 3Iichigan State Board of Health: 

Gentlemen : — In compliance with Section 5 of Article 11. of tlie by-laws 
of this Board, the following report of the "nature and amount of property 
belonging to the Board, which has been received, issued, expended, and de- 
stroyed since the last report, and of the property remaining on hand, and also 
in whose care each item of property is entrusted," is respectfully submitted. 

For an account of the instruments and articles of similar nature which 
were on hand at the time of making the last report, you are respectfully re- 
ferred to that report (pages xiv. and xxvii. of the last published Eeport, — for 
1876). vSince that time articles of this class have been purchased as follows: 

1 Water pitcher and goblet. 

2 Ink stands. 

2 Mucilage stands. 

2 Electrotype plates, — North Lansing. 

2 Electrotype plates, — Ventilation Railroad Cars, 

1 Letter-balance scale. 

1 Hatchet. 

1 Screwdriver. 

1 Barometer (No. 2252). 
7 Psych rometers. 

2 Thermometers for Psychrometer. 
1 Robinson's Anemometer. 

1 Gibbons' Electrical Registering Apparatus for Anemometer. 

3 Paper folders. 

1 Ruling pen. 

2 Steel erasers. 

2 Keys for post-office drawer. 
1 Hydrometer for coal oil. 

1 Kerosene lamp. 

1 Oil tester. 

1 Wooden pail. 

1 Maximum Thermometer. 

1 Minimum Thermometer. 

1 Galvanic cell with appliances for Anemometer, and 30 feet insulated wire. 

1 Hammer. 

1 "Record of Proceedings" of the Board. 

1 "Order Book." 

1 "Expense Account " Book. 

1 "Property Book." 

1 Book "Issues, Acceptances," etc. 

1 Eorm Book of Circulars, etc. 

1 "Distribution of Documents" Book. 

3 Letter Books (used but not heretofore reported). 
1 Letter Book,—"!)." 

Eile Boxes. 

1 Letter Book,— "E." 

-J- doz. Indexed Blank Books (used for niemoranda). 



EEPORT OF PROPERTY OF THE BOARD. xlL 

The following is a list of articles purchased and used by the Board from 
time to time, but never before included in the Secretary's report of property: 

Bottle for \yater. — Condemned, as used and useless, by the Board, July 10, 
1877. 

2 jugs for water. — Condemned, as used and useless, by the Board, July 10,18 77. 

2 jugs. — Condemned, as used and useless, by the Board, July JO, 1877. 

Wall paper. — ^ 

Wallpaper. — [^ Bound up as "Shadows from the Walls of Death," and 

Wall paper. — [ placed in Public Libraries throughout the State. 

Wall paper. — J 

4 Ferro-type plates. — (Illust. Treatment of Drowned.) Condemned, as used 
and useless, by the Board, July 10, 1877. 

Drawing of plan, representing ventilation for " Hygiene of School Build- 
ings." — Used by engravers. 

Model to illustrate car ventilation. — Condemned, as used and useless, by the 
Board, July 10, 1877. 

Drawing for cut for illustrating R. R. car ventilation. — Used by engravers. 

Oil can. — 

Bottle for naphtha. — 

For special investigations relative to illum- 

12 hand-lamps, complete. — j>. inating oils. — Condemned, as used and 

4 Flat Founts (lamps). — useless, by the Board, July 10, 1877. 

2i gals. W. W. oil.— 

^doz. ''Pioneers" (lamps). — ^ 

A psychrometer has been placed in the hands of each of the following 
persons : 

William C. West, M. D., Monroe. 

J. S. Caulkins, M. D., Thornville. 

H. T. Calkins, M. D., Fyfe Lake. 

Lee S. Cobb, Nirvana. 

J. S. Reeves, M. D., Niles. 

Edwin Stewart, M. D., Mendon. 

Dr. E. Hause, Tccumseh. 

A wet-bulb thermometer for a psychrometer has been loaned to Lyman P. 
Alden, Superintendent, State Public School, Coldwater. A rain gauge, with 
accompanying measure, has been loaned to John S. Caulkins, M. D., Thorn- 
ville; also one to A. W. Nicholson, M. D., Otisville, and a maximum and a 
minimum thermometer have been loaned to F. W. Higgins, Superintendent 
Woodmere Cemetery, Detroit, — the above mentioned persons all being Meteor- 
ological Observers for this Board. 

Sixteen lamps purchased by Dr. Kedzie, for experiments with illuminating 
oils, were condemned by the Board, July 10, 1877, as ''used and useless." 

The remaining articles are in the office of the Secretary. 

BOOKS AXD OTHER PUBLICATIONS. 

Books and other publications have been received and placed in the library 
during the year, or previously and not heretofore acknowledged, as follows : 

By Puechase : 

Duffey on the Relation of the Sexes. 
Smith on Diseases of Children. 
Rumsey on Fallacies in Statistics. 



xlii STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

W. W. Hall ou Health and Disease. 

Wells on Diseases of the Eye. 

Wilson's Hand-book of Hygiene. 

Waring' s A Farmer's Vacation. 

Flint's Phthisis. 

Eutherford's Histology. 

Chaiivenet's Trigonometry. 

Chaumont's Lectures on State Medicine. 

Wilder on What Young People Should Know. 

Parkin on Climate and Phthisis. 

Dunglison's Medical Dictionary. 

Hassall on Food Adulterations. 

Blyths' Dictionary of Hygiene and Public Health. 

Seguin's Medical Thermometry. 

AVanklyn and Chapman on Water Analysis. 

Walker on Grave Yards. 

Official Post-office Guide, October, 187G. 

First Help in Accidents and Sickness. 

Spon on Water Supply. 

Eeynolds on Sewer Gas. 

French on Farm Drainage. 

Hughes on Water Supply. 

Waring on Earth Closets. 

McDonald on Examination of Drinking Water. 

Madden on Health Resorts of Europe and Africa. 

Bartholow's Materia Medica and Therapeutics. 

Hospital Construction and Organization. 

Parkes on Public Health. 

Soule and Wheeler's Manual of Spelling and Pronouncing. 

Dempsey on Drainage. 

Brown on Medical Jurisprudence of Insanity. 

Eadcliff on Vital Motion. 

Loring on Determination of the Eefraction of the Eye. 

Dunham on the Theory of Medical Science, 3 copies. 

Trans. Pathological Society of New York, Vol. 1. 

Use and Abuse of Tobacco, and Place and Power of Alcohol. 

Bennett on Nutrition in Health and Disease. 

KoUmyer's Chemia Coartata. 

Anstie on Stimulants and Narcotics. 

Tyson on the Cell Doctrine. 

Bigelow on Nature in Disease. 

Letterman's Medical Eecollections of the Army of the Potomac. 

Bennet's Winter and Spring on the Mediterranean. 

Hobb's Hand-book of Botany. 

Gregory on Eruptive Fevers. 

Marsh's Hand-book of Eural and Sanitary Science. 

Slagg on Sanitary AVork in Villages. 

Tilden's Text Book of Chemical Philosophy. 

Flint's Manual of Percussion. 

Flint's Text Book of Physiology. 

Von Bezold on the Theory of Color. 



REPORT OF PEOPERTY OF THE BOARD— LIBRARY. xliii 

The Popular Science Montlily, for 1877. 

Nature, for 1877. 

The Practitioner, for 1877. 

The Sanitary Kecord, for 1877. 

Public Health, for 1877. 

The London Lancet, for 1877. 

The Detroit Medical Journal, for 1877. 

Van Nostrand's Engineering Magazine, for 1877. 

The American Journal of Medical Sciences, 1877. 

The Medical News and Library, 1877. 

The Monthly Abstract of Medical Sciences, 1877. 

Huxley's Lay Sermons. 

Spencer's Principles of Biology, 2 vols. 

Bernstein on the Five Senses of Man. 

The New Chemistry, Cooke. 

Van Beneden on Animal Parasites and Messmates. 

Baird's Annual Eecord of Science and Industry, 2 vols., 1874 and 1875. 

Foster and Langley's Practical Physiology. 

Ferrier on Functions of the Brain. 

Trousseau and others, Memoirs on Diphtheria. 

Day on The Art of Discourse. 

Huth on the Marriage of Near Kin. 

Kobinson on Post Nasal Catarrh. 

Phelps on What to Wear. 

Bird on Protection against Fire. 

Cleland's Animal Physiology. 

Hartley on Air. 

Chauvenet on Method of Least Squares. 

Kichardson's Hygeia, A City of Health. 

Knight's Mechanical Dictionary, 3 Volumes. 

Keports Medical Officer to Privy Council of Great Britain, New Series, No. 

v., No. VI., and No. VII. 
List of House of Lords' Papere for Sale, 18 7G. 

Quarterly Pteturns Births, Marriages, and Deaths, England, Dec. 1876. 
Quarterly returns of Births, Marriages, and Deaths, England, No. 113, and 

No. ] 14. 
Typhoid Fever in the town and School of Uppingham. 
Encyclopjedia Britannica, 9th edition, first five volumes. 
By Gift, Exchange, Etc. 

Fro7n the Secretary of State, Michigan — 

Joint Documents of Michigan, 1875, Vols. I. and II. 

Report Michigan Pomological Society, 1875. 

First Annual Abstract, Reports of Sheriffs Relating to Jails, Mich., 1873. 

Second Annual Abstract, Sheriffs' Reports Relating to Jails, Mich., 1874. 

Third Annual Abstract, Sheriffs' Reports Relating to Jails, Mich., 1875. 

Third Annual Abstract, Statistical Information Relative to Insane, Deaf, 
Dumb, and Blind, Mich., 1875. 

Fourth Annual Abstract, Statistical Information Relative to Insane, Deaf, 
Dumb, and Blind, Mich., 1876. 

Census of Micliigan, 1874. 

Introduction, Summary, and Index to Statistics of Michigan, 1870. 

Report of the Michigan Pomological Society, 1876. 



xliv STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— EEPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

From the Smithf^onian Instiintion — 

Annual Eeports Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution for each 
of the years 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868, 1869, 1870, 1871, 

1872, 1873, 1874, and 1875. 

Discussion and Analysis of Prof. Coffin's Tables and Charts of tlie Winds 

of the Globe. 
From the Secretary of State of the United States — 

lleport on Chemicals, Vienna International Exhibition, 1873, by J. L. 

Smith. 
Report on Vienna Bread, Vienna International Exhibition, 1873, by E. N. 

Hosford. 
Report on Chemical Fertilizers, Vienna International Exhibition, 1873, by 

Peter Collier. 
Report on Photography, Vienna International Exhibition, 1873, by C. A. 

Doremus. 
Report on Medicine and Surgery, Vienna International Exhibition, 1873, 

by A. Ruppaner, M. D. 
Report on Physical Apparatus, Vieuna International Exhibition, 1873, by 

W. Gibbs. 
Report on Instruments of Precision, Vienna International Exhibition, 1873, 

by C. F. Carpenter. 
Report on Instruments of Precision, Vienna International Exhibition, 1873, 

by R. D. Cutts. 
Report on Telegraphs, Vienna International Exhibition, 1873, by R. B. 

Lines. 
Report on Telegraphic Communication, Vienna International Exhibition, 

1873, by D. Brooks. 

Report on Education, Vienna International Exhibition, 1873, byE. Seguin. 
Report on Education, Vienna International Exhibition, 1873, by J. W. 

Hoyt. 
Report on Deaf Mute Instruction, Vienna International Exhibition, 1873, 

by E. M. Gallaudet. 
Report on Governmental Patronage of Art, Vienna International Exhibi- 
tion, 1873, by E. M. Gallaudet. 
Report on the Art of Printing, Vienna International Exhibition, 1873, by 

G. W. Silcox. 
Report on Government Printing, Vienna International Exhibition, 1873, 

by A. H. Brown. 
From the Boston Medical Library Association — 
The Ambulance System, by Col. R. Delafield. 
Report on Operation Law relative to Importation of Adulterated Drugs, by 

J. M. Bailey. 
Report on Vaccination, to Am. Social Sci. Ass't'n, Oct., 1869. 
Practical Remarks on "Vaccination," by F. P. Foster, M. D. 
The Health of Schools, papers read before Am. So. Sci. Ass't'n, May, 

1875. 
Metropolitan Main Drainage, by Chas. F. Folsoni, M. D. 
Sanitary Legislation in England and New York, by D. B. Eaton. 
Yellow Fever, by Thomas Y. Simons, M. D. 
Mineral Waters and Climate of Manitou, Colorado, by S. E. Solly. 
Is Consumption Ever Contagious? by Henry I. Bowditch. 



REPORT OF PROPERTY OF THE BOARD— LIBRARY- xlv 

Consumption in New England, Soil-moisture one of its Chief Causes. 
Western North Carolina as a Health Resort, by "W. Gleitsmann, M. D. 
The Climatology of Consumption, by S. E. Chaille, M. D. 
Gathering and Inspection of Vegetables and Fruits, by S. C. Busey. 
Report on Cholera, Boston City Document, No. 39. 
Report of Gas Commissioners, Boston City Document, No. 91. 
Petition of Citizens' Gas Light Company, Boston, 1874. 
Seventeenth Registration Report, Mass., 1858. 
Twenty-fourth Registration Report, Mass., 18G5. 
T''hirty- third Registration Report, Mass., 1874. 
Sanitary Code for Cities. 

Report of Committee on External Hygiene, National Quarantine and San- 
itary Association. 
Report on Civic Cleanliness, by E. L. Viele. 
Report on Proposed Survey of the Commonwealth of Mass., by the State 

Board of Education. 
The Sewage of Boston, City Document No. 3. 
The Sanitary Condition of Boston. 

Eourth Annual Report of the Boston Board of Health, 1876. 
Report on the Medical Libraries of Boston, by J. R. Chadwick, M. D. 
Report on Prisons and Prison Discipline, by Mass. Board State Charities. 
Report of Cochituate Water Board for year ending April 30, 1876. 
A plea for an Ambulance System, by Henry I. Bowditch. 
Legislation and Contagious Diseases, by J. Marion Sims, M. D. 
Tent Hospitals and Training Schools for Nurses. 
Sanitary Condition of Troops in the Neighborhood of Boston. 
Cautions to Seamen and others, for Shunning Yellow Fever. 
Report on Pneumonia, by a Sanitary Commission. 
Cholera Asphyxia, Practical Observations on, by J. B. Kirk, M. D. 
Report on Registration, by E. M. Snow, M. D. 
Communication of Dr. Henry G. Clark, transmitting document on Cholera 

Hospital 1854, and small-pox hospital 1859-60, Boston City Document, 

No. 14. 
The Miller's River Nuisance, by Charles E. Avery. 
Report on School Hygiene, by D. F. Lincoln, M. D., and Hygiene in 

Schools and Colleges, by Alfred L. Carroll, M. D. 
Report on Supplying Charleston with Pure Water, by G. P. Baldwin and 

Chas. L. Stephenson. 
The Use of Chlorides of Soda and Lime, by A. G. Labarraque. 
Report on Census of Boston, 1845, by Lemuel Shattuck. 
Limited Responsibility, Discussion of the Pomeroy Case, C. F. Folsom, 

M. D. 
Fifth Annual Report Board of Health City of Boston, 1877. 
Thirteenth Report Trustees of the City Hospital, Boston. 
Report of Joint Special Committee on Improved Sewerage, Boston, 1877. 
From the American Statistical Association — 
Forty-fourth Report Mass. State Lunatic Hospital, Worcester, 1876. 
Twenty-first Report Mass. State Lunatic Hospital, Northampton, 1876. 
Twenty-first Report Mass. State Industrial School for Girls, 1876. 
Twenty-third Report Mass. State Lunatic Hospital, Taunton, 1876. 



xlvi STATE BOARD OF HEALTPI— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

Twenty-third Eeport Mass. State Priuiary School, Moiison, 1876. 
Thirtieth Report Muss. State Reform School, Westborongh, 1876. 
Forty-fifth Report of Porkin's Institution for the Blind, 1876. 
Twenty-third Report Mass. State Alms House, Tewksbury, 1876. 
Twenty-ninth Report Mass. School for Feeble-Minded Youth, 1876. 
Report on Insanity and Lunacy in Mass., 1854. 
Thirteenth Report Mass. Board of State Charities, 1877. 
Twenty-third Report Mass. State AVork House, Bridgewater, 1876. 
Census of Rhode Island, 1875. 
Twenty-first Ann. Report, Births, Marriages and Deaths, Providence, R. 

I., 1875. 
First Report Mass. State Board of Health, 1870. 
Fifth Report Mass. State Board of Health, 1874. 
Sixth Report Mass. State Board of Healtli, 1875. 
Third Report Board of Health, City of Boston, 1875. 
Thirtieth Registration Report, Mass., 1871. 
Thirty-third Registration Report, Mass., 1874. 
Thirty-fourth Registration Report, Mass., 1875. 
Annual Report Commissioners of Savings Banks, Mass., 1876. 
Report Board of Inspectors of Mass. State Prison, 1876. 
The Increase of Human Life, by Edward Jarvis, M. D. 
Constitution and By-Laws of the Am. Statistical Ass't'n. 
From A, J. RicTcoff — 

Thirty-ninth Report Cleveland Board of Education, 1875. 
Fortieth Report Cleveland Board of Education, 1876. 
From Geo. Troup Maxwell — 

Proceedings Delaware State Medical Society, 1876. 
From Geo. E. llaimey, M. D. — 

Achievements in Medicine. 
From this MicJiigan State Board of Health — 

Means of Escaping from Public Buildings in Case of Fire. Pamphlet 

Reprint, by R. C. Kedzie, M. D. 
Blank Pamphlet for Record of Prevailing Diseases, by Weeks. By Henry 

B. Baker, M. D. 
The Entailments of Alcohol. By Homer 0. Hitchcock, M. D. 

Reprint from Annual Report S. B. of H. 
Vaccination. By Artliur Hazlewood, M. D. Reprint from Annual 

Report. 
Report on Criminal Abortion. By Homer 0. Hitchcock, M. D. Reprint. 
Epidemic of Scarlet Fever. By 0. Marshall, M. D. Reprint. 
Report of Attendance at American So. Sci. Ass'n, by Henry B. Baker, 

M. D. Reprint. 
Water and tiie Water-Supply in Michigan, by A. Hazlewood, M. D. 2 

copies. Reprint. 
Report on Methods of Collecting Vital Statistics, by Henry B. Baker, 

M. D. Reprint. 
Report on the Water-Supply of Michigan, by R. C. Kedzie, M. D. Reprint. 
The Water-Supply of Localities in Micliigan, Replies by Correspondents 

of State Board of Health. Reprint. 
Ventilation of Railroad Cars, by R. C. Kedzie, M. D. Reprint. 



KEPORT OF PROPEETY OF THE BOARD —LIBRARY. xlvii 

Diseases in Michigan in 1875, lleports of Corrospondeuts of the )State 

Board of Health. Kepriut. 
Outline of Plan of Weekly lleports Prevailing Diseases, by Henry B. 

Baker, M. D. Reprint. 
Fourth Annual Keport Michigan State Board of Health for the year 187(3. 
Restriction and Prevention of Scarlet Fever, eight-page pamphlet, 3 copies. 
From Henry B. Baker — 
Death-Rate of Each Sex in Michigan. A paper prepared for the Am. 

Pub. Health Association. By Henry B. Baker, M. 1). 2 copies. 
Report of Com'rs to Examine Penal, Pauper, and Reformatory Institu- 
tions, Michigan. 
The Cause of Chorea. By Henry B. Baker, M. D. 2 copies. 
Legislation and Contagious Diseases. By J. M. Sims, M. D. 
Hluminating Oils in Michigan. By Prof. R. C. Kedzie. 2 copies. 
Annual Catalogue Medical School of Harvard University, 1867-77. 
Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis, pamphlet. Report by Henry B. Baker. 
Report of Com'rs and Supt. Mich. State Fisheries, 1875-0. 
Special Report Com'rs Charitable, Penal, Pauper, and Reformatory Insti- 
tutions, Mich. 
Third Biennial Report Com'rs Charitable, Penal, Pauper, and Reforma- 
tory Institutions, Mich., 1876. 
Report of Building Com'rs, State House of Correction, Ionia, Mich. 
Report of Com'rs to select a site for Eastern Asylum for the Insane, Mich. 
Report of Com'rs of the Eastern Asylum for the Insane, Mich., 1875-6. 
Report of Trustees Michigan Asylum for the Insane, 1875-6. 
A case of Puerperal Septic Fever. By Geo. J. Northrup, M. D., with 
remarks on the Relation of the Medical Profession to the People, by 
Henry B. Baker, M. D. 
From Prof. C. F. Chandler — 

Sanitary Chemistry of Waters, by C. F. Chandler. 
From the Secretary of State, Mass. — 

Law on Solemnization of Marriages in Mass. 
Duties of Sextons and Undertakers. 

Instructions on Registration of Births, Marriages, and Deaths in Mass. 
From Chas. 0. Hunt, M. D.— 

Proceedings of the Maine Medical Association, 1876. 
Fro7n E. Heyl cO Co. — 

Pamphlet xidvertisement of E. Heyl & Co., Proprietors of Beaugency 
Cow-Pox Virus. 
From. L. C. BiitJer, M. D.— 

Transactions of the Vermont Medical Society for eacii of the years 1864, 
1865, 1866, 1867-08, 1869-70, 1871-72-73. 
From Benjamin Lee, M. D. — 

Transactions Penn. State Medical Society, 1876. 
From G. P. Conn, M. D. — 

Transactions New Hampshire Medical Society, 1876, also 1877. ^ 

From ; 

Ninth Annual Report of Fire Commissioners, Detroit, 1876. 
State Medicine in its Relations to Insanity. 

Transactions of the Convention organizing the Michigan Eclectic Medical 
Society. 



xlviii STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

Fifteenth Animal Report Chicago Board of Public Works, 1875. 

Twentieth Annual Keport Board Control Mich. State Reform School, 1876. 

Report of Trustees of the Maine Hospital for the Insane. 

Inaugural Address, C. M. Croswell, Gov. of Mich., 1877. 

Report of the State Swamp Land Com'rs, Mich., J 876. 

Twelfth Biennial Report Asylum for Deaf, Dumb, and Blind, Michigan, 
1875-76. 

Transactions of the Texas State Medical Society, 1876. 
From the liegistrar General of Ontario : 

Annual Report Commissioner of Agriculture and Arts, Ontario, 1875. 
From Charles Venison, M. D. : 

Transactions Colorado State Medical Society, 1876. 
Fro7n Hon. Wm. B. McCreery : 

Annual Report Michigan State Treasurer, 1876. 
From Harriet A. Tenney : 

Report of the State Librarian, Michigan, 1875-6. 

Catalogue of the Michigan State Library, 1877-8. 
From J. B. Black, M. D., Neioark, 0. : 

Preventing the Extension of Syphilis, by J. R. Black, M. D. 
From Lyman P. Alden : 

Third Annual Report Board of Control State Public School, Coldwater^ 
Michigan. 
From J. T. Reeve, M. D. : 

Transactions Wisconsin State Medical Society, Vol. X., 1876. 

First Annual Report Wisconsin State Board of Health, 1876. 

Law of Wisconsin, Establishing a State Board of Health. 
From Hon. John Eaton : 

Report of the U. S. Commissioner of Education for each of the years 
1870, 1871, 1872, 1873, 1874 and 1875. 
From W. Murray Weidman — 

Report Board of Health, City of Reading, Pa., 18'i6. 
From E. T. Caswell, M. D.— ' 

Twenty-third Registration Report of R. L, 1875. 
From the Colorado State Board of Health — 

First Annual Report State Board of Health of Colorado, 1876. 
From W. E. Anthony, M. D. — 

Communications to R. I. Medical Society, 1871-76. 

Ann. Address before R. I. Medical Society, 1875. 

Bromides : Tlieir Physiological Effects, 
From George E. Chamhers — 

Report Board of Health, City and Port of Philadelphia, 1876. 
From Majily Miles, M D. — 

Close Breeding, by Manly Miles, M. D. 
From Dr. I. Velder — 

Report Board of Health City of Elmira, N. Y., 1875. 
From F. E. Englehardt, Ph. D.— 

Annual Report Onondaga Salt Springs, 1876. 
From the Kansas Medical Society — 

Transactions Kansas Medical Society for each of the years 1875 and 1876. 
From Neio York Hosjntal, J. L. Vandervoort, Librarian — 

Transactions Fourth National Sanitary Convention. 



REPORT OF PROPERTY OF THE BOARD— LIBRARY. .xlix 

Essays on State Medicine, liiuiiscy. 

Tredgold on Warming and Ventilating Buildings. 

Oliristison on Poisons. 

Twenty-first Annual Report Births, Marriages, and Deaths, Providence, 
K. I., 1875. 
From haac N. Kcrliii, M. D. — 

Annual lleport Pcnn. Training School for Feeble-minded Children, 187G. 
From Prof. J. L. Cahell, M. D.— 

The Richmond and Louisville Medical Journal, Oct., 1876. 
From Henry Tuch, M. D. — 

Annual Report Trustees Mass. School for Feeble-minded Youth, October, 
1876. 
From Hon. Smn'l H. Jiow — 

Insurance Commissioners Report relating to Stock, Fire, and Marine In- 
surance Companies, 1870. 

Seventh Annual Report Commissioner of Insurance, 1877. Parti. Fire 
and Marine. 
From James Johnson, M. D. — 

Tenth Annual Report Milwaukee Board of Health, 1876. 
From G. A. Doren, M. D. — 

Annual Report Ohio State Asylum for Feeble-minded Youth, 1876, 
From John M. Woodworth, M. D. — 

Report of the U. S. Marine Hospital Service, 1875. 
From Thomas S. KirJchride, M. D. — 

Resolutions, etc., of the Association of Medical Superintendents of Ameri- 
can Institutions for the Insane. 

Report Penn. Hospital for the Insane, 1876. 
From R. R. Livingston, M. D. — 

Transactions State Medical Society of Nebraska, Sixth, Seventh, and 
Eighth Annual Meetings. 
From C. A. Lindsley, M. I). — 

Fourth Annual Report Board of Health, New Haven, Conn., 1876. 
Fro?n C. T. Wilbur, M. D.— 

Sixth Biennial Report Illinois' Asylum for Feeble-Minded Children, 1876. 
From W. P. Reese, M. D.— 

Seventh Annual Report Board of Health of Selma, Ala., 1876, 2 copies. 
From Suferintendcnt of Public Instruction, Michigan — 

School Laws of Michigan, 1873. 

School Laws of Michigan Enacted and Amended in 1875. 

Thirty-ninth Annual Report Superintendent Public Instruction, Mich., 
1875. 
From D. Appleton & Co. — 

Popular Science Monthly, Supplement No. 1. 
From W. 0. More, M. P.— 

Fifty-sixth Annual Report of the N. Y. Eye and Ear Infirmary. 
From A. W. Nicholson, M. P. — 

Drainage, pamphlet Issued by Forest Township Board of Health, 
From Hon. Thomas P. James, Comm^r of Agricult. — 

Hand Book of Georgia. 
From Hon. T'homas W. Ferry, U. S. Se)iator — 

Report Board of Health, District of Columbia, 1876. 



1 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— EEPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

From Hon. James H. Stone, Sed'y Mich. Senate — 

Address on Idiocy, by C. T. Wilbur, M. D., and Address on Heredity by 
T. A. McGraw, M. D. 
From Ellwood Cooper — 

Forest Culture and Eucalyptus Trees, by Ellwood Cooper. 
From T. S. Gold— 

Tenth Annual Keport Connecticut State Board of Agriculture, T. S. Gold, 
Secretary. 
From Wirt Johnston, M. D. — 

Transactions Mississippi State Medical Society, 1877. 
From Chas. F. Folsom, M. D. — 

Eighth Annual Report Mass State Board of Health, 1877. 
From James F. Baldwin, M. D. — 

Ohio Medical Recorder, Vol. I., 12 numbers. 
From John E. AddicJcs — 

Health Officer's Annual Report, Philadelphia, for each of the years 1874, 
1875, and 187G. 
From Frank Wells, M. D.— 

Fifth Ann. Report Board of Police Commissioners, Cleveland, 0., 187C. 
From Prof. R. G. Kedzie, M. D.— 

Electrical Conduction, by R. C. Kedzie, M. D. — 
From Milton G. Register, M. D. — 

Transactions Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland, 1877. 
Fro7n J. F. Montgomery, M. D. — 

Transactions California State Medical Society, 187G and 1877. 
F)'07n Edward Searing, Siipt. Puh. Instr., Wis. — 

Wisconsin School Report for 1874 and 1875. 
By Exchange for Publications of this Board, — the following Periodicals (in 

some instances incomplete) : — 

The Cincinnati Lancet and Observer. 

The Canada Lancet. 

The Sanitary Journal. 

The Health Reformer. 

The Ohio Medical and Surgical Journal. 

The Virginia Medical Monthly. 

The American Medical Bi-Weekly. 

The Scientific Farmer. 

The American Exchange and Review. 

The American Observer, from Marcli. 

The Chicago Medical and Surgical Journal, from July. 

Excepting certain publications drawn out by members of the Board, the 
foregoing, together with those accounted for as in the Library of the Board, 
and drawn out by members at the date of the last Report, are in the Library 
of the Board, and are in good condition. Those drawn out are as follows : 

By Prof. R. C. Kedzie : 

Communications of the Rbode Island Medical Society for 1876-77. 

The Sanitary Record for July 13, 1877. 

Tenth Annual Report Milwaukee Board of Health. 



REPORT OF PROPERTY OF THE BOARD —LIBRARY- 

By Homer 0. Ilitchcoch, M. D. : 

Galtou's English Men of Science. 

Huth on the Marriage of Near Kin. 

Carpenter's Mental Philosophy. 
Bj/ Henri/ -^' Lyster, M. D. : 

Chaumont's Lectures on State Medicine. 

Brauu on Baths. 

Walton on Mineral Springs. 

Separate System of Drainage. 

Waring on Draining for Profit and Health. 

French on Farm Drainage. 

Elkinton on Drainage. 

Eassie's Sanitary Dwellings. 

Fothergill's Maintenance of Health. 

Eeid on Ventilation. 

Zehfuss' Pneumatic Sewerage. 

Latham's Sanitary Engineering. 

The Public Health, June 9, 1876, and Aug. 10, 1877. 

Sanitary Eecord, Aug. 10, 1877. 

The Popular Science Monthly, September, 1877. 

Virginia Medical Monthly, Feb., 1876. 

The Public Health, June 9, 1876. 

Eassie's Healthy Homes. 

Metcalfe's Sanitas Sanitatum et Omnia Sanitas. 

Parson's Sea-Air and Sea-Bath ing. 
By Hon. LeRoy Parker : 

Parke's Hygiene. 

The Medical Jurisprudence of Insanity. 

Fifth Annual Pieport Mass. State Board of Health, 1S74-. 

Eighth Annual Pteport Mass. State Board of Health, 1877. 

Sanitary Legislation in England and in New York, by D. B. Eaton. 

A Farmer's Vacation, by Waring. 

Preventing the Extension of Syphilis. 

Abstract of Report on Health Laws, by E, Harris. 

Report of the Medical Officer of the Privy Council, England, No. IV. 
By Dr. Henry B. Baker : 

Chauvenet on Method of Least Squares. 

VonBezold on The Theory of Color. 
By Arthur Hazleioood, M. D. : 

Smith on Diseases of Children. 

Dal ton's Physiology. 

Jacobi on Infant Diet. 
By Rev. J. S. Goodman: 

Report Relative to Philadelphia Public Schools, 1875. 

American Medical Weekl}^ July 8, 1876. 
By Dr. A. ]Y. Nicliohon, Otisville, Mich.: 

Fox on "Ozone and Antozone." 
By F. S. Kedzie : 

Duffey on Relation of the Sexes. 

Wilder on What Young People Should Know. 



]ii 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1S77, 



Of hard paper, there was on hand at the time of making the hist report, 8 
reams and 120 sheets of Folio Post, about 1 ream of Crown, about f ream 
Demy, about 450 sheets Bkie Cover paper, about IJ reams Manilla wrapping 
paper, and about f ream Tea Cover paper. Since that time there have been 
l^urchased 10 reams of Folio Post, 6 reams of Crown, 3 reams Demy, 2 reams 
Cover paper, and 2 reams Manilla wrapping pajier. There is now on hand G 
reams 32 sheets of Folio Post, 273 sheets of Crown, 2 reams and 270 sheets of 
Demy, about 1 ream and 450 sheets Manilla wrapping paper, about 297 sheets 
Blue Cover paper, and about 267 sheets of Light G-reen Cover paper. This 
shows that during the year there have been used 12 reams and 98 sheets of Folio 
Post, 6 reams and 210 sheets Crown, about 1 ream and 50 sheets Demy, about 
2 reams and 100 sheets of Cover paper, and about 1 ream and 150 sheets Manilla 
wrapping paper. 



KIND OF PAPER. 


Folio- 
post. 


Cbown. 


Pemt. 


Blfe 
Cover. 


Tea 
CovEit. 


Geeen 

COVKE. 


R=Reams. S^Sheets. 


R. S. 


E. S. 


K. S. 


R. S. 


B. S. 


E. S. 


On hand Oct. 1, 1876, and pni-chased 

during the fiscal year 1876-7 

On hand Oct. 1, 1877 

Am't used hyState Printer and Binder, 
as shown by the books of this ofllce 


18-120 
6- 32 

11-459 
0-119 


7-00 
273 

6-130 
0-77 


3-320 
2-270 

0-453 
0-77 


0-450 
0-297 

0-127 
0-26 


0-403 
0-000 

0-403 
0-000 


2-000 
267 

1-150 
0-63 





This has been used as follows : Of the Folio Post, 7 reams and 294 sheets 
were used for circulars and printed letters, 2 reams and 473 sheets were used 
for blanks, and 1 ream and 170 sheets were used for making letter paper for 
the use of the office. The Crown has been used for making blanks for report 
and record of diseases dangerous to the jiublic health, and for Anemometer reg- 
isters. The Demy has been used for making a book of "Issues, Acceptances, 
etc.," for the use of the office, for note and letter paper, and for placards on 
''Treatment of the Drowned." The Tea and Green Cover paper has been used 
for making covers to thirteen pamphlet reprints from the Fourth Annual Ee- 
port of this Board, and the Manilla wrapping paper has been used for wrapping 
up reports and documents sent out from the office. The specific items for which 
the paper has been used may be found in detail in the "Order Book" of this 
office. 

Of writing paper there was on hand at the time of making the last report, 
about 80 sheets plain letter, 50 sheets foolscap, and 3,400 sheets and half- 
sheets note and letter paper with printed heads. Since that time there have 
been purchased 1 ream ruled letter, 1 ream foolscap, 1 ream legal cap, and 
manufactured from folio post and demy paper furnished by this office 2,000 
sheets and half-sheets letter paper with printed heads. Total purchased and 
on hand, 6,970. Letter paper has been issued during the year as follows : 
To Prof. R. C. Kedzio, 292 sheets and half-sheets ; to Dr. H. 0. Hitchcock, 
48 sheets legal cap and 260 sheets note and letter ; to Dr. H. F. Lyster, 225 
sheets and half -sheets letter; to Hon. LeRoy Parker, 130 sheets and half- 
sheets note and letter ; to Rev. D. C. Jacokes, 130 sheets and half -sheets note 
and letter. There is now on hand about 2,840 sheets and half-sheets printed 
note and letter, 414 sheets legal cap, 313 sheets plain letter, and 384 sheets 
foolscap. Total issued and on hand, about 5,000 sheets and half-sheets. 



REPORT OF PROPERTY OF THE BOARD. liii 

This shows that durins^ the veav about 2,000 sheets and half-sheets of writin<r 

o ^ •' try 

paper of the dilfeveiit sorts have been used in this office. It has been used 
maiuly in carrying on the correspondence, and for making manuscript. 

Of envelopes tlicre were on hand, at the time of making the last report, 
about 13,350; 84,000 have since been purchased, making a total of 40,350. 
There are now on hand about 22,735, thus showing that during the year about 
23,615 have been used. Of these, about 1,200 were used in sending out blanks 
for report of "diseases dangerous to the public health"' to Clerks of Local 
Boards of Health ; about 300 were used in sending the Circular to Correspond- 
ents on Prevailing Diseases, 1876; for sending 8-page pamphlet on "Restric- 
tion and Prevention of Scarlet Fever" to Presidents, Clerks, and Ilealth 
Officers of Local Boards of Ilealth, Physicians, Newspapers, Civil Officers, Leg- 
islators, Judges, Justices, School Superintendents, and Sanitarians in Michigan, 
about 14,787; for sending circulars to supervisors, transmitting copy of law 
requiring the appointment of health officers, with envelope for return, about 
3,000; for sending circular to Correspondents relative to Scarlet Fever, with 
return envelope, about 300; for sending Circular [19] to Health Officers, to 
Health Officers and others, about 1,500; for sending circular relative to 
Health Officers to common councils of cities and villages, with envelope for 
return, about 350; for sending Dr. Lyster's Circular on Baths and Bathing to 
Correspondents and Members, with envelope for return to Dr. Lyster, 223 ; and 
for sending Dr. Lyster's Circular relative to Drainage, etc., to Correspondents 
and Members, with return envelope to Dr. Lyster, 223; total, 21,883. The 
remainder — 1,732 — has been used in carrying on the ordinary correspondence 
of the office. 

At the date of the last report there was on hand $11.84 worth of postage. 
Vouchers for postage and box-rent have been allowed during the year to the 
amount of $608.24, making a total of $620.08. There is now on hand postage 
stamps, etc., to the amount of $98.73. Tiiis shows that daring the year the 
cost of postage and box-rent has been $535.34, 

Some of the principal items of postage have been as follows : 

For sending out Annual Reports about $170.00 

For sending out document on Restriction of Scarlet Fever 120.00 

For postal cards printed for reporting diseases (some of which are yet 

unused) 44.00 

For postal cards printed for receipts to and from tliis office (some of 

of which are yet unused) 19.00 

For stamped envelopes sent to correspondents, etc 10.68 

Thus far this report has given, in most instances Avith exactness, in a few 
approximately, the amount of each kind of property received, on hand, and 
disposed of, by this office during the year ending Sept. 30, 1877; but in order to 
show exactly liow much has been expended for all items of property and for all 
other purposes during the time specified, the following statement is here pre- 
sented. It includes vouchers numbers 219 to 288 inclusive. 

AMOUNT 6f expenditures BY THE STATE BOARD OF HEALTH, AS PER VOUCHERS 
NUMBERS 219 TO 2S3 INCLUSIVE. 



Chemical Analyses $10.00 

Engraving, Drawing, etc 103.00 

Attending Meetings.. 135.20 

Other Official 135.15 



Expenses of Members -j 



liv STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH -REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

Instruments and Books - 1458.71 

Paper, Stationery, etc - 277.68 

„ , ^Office---- - - -- 608.24 

Postao'e < -KT ^ in OK 

° (Members - 10.25 

Printing and Binding 451.50 

Secretary - - - 2,000.00 

Special Investigations 81.21 

Miscellaneous ..- 53.37 

Total - *$4,324.31 

Kespectfully submitted, 

Henry B. Baker, 

Secretary. 

Having- compared the Secretary's annual report of property, received, issued, ex- 
pended, and destroyed during the fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 1877, with the propertj'- 
book and the record of proceedings, and having examined the foregoing account of 
expenditui-es, and compared the same with tlie books in the Auditor General's office, 
I find the same to be correct. 

LEROY PARKER, 

Lansing, Oct. 10, 1877. Committee on Finance. 

ABSTRACTS AXD BRIEF ACCOUN^TS OF THE PROCJEEDINGS AT THE 
MEETIN^GS OF THE STATE BOARD OF HEALTH DURING THE YEAR 
ENDING SEPTEMBER 30, 1877. t 

Berj\dar Quarterly Meeting^ Oct, 10, 1S7G. 

The Board met at Lansing, in the office of the Secretary of State, the follow- 
ing members being present: Homer 0. Hitchcock, M. D., President; K. 0. 
Kedzie, M. D. ; Rev. Chas. H. Brigham, and Henry B. Baker, Secretary. 

Dr. Kedzie presented a report upon the "Water-Supply of Michigan/' in 
accordance with a request of the Board made at its meeting in October, 1874 
(see page ix. of the '^IMiird Annual Report), which was accepted with thanks 
and ordered published in the Annual Report. [See Fourth Annual Report, 
pages 109-119.] 

Ur. Baker presented material for his paper on the "Death-Rate as Influenced 
by Age, Climate, etc."', consisting of tables, charts, diagrams, etc., and men- 
tioned that he had found a way in which a comparison of the death-rates of 
different localities could be made without the necessity of computing a "life- 
table" for each locality. 

Dr. Arthur Hazlewood came in and took his seat as a member of the Board. 

Dr. Hazlewood, committee on Food, Drinks, and "Water-Supply, read a 
paper entitled "Water, and the Water-Supply in Michigan." 

On motion of Dr. Kedzie, the paper was accepted with thanks and ordered 
published in the Annual Report. [See Fourth Annual Report, pages 73-80.] 

Dr. Hitchcock presented and read a paper upon "Criminal Abortion", and 
reported back letters and questions from Drs. Beech and Stoddard, previously 
referred to the committee on Legislation in the Interests of Public Health. 

* This is for the fiscal year; the amotint for tlie calendar year cannot exceed f 4,000, the total 
appropriation for each calendar year. 

t Regular meetings occur on the second Tuesday of January, April, July, and October, in each 
year. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD— ABSTRACT OF MINUTES. Iv 

On motion, the paper was accepted for publication in tlic Annual Report. 
[See Fourth Annual Keport, pages 55-02.] 

Dr. Ilazlewood read a statement relative to the State Public School at Cold- 
water, referring to the Ventilation, AVater-Supply, etc 

Dr. Ilitchcociv presented a report of his attendance at tlie International 
Medical Congress in Philadelphia, September 4 to 9, 187G, in which he men- 
tioned and briclly reviewed many of the pa2)ers read, and concluded by saying 
that the Congress was a great success, and that its published transactions should 
be read by every physician and sanitarian in the land. 

On motion, the report was accepted and placed on llle. 

Dr. Baker read a report of his attendance at the meeting of the Health De- 
partment of the American Social Science Association, at Saratoga, September 
8, 187G. 

On motion, the report Avas accepted with thanks, and was approved for pub- 
lication in the Annual lieport. [See Fourth Annual Report, pages 65-70.] 

Two documents relating to Scarlet Fever, which had previously been sub- 
mitted to the members for approval, but had not been approved, were brought 
lip for discussion. One of them, a proposed circular to correspondents asking 
for statements of cases, etc., illustrating the dissemination of the disease was 
read, and amendments were offered, and finally the circular as amended was 
adopted. The document of instructions to local boards of health, householders, 
etc., prepared by Dr. Ilazlewood, was read, and considerable discussion was 
given to the subject. Dr. Ilazlewood' s views were to give a few short explicit 
directions, while Dr. Baker favored the plan of making the document a com- 
plete schedule of instructions to local boards of health, such as would allow 
newspapers, and persons Avho understand the complete directions, to abstract 
or omit what each saw fit. After further discussion, Drs. Hazlewood and 
Baker were made a special committee to prepare and issue the document above 
mentioned. 

Dr. Baker, to whom was referred that portion of the President's Annual 
Address which related to the collection of Vital Statistics, presented and read a 
report on •' Methods of Collecting Vital Statistics." 

On motion, the report was accepted for publication in the Annual Report. 
[See Fourth Annual Report, pages 123-130.] 

On motion, Drs. Baker and Hitchcock were appointed a committee to draw 
up a bill for the amendment of the laws of this State for the collection of 
vital statistics, and to report to tlie Board at its next meeting. 

The Secretary read his report of property, received, issued, used, and on 
hand, during the half-year ending September 30, 1876, in accordance with 
the requirements of the By-Laws of the Board. [See Fourth Annual Report, 
pages xxvii-xxxi.] 

The report was referred to the Committee on Finance. 

Bills were audited — vouchers 219-230 inclusive. 

The Secretary read a report of the principal items of work in the office dur- 
ing the quarter just closed. 

A communication from J. II. Beech, M. D., relative to the drowning of nine 
persons in Baw-Beese Lake, was read, and, on motion, accepted with thanks.* 

The Secretary mentioned the receipt of a letter from Dr. Zenas E. Bliss, late 

*The drowning was cansed by tlie careless overloading of a boat; and Dr. Beech suggested that 
in order to prevent such accidents, tlie carrying capacitj' of such conveyances should be required 
to be plainly and conspicuously marlied on "lliein, and lliat they should be rdiuired to be supplied 
■with signals, etc. 

G 



Ivi STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— EEPOKT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

member of the Board, relative to the rapidly failing condition of his health. 
Eegret was manifested by the members present and, on motion, the Secretary 
was requested to communicate to Dr. Bliss an expression of sympathy and kind 
wishes of the members of the Board. 

Dr. Baker read a paper on the ''Cause of Chorea."* 

A communication from J. H. Beech, M. D., relative to Diphtheria at Union 
City, Michigan, was read, and, on motion, the Secretary was directed either to 
visit the locality himself and study and report the conditions, or get Dr. Beecli 
to do so. 

A communication from J. H. Beech, M. D., relative to the fatal poisoning 
of a young man by Paris green, was presented. 

After informal discussion relative to material for the Annual Report, the 
Board adjourned. 

Begular Quarterly Meeting, January 9, 1877. 

The Board met in the Old State Capitol at Lansing, the following members 
being present ; Eev. J. S. Goodman, Prof. E. C. Kedzie, Doctor Arthur Hazle- 
wood, and Henry B. Baker, Secretary. 

On motion of Dr. Kedzie, Eev. J. S. Goodman was elected President 7;;-o tern. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and, after being corrected 
in one particular, were approved. 

Dr. H. F. Lyster had sent in a paper on "The Locating of Healthful 
Homes," which was read by the Secretary. 

Dr. Kedzie presented and read a report relative to the present condition of 
Hluminating Oils in this State, and the methods of manufacture of such oils 
as witnessed by himself at Cleveland, Ohio. On motion, the paper was accepted 
with thanks and referred back to the author with the request to prepare it for 
publication in the Annual Eeport. [See pages 69-80 of this volume.] 

The Secretary presented a rejDort sent in by Dr. Hitchcock, Committee on 
Legislation, the same being the form of a memorial to the Legislature for the 
appointment of a Commission to collect facts and statistics relating to the sale 
and use of alcoholic beverages, the losses to the State thus entailed, the influ- 
ence on the Vital Statistics, etc. 

At the afternoon session the same members were present as in the morning, 
and also Dr. H. F. Lyster and Eev. C. H. Brigham. 

Dr. Kedzie read a letter from Mr. Coleman, Deputy Oil Insi^ector at Kala- 
mazoo, mentioning difficulties in prosecuting under the present law for the 
inspection of oils, and suggesting some amendments. 

Mr. Perry Averill, State Lispector of Hluminating Oils, by invitation, 
appeared and read a report of the progress he had made in oil inspection in 
this State, and his methods of executing the law, which also contained reports 
of deputy inspectors, giving number of barrels inspected, etc. — [See pages 
85-90 of tliis volume]. Considerable discussion followed as to the desirability 
of securing certain changes in the law, the necessity of observing caution in so 
doing, and also the fact that the mortality from so-called kerosene accidents 
had been greatly reduced since the j^resent law had been in effect. 

The following resolution was adopted : 

Resolved, That a committee, of which Dr. E. C. Kedzie shall be chairman, 
be appointed by the chair to take such steps as circumstances may require to 

* The cases mentioned, and the arguments adduced, support the view that chorea may be caused 
by nervous irritation, tending to excessive muscular fatigue, in any part of the body. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOAKD— ABSTRACT OF MINUTES. Ivii 

furnish thc~LGgislature with any infonnatiou in the possession of this IJoard 
regarding the working of the hiw concerning ilhiininating oils in this State, 
and to act for the Board in nniintaining the present standard of inspection, so 
far as regards the flash-test. 

The following resolution was also adopted : 

Resolved, That the groat reduction, since the prcsejit system of State inspec- 
tion of illuminating oils has been in force, in the number of casualties from 
lamp explosions and otherwise, through the use of the low-grade illuminating 
oils, is an indication of the value of such inspection and of the present test. 

liev. C. H. Brigham made a report upon a subject referred to him at a pre- 
vious meeting, namely, the sanitary influence of the Eucalypti, particularly 
the Eucahjptus globulus. He read several letters and newspaper scraps upon 
the subject, and stated that Prof. Asa Gray thought the tree could not be 
made to grow in this State, on account of the cold climate. Dr. Lyster stated 
that the trees were growing in Detroit, having been made to do so by being cut 
back. 

The Chairman announced that he had appointed Dr. H. B. Baker, as the 
member of the committee on oil inspection, of which Dr. Kedzie was made 
chairman. 

The Secretary reported that in accordance with the direction of the Board he 
had secured the services of Dr. J. H. Beech of Coldwater to investigate the out- 
break of diphtheria at Union City, and that his report would be forthcoming 
soon. [See pages 354-356 of this volume.] 

The Secretary read a communication from Dr. 0. Marshall, of North Lansing, 
on ''Opium Eating." On motion the paper was accepted with thanks and re- 
ferred back to the author with the request to prepare it for publication iu the 
Annual Report. 

The Secretary read a proposed bill by Dr. Milton Chase, of Otsego, relative to 
physicians' qualifications, providing that persons who practice medicine iu this 
State shall file with the County Clerk sworn statements of the studies they have 
pursued and the advantages they have had. On motion, the document was 
referred to the committee on legislation. 

The Secretary submitted a report of the principal items of work in his otfice 
during the quarter. 

The Secretary read a communication from W. H. Rouse, M. D., of Detroit, 
suggesting that the State Board of Health and State Agricultural College 
should cooperate in the propagation of Bovine Vaccine Virus, for the use of 
physicians practicing in this State. The communication was referred to the 
committee on Epidemic, Endemic, and Contagious Diseases. 

On motion, the Secretary was authorized to distribute psychrometers and 
other meteorological instruments, in accordance with his best judgment, to 
such of the meteorological observers as have furnished and will continue to 
furnish valuable data to the Board. 

Names of persons proposed as regular correspondents were read, and the 
Secretary was authorized to ask certain persons to serve in that capacity. 

The Secretary road a proposed Circular [16] to the Health Officers of cer- 
tain cities in Micliigan. The Circular was adopted [see page xxvi. of this 
volume] . 

On motion, the Secretary was directed to prepare and publish a statement of 
the principal meteorological conditions in each year. 

The Secretary oft'ered a suggestion that it should be made the duty of some 



Iviii STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH— REPOKT OF SECRETARY, 1877, 

officer of each local board of health to prosecute for failure to report diseases 
dangerous to the public health. The subject was referred to the committees on 
''Legislation" and ''Contagious Diseases," jointly. 

Bills were audited — vouchers 231-249 inclusive. * 

On motion^ the Board adjourned. 

Begular Quarterly Meetincj. April 10, 1877. 

The Board met in the office of the Secretary of State, the following mem- 
bers being present : 

Homer 0. Hitchcock, M. D., President. 

E. 0. Kedzie, M. D. 

Rev. 0. H. Brigham. 

Henry B. Baker, Secretary. 

Dr. Lyster was present at the afternoon session. 

Dr. Hitchcock presented his annual address, as President, by title only, as 
follows: " The Laws of Heredity in their relation to Public Health, and to 
Legislation in the interests of Public Health." [See pages 1-19 of this 
volume.] 

The Secretary read a report sent in by Dr. Arthur Hazlewood, Committee on 
Epidemic Diseases, etc., on the subject of Bovine Vaccine Virus, and the 
proposition of Dr. Rouse of Detroit that the Board and the Agricultural CoU 
lege cooperate in its propagation. Tlie Report did not favor the proposition. 
It was as follows : 

To the State Board of Health : 

Gentlemen: — The communication from W. H. Rouse, M. D., Detroit, suggesting 
that the State Board of Health cooperate with the State Agricultural College in the 
propagation of bovine virus for the use of physicians practicing in this State, has 
been taken into consideration by your committee, and considered inexpedient, for 
reasons set forth by the Committee on Public Health of the State Senate, to wit: 
that such propagation of bovine virus would entail a cost upon the State Treasury,, 
"without corresponding benefit to the citizens of the State, and that the virus thus 
obtained, if sold at cost to physicians, would cost them more than they can now 
obtain a reliable article for elsewhere. And further, that it is not the province of an 
advisory Board (such as the State Board of Health is by the terms of the law which 
created it) to become part of a commercial agency, such as it must necessarily 
assume by entering into such an arrangement. 

Your committee would, therefore, recommend that, inasmuch as E. L. GrifHn, M. 
D., of Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, makes a specialty of supplying reliable bovine virus,, 
at a moderate cost, and has appointed Geo. E. Ranney, M. D., of Lansing, his agent 
for this State, therefore all enquiries to the Secretary of the State Board of Health 
for reliable bovine virus may, with propriety, be referred to either of the above- 
named gentlemen. 

Respectfully, 

A. HAZLEWOOD, 
Chairman Com. on Epidemic, Endemic, and Contagious Diseases. 

On motion, the report was adopted. 

Rev. C. H. Brigham, Committee on Occupations and Recreations, read a 
paper on " Recreations and Health." 

On motion, the paper was accej)ted with thanks and ordered published in 
the Annual Report. [See pages 27-46 of this volume.] 

The Secretary, on behalf of Rev. J. S. Goodman, former committee on 
Finance, reported that after the last meeting Mr. Goodman had remained and 
examined tlie books of the office in connection with the Secretary's reports of 
property, etc., and had affixed liis certificates to these documents. 

The election of President for the ensuing two years was then proceeded to^ 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD— ABSTRACT OF MINUTES. lix 

The Secretary on counting the ballots announced that Dr. II. 0. Hitchcock 
had received four of the live ballots cast. Dr. Hitchcock thanked the Board 
for the honor thus conferred, but stated that having held the office since the 
organization of the Board, and feeling that there were other members equally 
deserving of the honor, he respectfully declined to accept the office for another 
term. 

On motion, another ballot was taken, and -Dr. It. C. Kedzie was declared 
elected. 

Dr. Lyster stated that he had a paper upon ''Baths and Bathing" in pro- 
cess of preparation, but was not ready to present it at this meeting. 

Eev. C. II. Brigham stated that he had been gathering material for a paper 
upon ''Sensational Literature," the subject referred to him at a previous 
meeting. 

Dr. Baker reported the document on the "Restriction and Prevention of 
Scarlet Fever," which had been referred to Dr. Ilazlewood and himself at a 
previous meeting. The document was read and discussed, and on motion the 
Secretary was directed to have 20,000 copies printed in the form of an eight- 
page pamphlet [see pages xxix-xxxii. of this volume], and to distribute the 
same to physicians, local boards of health, periodicals, etc., in tliis State. 

The Secretary presented a circular to Correspondents relative to Scarlet 
Fever, upon which Dr. Ilazlewood and himself had been working. Tlie cir- 
cular was discussed and finally adopted, and ordered printed and issued to regu- 
lar Correspondents of the Board. [See pages 394-397 of this volume.] 

The Secretary read a report by J. II. Beech, M. D., of Coldwater, relative 
to his investigation of the outbreak of diphtheria at Union City, Michigan. 

On motion, the report was accepted with thanks, and ordered published in the 
Annual Eeport of the Board. [See pages 354-35G of this volume.] 

Dr. Kedzie reported concerning the work he had done, in pursuance of the 
direction of the Board, in maintaining before the Legislature the present 
standard flash-test (140°) for illuminating oils. He had consulted with mem- 
bers of the committees on Public Health of the House and Senate, had deliv- 
ered an address before the Legislature* ; but feared that 130° F. would be the 
highest test that could be secured in the House. 

Dr. Hitchcock thought that there should be no compromise on the part of 
the Board, that its position in demanding a safe test should be maintained. 

Dr. Baker moved that the action of the Board as shown by resolutions 
adopted at former meetings, and the present views of the Board, be embodied 
in a memorial, and sent to the Legislature. The motion was carried, and the 
Secretary was directed to make and transmit such a memorial in the name of 
the Board. [See page Ixxvi of this volume.] 

The Secretary read a report of the princijial items of work in the office since 
the last meeting. 

On motion, certain replies to communications relative to Diphtheria were 
referred to the Secretary with authority to publisli in the Annual Report. 
[See pages 35G-381 of this volume.] 

On motion, the Secretary was directed to insert, in the Report, replies of 
Correspondents relative to Prevailing Diseases, 1875, — received too late for 
publication in the last Report. [See pages 235-236 of this volume.] 

A communication from John S. Caulkins, M. D., of Thornville, relative to a 
lamp explosion, was read and referred to Dr. Kedzie. 

* [For this Address, see pages 69-80 of this volume.] 



Ix STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

The Secretary read a commnnication from the Health Officer of the town- 
ship of Forest relative to Scarlet Fever. Oii motion, it was ordered published 
in the Annual Report. [See pages 417-418 of this volume.] 

The Secretary was authorized to arrange and publish in the Annual Report 
the communications received relative to Scarlet Fever. [See pages Ixix-lxxii of 
this volume.] 

A communication from Deputy Collector of Customs McDermott, of Bay 
City, detailing a successful application of the rules for ''Treatment of the 
Drowned" was read, and it was suggested that these instances should be kept 
account of, as showing some results of the work accomplished by this Board. 

Communications from W. G. Rhoads, of PhiladeliDhia, relative to traps and 
the ventilation of sewer pipes ; from F. W. Higgins, Superintendent of Wood- 
mere Cemetery, Detroit, relative to taking meteorological observations ; from 
the Health Officer of Paris, Huron Co., relative to the outbreak of small-pox, 
etc. ; from C. H. Fountain, of Jackson, relative to lead pipes ; and from H. 0. 
Fairbank, of Flint, relative to typhoid fever from bad water, were read, and 
appropriate action was taken on each. 

The subject of Vaccination and Vaccine Virus was discussed, and communica- 
tions from E. L. Griffin, M. D., and Geo. E. Ranney, M. D., relative to the 
subject were read. On motion, the subject was laid on the table till the next 
meeting. 

The Secretary read a list of names of persons proposed as regular correspond- 
ents of the Board. The persons named in the list were approved and the 
Secretary was authorized to ask them to serve. 

Bills were then audited — vouchers 250-268, inclusive. 

Dr. Baker offered a resolution requesting Dr. Kedzie to prepare an article, for 
publication in the Annual Report, upon "Water Examination," the same to be 
prepared in such manner as to enable the general reader to grasp the general 
facts, and the professional reader to obtain such plain instructions as will enable 
him to make satisfatory examinations of water to be used for drinking purposes. 

The resolution was adopted. 

The Secretary was given authority to expend not to exceed twenty-five dollars 
in the purchase of books for the library of the Board. 

The following resolution was unanimously adopted : 

Resolved, That a hearty vote of thanks be given to Dr. Hitchcock — retiring 
President of this Board — for his earnest and able labors for the promotion of 
public health, particularly during the years in which he has been President of 
this Board. 

On motion, the Board adjourned. 

Begulm' Quarterly Meeting, July 10, 1S77. 

The Board met in the office of the Secretary of State, the following mem- 
bers being present : 

R. C. Kedzie, M. D., President. 

H. 0. Hitchcock, M. D. 

Hon. LeRoy Parker. 

Rev. D. C. Jacokes. 

Henry B. Baker, Secretary. 

Dr. Hitchcock stated that his annual address as President, which should 
have been presented at the last meeting, Avas not yet ready, but would be pre- 
sented at the October meeting. [See pages 1-19 of this volume.] 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD— ABSTRACT OF MINUTES. l.xi 

Dr. Kedzie, Committee ou Poisons, etc., made a report conceniitig poison- 
ous cheese, having received from Dr. Baker a specimen of cliecse supposed ta 
liave caused sickness. The report was interesting and was followed by consid- 
erable discussion, at the close of which a motion was carried thanking Dr. 
Kedzie for the report, and asking him to continue his investigation and com- 
plete the report for publication in the Annual Report. 

On motion. Dr. Kedzie was authorized to incur expenses necessary to enable 
him to visit cheese factories and investigate the jnethods of cheese manufac- 
ture. 

Dr. Kedzie reported, concerning illuminating oils, that he had continued his 
labor with the Legislature, and was pleased to announce that a law for 
inspection had been passed embodying all the good points of the old law, and 
providing a standard test of 140° F., and also a test for paraffine. 

Dr. Hitchcock reported back the subject of "Misplaced Bottles'" referred 
to him at a previous meeting, and on motion it was referred to Dr. Kedzie, 
[See pages 21-36 of this volume.] 

On motion, the paper of Dr. Kedzie on *' Illuminating Oils in Michigan," 
was ordered published in the Annual Report. [See pages 69-80 of this vol- 
ume.] 

The regular committees of the Board were then taken up in order and reor- 
ganized. [See page viii. of this volume.] 

A new committee, namely, on Mental Hygiene, was established, and Dr. 
Hitchcock was made that committee. 

On motion, a new by-law was adopted, as follows : ' ' All papers for the 
Annual Report must be in the hands of the Secretary on or before the day of 
the October meeting in each year." 

Dr. Kedzie reported that he had made some progress in the preparation of 
the paper on *' Water Examination." 

The Secretary presented a schedule of property which certain vouchers 
showed had been purchased, but which did not appear on the '^Property 
Book" of the office. On motion, the Secretary was directed to enter each 
such item in the "Property Book," and to write opposite each article the dis- 
position of it ordered by the Board. 

The Secretary read his quarterly report of the principal items of work in the 
office since the last meeting. 

Dr. Lyster, though not present, had sent in a report of his attendance at the 
meeting of the American Medical Association at Chicago, June 5-9, 1877, 
which was read. 

He stated that the Association was divided into five sections, viz. : I. Prac- 
tice; II. Obstetrics; III. Surgery; IV. Medical Jurisprudence; V. State 
Medicine and Public Health. Dr. Lyster attended and reported the last- 
named section, in which three papers were read ; viz. : 

1. "The Etiology of Enteric Fever," by Dr. J. L. Cabell, of Va. 

2. "Tuberculosis of Milch Cows, and the Contagiousness of Tuberculosis by 
the Digestive Organs," by Dr. A. N. Bell, of N. Y. 

3. "The Laws of Heredity, with special Reference to the Transmission of 
Morbid Tendencies, Abnormal Forms, and the Effects of Intermarriages." 

4. "The Results of State Legislation on Public Health," by Elisha Harris, 
M. D., of N. y. 

Dr. Cabell's paper on the Etiology of Enteric Fever was founded upon the 
observations of himself and others in the State of Virginia. He enumerated some 



Ixii STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

of the causes of Enteric Fever, as follows : 1. Decomposition of excrements ; 
2. Milk with foul water from a poisoned well; 3. Vegetable Decomposition. 
The disintegration of Vegetable Decomposition, and decay of dry timber, — the 
latter supposed to be the most powerful; 4. Soil saturation, with organic 
impurities ; low level of ground water during fevers ; 6. Undefined Telluric 
influences. A clear distinction was shown between enteric and typho-malarial 
fevers, the latter having a similarity to remittent fever. 

Dr. Black, in his paper on Heredity, asserted that the race, if not retrograd- 
ing, was not advancing. Money was used to instruct idiots and cure insane 
persons, but none was used to prevent these conditions. A small per cent of 
the offspring of deaf-mutes were deaf-mutes, but pulmonary consumption was 
decidedly increased by intermarriage of persons of a consumptive family. 

Dr. Bell was of the opinion that tubercular disease could be derived from the 
milk of cows affected Avitli tuberculosis, and that the milk of such cows was 
often the cause of death in children. Experiments have proved that tuber- 
cular matter can be imparted from one animal to another by means of the 
digestive system, and this was not prevented by boiling for 15 to 30 minutes. 
He intimates that stall-fed cows are more liable to tubercular disease than are 
animals not so kept. 

Dr. Harris, in his paper upon the result of State Legislation upon Public 
Health, alluded to the results of well-considered laws in the prevention of 
disease. Communicable diseases had been quarantined, and dangerous nuis- 
ances abated. Boards of Health had been established in many States. A 
sanitary survey of the State of New York had been begun. The desirability 
of such a survey in Michigan had been suggested, and Dr. Lyster hoped that it 
might soon be realized. The meeting of the section was evidently a success, 
and the interest in its work increasing. 

On motion, Dr. Lyster s report was accepted with thanks. 

On motion, the Secretary was authorized to buy the Encyclopaedia Britannica 
(9th edition, cloth binding), for the library of the Board. 

The Secretary was authorized to ask certain physicians named, to act as reg- 
ular correspondents of the Board. 

A communication from H. F. Lyster, M. D., relative to small-pox in Detroit, 
was read, and, on motion, accepted witli thanks, and ordered published in the 
Annual Report. [Seepages 105-109 of this volume.] 

On motion, the report of the State Inspector of Illuminating Oils, j^resented 
at a previous meeting, was referred back to the author for completion up to 
August 1, 1877, prej^aratory to publication in the Annual Report. [See pages 
85-90 of this volume]. 

On motion, the Committee on Legislation was requested to consider the pro- 
priety of planning uniform legal provisions for boards of health of cities and 
villages. 

On motion, it was voted that the weekly reports of diseases in Michigan be 
compiled and published in the Annual Report. [See pages 237-343 of this 
volume.] 

The Secretary Avas directed to have replies of Correspondents relative to pre- 
vailing diseases, 1876, publislied in the Annual Report. [See pages 107-236 
of this volume.] 

The Secretary was authorized to have replies of Correspondents relative to 
scarlet fever, published in the Aimual Report [see pages 391-447 of this vol- 



SPECIAL REPORTS, ETC., TO THIS BOARD. Ixiii 

ume], also replies of Corrcspoiidciits relative to water-supply. [See pages 
143-166 of this volnine.] 

On motion, another edition (6,000 copies) of documents on "Treatment of 
the Drowned " was ordered printed. 

A communication from Dr. J. S. Caulkins of Thornville, relative to an out- 
break of diphtheria at Eochester, was read, and on motion it was voted that he 
be requested to further investigate the subject and report to the Board. 

On motion, it was voted that Dr. Arthur Hazlewood be respectfully requested 
to prepare an article on " The Diet of Infants," for publication in the Annual 
Report of the Board. [See pages 99-104 of this volume.] 

Bills were audited — vouchers 269-288 inclusive. 

Dr. Hitchcock offered the following resolutions, which were unanimously 
adopted : 

llesolved, That it is with sincere regret that wc have heard of the severe 
illness of our associate on this Board — Rev. Charles II. Brigham ; 

liesolved, That we extend to him our sympathy, with the hope that he may 
be speedily restored to his usual health and his great usefulness.. 

The following were also unanimously adopted : 

Jiesolved, That it is with deep regret that we have heard of the death, after 
a long illness, of Dr. Zenas E. Bliss, of Grand Rapids, and late an efficient mem- 
ber of this Board ; 

llesolved, That the sincere sympathy of this Board be extended to his 
afflicted family, in this their hour of sorrow ; 

liesolved, That the Secretary be directed to transmit a copy of the foregoing 
resolutions to the widow of the late Dr. Bliss. 

On motion, Hon. LeRoy Parker was requested to attend the meeting of the 
Amerian Social Science Association at Saratoga, Sept. 4-7, 1877, in the 
interests of public health in Michigan. 

On motion, Dr. H. 0. Hitchcock was asked to attend the meeting of the 
Association for the Cure of Inebriates, to be held at Chicago September, 1877. 

The subject of vaccine virus, laid on the table at the last meeting was meet- 
ing, was taken up, and the following resolution passed : 

Resolved, That on behalf of this Board the Secretary be instructed to 
return thanks to Dr. George E. Ranney for his trouble in securing and render- 
ing accessible to physicians and others in this State, reliable, non-humanized 
cow-pox virus ; and to request him to assume a permanent agency for the dis- 
tribution of virus propagated by Dr. Griffin, or by some other equally reliable 
person. 

On motion, the Board adjourned. 

SPECIAL REPORTS AND COMMUNICATIONS TO THIS BOARD. 

During the year, communications have been received from health officers, 
from regular correspondents, and from others, containing valuable statements 
of facts and important considerations, bearing upon different subjects con- 
nected with public health. Some of them have been referred to the dif- 
ferent committees of the Board, and appear in other parts of this volume; 
some have been referred to the Secretary, with authority to publish;- while 
time has not been found, during the limited sessions of the Board, to 
present, at length, all communications of this class that have been re- 
ceived. A report of the work of the Board would not be complete without 

H 



Ixiv STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— KEFOKT OF SECKETAKY, 1877. 

some mention of tliese communications, and a few of tliose not otherwise dis- 
posed of are believed to be of such value as to make it desirable that they be 
included herewith. They have generally been received because of an official 
request for further information concerning unusual sickness reported to this 
Board. Those selected for publication are the following : 

CASES OF TYPHOID FEVER CAUSED BY IMPURE DRINKING WATER, REPORTED BY H. 
C. FAIRBANK, M. D., OF FLINT, JIICHIGAN. 

Secretary State Board of Health: 

Dear Sir: — The following experience comes up fresh to my mind, confirming a 
belief that Typhoid Fever often originates in the poison of our drinking loater. 

In the Autumn of 18 — , I was requested to see a young lady aged 20 years, residing 
In an adjoining county, who had been sick two weeks. On my arrival, I found her 
very low, with the usual concomitants of Typhoid Fever in a frail and delicate fe- 
male, — subsuUus tendinum and delirium being among the more prominent symptoms. 
Within a few days her father, who had watched her carefully during her sickness, was 
stricken down with the same disease. Within ten days of this time, the oldest son, 14 
years of age, was attacked; and soon after, the second son, about 10 years old, fell a 
victim to what I began to regard as a household scourge, — and I set myself to work 
to see if I could discover the cause of tlie disease. 

The family lived on a high gravelly sand-hill; they were cleanly in every respect, 
so far as I had been able to discover; and, though I searched from cellar to garret of 
their dwelling, I was at a loss to understand why so manj'' of the family should, 
within so short a time, fall a prey to the disease. Delirium and great prostration 
were early perceived in the progress of the complaint, and small abscesses and bed- 
sores were among the effects demanding my attention. About this time I went to 
the spring from which the family had during the Summer (their well having failed) 
obtained their drinking water. I discovered that it was situated about 60 feet below 
the privy, and that the soil about and connecting both, was porous, and admitted of 
leakage from the privy to the spring. I should remark that the taste of the spring- 
water was a little peculiar, and that 1 had refused to drink it some time before see- 
ing the location of the spring. I did not seek further for the source of the disease. 

The father died; the three children recovered, but not till after many weeks of 
suffering. I pointed out to the family what I believed to be the cause of their ill- 
ness, and urged the importance of seeking elsewhere their water for drinking and 
culinary purposes. I believe they have, for the most part, been healthy since that, 
to them, memorable Fall. 

These cases furnish additional proof of the importance of vigilance on the part of 
the medical men at least, in order that this quite too common source of disease be 
remedied wherever possible. 

Very truly, 

Flint, Mich. H. C. FAIRBANK, M. D. 

CASES OF SICKNESS DUE TO EMANATIONS FROM DECOMPOSING ORGANIC MATTER, RE- 
PORTED BY MRS. M. W. HOWARD, LANSING, MICHIGAN. 

Secretary State Board of Health : 

Dear Sir:— Some years ago a family lived on an avenue just south of the garden 
belonging to the Norfolk County (Mass.) jail. In the center of the garden was a mound 
where the excreta from the jail was every morning deposited, and earth thrown 
over it, but not enough to prevent it from exhaling noxious odors. The jail sheltered 
from two hundred to three hundred inmates. One night in August, when the wind 
was right to bring the air from the north into the open windows, four of the 
family were seized, nearly simultaneously, with severe vomiting and diarrhoea, 
which lasted several days. The circumstances were such as to leave no doubt as to 
the cause. 

A friend at my elbow says she distinctly remembers her fathers family being affected 
in a similar manner by having old potatoes removed from the cellar in hot weatlier. 
As long as they were undisturbed the odor did not affect them, if in reality any was 
perceived. M. W. HOWAKD. 

Lansiwj, Mich. 



SPECIAL REPOETS, ETC., TO THIS BOARD. 



Ixv 



CASES OF TYniOin FEVER NEAR FOUI. PRIVIES, ONE CASE NKAR CARRION FUNGUS, 
REPORTED BY L. D. KNOWLES, M. D., CLERK OF PINE GROVE TOWNSHIP, VAN BUREN 
COUNTY. 

Secretary State Board of Health : 

Dear Sir: — Below is a diagram sliowiug the positions of tlie difterent houses in 
which oeciirred the three cases of typhoid'fever named in my report; 



Mr. Hill's. 



Mr. 

.rohiisoii's'. 



Well. 

o 



Priv}'. 



Privy. 




The first case was John Bowles, aged 24, a teamster. His occupation necessitated 
his being up early in the morning, and out late in the evening; in passing from his 
home to the barn, he was in the habit of passing through the lot of Mr. Johnson, the 
opening in the fence being on the east side of Mr. Johnson's privy, which was in a 
very bad condition, the odor arising from it being very foul. Mr. Bowles passed this 
place on an average six times a day, and at a time in the day when the stench was most 
concentrated. This I believe to have been the cause of his attack. The water the 
Bowles family used I believe to have been good. 

The Hill family live in a low, rambling house, without any underpinning, and in 
an uncleanly manner; or, in short, they are filthy. Their privy is but twenty feet 
from their living-room, and was full to overflowing. There was no intercourse 
between Mr. Bowles' and Mr. Hill's families. I believe the nearness of their privy, 
and the filthy condition of their abode to have been the cause of their sickness. The 
water here, too, was good. 

As to the diagnosis, I can say they were all typical cases. Mr. Bowles and JJ'ettie 
Hill, in connection with other symptoms, had hemorrhage from the bowels. 

I observed at Mr. Hill's a peculiar stench which remained after the privy had been 
removed, and the house tlioroughly cleansed. I directed my attention particularly 
to finding the cause of this stench, but was unsuccessful at first; finally upon taking 
up an old board \valk in front of the house, Mr. Hill found what is known in this 
locality as Carrion plant. After its removal, all trouble ceased. I do not know as this 
is of any account; but as tlie growth of so odorous a plant was a surprise to me, I 
will report the same, and it may pass for what it is worth. 

Yours trulv, 

Kendall, Van JBuren Co., February 5, 2877. ' L. D. KNOWLES, 



ixvi STATE BOAED OF HE^VLTH— EEPORT OF SECEETARY, 1877. 



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SPECIAL REPORTS, ETC., TO THIS ]JOAPvD. Ixvu 

OUTBREAK OF TYPHOID FKVER IN IJUIDGKWATKK TOWNSHIP, AVASIITENAW COUNTY, 
KEPOIITEU BY I). W. PALMEK, CLEKK. 

Secretary State Board of Health : 

Dear Sir:— The residonce of the Rentschler family, pictured on the opposite page, 
is on Section 8, Town. 4 S., Range 4 E. It is 4 miles north of (Jlinton, and 5 miles 
east of Manchester. The upper stratum of soil consists of two and one-half feet of 
light sand; below this, for many feet, is coarse gravel. The well is 21 feet deep, and 
is stoned with round, or irregular stones. I think there is no clay subsoil from the 
surface to the bottom of the well. The distance from the north-east corner of the 
house to the well is 4 rods nnd 1(3 links; from the front door of the house to the 
fence in front is 2 rods and 13 links. The old shanty, or barn,* is nearly on a level 
with the well: but by the digging of the well the surface of the earth about it was 
raised somewhat. The water in the well was said to be quite clear. The distance 
from the house to the top of the hill on the west is 8 rods; the distance to the top of 
the hill on the south, south-west, and south-east is G rods. Tlie angle of elevation of 
the hill is about 45°. There is a gradual descent from the road to the front door, 
and the floor is lower than the surface of the ground, except at the north-east corner 
of the house; then there is a descent to the well and barn-yard. Under the floor 
there is an excavation 3 feet deep by 10 feet square, probably. At the north-west 
corner of the dwelling is an old cistern without covering, and. T am told, there was 
water standing there "most of the time. I think the small building in the barn-yard 
was used as a privy. 

The Rentschler family consisted of 10 members. The first case was a boy 12 years 
old, who was taken sick June G. 1S7G, and recovered in November of that year. In 
the meantime all the other men^bers of the family had been sick, and three of them, 
— the mother, aged 45, a girl aged 18, and a girl aged 12, — had died. From July 31 to 
Aug. 30 there were from "4 to 7 of tlie family sick. Two persons who attended as 
nurses had typhoid fever, and one other was "sick awhile and died. The familj- who 
resided there previous]}' were all sick, and one of them died; the family who went 
into the house when it was new lost one member. The Rentsclder familj' were Ger- 
mans, of good constitutions, and were comparative!}' neat and cleanly in their sur- 
roundings. 

Biver liaisin, May 17, 1S77. D. W. PALMER, 

Clerk of Bridrjev.ater Tov-nsUip, Washtenav: Co. 

CASES OF TYPHOID FEVER IX CHESTER AND ROXAND TOWNSHIPS, EATON CO., RE- 
PORTED BY J. L. JOHNSTON, M. l>., HEALTH OFFCER OF CHESTER TOWNSHIP. 

Secretary Slate Board of Health; 

Dear Sir:— Mr. E. B., aged 54, and his sons and daughter (Mrs. A., of Roxand) 
were all taken sick, October 13 to Nov. 17, 187G, with Typhoid Fever. The father 
and eldest son died. T. M, A., M, D., son-in-law of Mr. B., informed us that he con- 
sidered that the cause of the disease was contamination of the well-water with dead 
animals. He stated that they had taken out dead and decomposed frogs and toads, 
and he thought that if they had gone deeper they might have found cats. They do 
not use the water now. lie stated that the water was very foul, and that he had 
Avarned them, two weeks before any of them were taken sick, that if they did not quit 
using the water it would kill all of them. There is an iron pump in the well. The 
distance of the well from the house is 12 feet; from the cellar, 20 feet; from the privy, 
about 40 feet. The well is 24 feet deep. The soil is sandy for 10 feet deep, then blue 
clay. There is no eflect from surface water. The well fails in very dry weather. 
When the well was dug, years ago, there was a vein, or seap about 12 or 15 feet deep 
that came into the well from the direction of the cellar. The condition of the cellar, 
we were informed by an old gentleman who was in it last Spring, was very bad. He 
stated that the water and mud was overshoe-mouth deep, that they had to use boards 
to walk on, and that there were decayed potatoes and apples and other vegetables in 
it. There is no drain to the cellar. Now, might not this foul water, as it soaked 
away through the sandy soil, have passed through that vein that came into the well 
when they were digging it, from the direction of the cellar, and then when the water 
got low, in the dry months of the Summer, have been one of the causes of the disease? 

Your obedient servant, 

Chester, Eaton Co., February 3, 2577. J. L. JOHNSTON. 

April 5, 1877, Dr. Johnston wrote that ilrs. B. also had died of the Typhoid Fever. 

*[A. W. Alvorct, M. D., of Clinton, Mich., states that the distance of the well from this "cow-pen 

„,.-,:„ „t„ .. „„ , ,1,:. :, , ►..„i , . lo <•„„^ o.,„ "Uei)lies Rclative to WatCF- 

- cases Of true typhoid or 



and pig-sty," as he calls it, is, by actual measurement, 13 feet. Sec "R( 
Supply," pp. 150-151. Under (late of May 'Jl, 1877, he says: "They were 
enteric fever."— II. B. B., Sec'y.] 



Ixviii 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— REPOET OF SECEETAEY, 1877. 



CASES OP TYPHOID FEVER FROM OVERFLOWING PRIVV-VAULT, REPORTED BY O. MAR- 
SHALL, M. D., NORTH LANSING, MICH. 

Secretarrj State Board of Health : 

Dear Sir: — The following is an explanation of the enclosed drawing. Jay White, 
son of A. M. White, aged 13, was taken sick with tyhoid fever August 8, 1877. Soon 
after, three of the family of Eev. Mr. Epley, who resides in the parsonage, as shown 
in the drawing, were taken sick with the fever. 





* Typhoid Fevet 


• Cases 


4th Wm 


•d, Lansing, Aug 


, 1S77 










Lot 9. 
Block 


1> 


Stable 




2 
^ 












V 


* 1 


Well. 






O 




, -:":"' -' 


... ** 

... 00 




; --; ...Pool.. 

-;■:: i ;0 i 






1 - 


~~.^_^^ 




German 
Luther- 
an 
Church. 


I'rivv 


•■^f^r^^""--— ^ 










o 

Well. 


Par- 
son- 
age. 


o 




School 
House. 






Rev. 








Mr. Ep 


ley. 















Kilbourne Street. 
S. 



Profile of above Lot 8. 



An examination of the premises showed that the vault of the privy, which was 
the only one in use for tlie church, the school house, and the parsonage, was overflow- 
ing into the adjoining lot, where a pool had formed from the contents of the vault and 
the slops from the parsonage. The matter was very oifensive, and tainted the air for a 
considerable distance around. As soon as discovered by the City Board of Health, 
the nuisance M'as abated. Asa probable cause of these cases of typhoid fever, it is 
given for what it is worth. No other cases occurred in the neighborhood. 

Yours Respectfully, 

Lansing^ September, ISTT. O. MAESHALL. 



CASES OF TYPHOID FEVER AND OTHER DISEASES, REPORTED KY HEALTH OFFICERS 

AND OTHERS. 

In a report received December 2, 1877, D. E. Newcomb, M. D., Health OfHcer of Ash 
township, Monroe county, reported eight cases of typhoid fever, three of which were 
fatal, and one non-fatal case of diphtheria, occurring in said township from February 
22 to October 13, 1877. 



SPECIAL KEPORTS, ETC., TO THIS IJOAKD. Ixix 

December 10, 1S77. Myron C. Scull}', M. D., llealtli Ullicer of Vernon tovvnshii), 
Shiawassee county, reported one case of typhohl fever, taken sick in September and 
died October 25, 1877, and one non-fatal case of scarlet fever, taken sick July 15, 1877. 
The scarlet fever was thought to liave been derived from townsliip of Venice, adjoin- 
ing Vernon on the north, where there had been several cases during the Spring and 
Summer. 

November 4, 1877, James Winters, Health Officer of LeRoy township, Calhoun 
county, reported twent)'-two cases of whooping-cough, one of which was fatal, in 
said township, taken sick from July 1 to 19, 1877. 

A report received October 3, 1877, states details of eleven cases of measles, with no 
deaths, in township of Noble, Branch county, taken sick from April 5 to July 7, 1877. 

December 31, 1877, the Board of Health of Pine Plains township, Allegan county, 
reported twenty-three cases of measles taken sick in said township, from April 15 
to August 1, 1877, the first case of which was contracted at Three Rivers, Mich., April 
1, 1877. All recovered. 

EPIDEMIC OF SCARLET EEVEU, REPORTED BY F. J. DOWNER, M. D., OF GREENLAND, 

ONTONAGON CO., MICH. 

Secretary State Board of Health : 

Dear Sir: — Your favor of Feb. 13 has been at hand for some time. 

I have attended, to date, eighty-three cases of scarlet fever, with three deaths. As 
to the origin of the epidemic: In December, 1875, 1 attended three cases, confined to 
one family, in this township. There had been no case of scarlet fever in this county 
since 1870, when there were a few cases in this neighborhood. The family of whom 
I speak had visited relatives at Ontonagon, distance 12 miles, who had recently 
moved there from Duluth, where there was an epidemic of the fever at the time of 
their departure. None of the relatives visited had the disease, nor had any of the 
family visited those who had it. A few days after their return home, their baby, 
between six and seven months old, was attacked with the fever. Three days after 
the baby was taken sick, its brother, aged six years, was attacked; and seven days 
thereafter, their mother, aged 25 years, was attacked. All communication with the 
family was stopped, and the disease spread no farther at the time. None of the 
friends of the people visited have had the fever, except those mentioned. The boy, 
aged G years, was very dangerously ill for over nine weeks, and it was much longer 
than that before he was able to leave his room. He has had, from time to time since, 
a slight discharge from one of his ears. There were no more cases in this vicinity or 
county until Oct. 23, 1876, when a child aged 5 years, a near neighbor of the family 
spoken of, was taken with the disease. Tlae family to whom the child belongs are of 
the poorer class of miners, and had liad no communication wliatever outside of the 
immediate neighborhood. The boj'' first spoken of has played habitually through 
the Summer witli the last-mentioned one, and I know of no other way in which the 
latter could have contracted the disease. In tliis connection, I wish to mention one 
incident which has been of interest to me. Tlie family who had the disease in Dec, 
1875, have a neighboring family living not more than twenty yards distant, in 
which there is a boy about the same age'as the one mentioned as having been sick so 
long. They w^ere together much of the time before the sick boy was able to leave 
his room. He has been many times since directly exposed, but has resisted the dis- 
ease until within the past week, when he was attacked with a mild form; but 1 
cannot trace any exposure direct or indirect for over two months. 

In answer to your second question,! wish to say that the sanitary condition of the 
people in this section, with comparatively few exceptions, is imfavorable in the 
extreme, especially in the Winter season. As you are probably aware, the almost 
exclusive business of this county is mining; and the miners and laborers — mostly 
Irish, English (Cornish), and German — are, as a class, ignorant, superstitious, and 
filthy. Injustice to the Germans, I must say they are vastly superior in every par- 
ticular to the other nationalities. As a rule, the houses are so arranged in Winter 
that but little pure air can find entrance. Generallj^ the front doors are nailed up, 
and double windows nailed over the usual windows on the outside. The only com- 
munication with the outside is through the back door, and in very many instances 
one is obliged to pass through tlie cow-stable, or hen-roost (the kitchen in Summer), 
hefore making his exit. In most instances, it has been absolutely impossible to 
have the patients bathed, or their clothes changed, on account of the fenr of taking 
cold; and to open a window for tiie pui-pose of letting in pure air, was simply killing 
their child, in the estimation of parents and friends. To have the air changed in a 
room, it is almost always necessary for me to see it done, which, with the amount of 



]xx STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— EEPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

work I have had to do, has been impossible for me to attend to properly; and wlien- 
ever I have smashed out a pane of glass for that purpose, the hole has generally been 
filled with an old blanket, by the time I was fairly out of sight. Tiie conglomeration 
of smells in such a room (the houses have generally but two rooms, with a shanty at 
the back, not used by the human part of the family in Winter), can possibly be 
imagined, but the language does not contain the requisite words to describe it. In 
a minority of my cases I have not had these imsanitary conditions to contend with, 
but have been able to give my patients a daily bath, not a cold bath — I don't believe 
in them — but a thorough sponging with tepid water over the whole body, an entire 
change of air in the sick-room at least twice in twenty-four hours, and clean cloth- 
ing and bedding every day; and I must say — although I very much dislike to admit 
it — that my cases under these circumstances have done no better than those in the 
most filthy houses. I have had cases of severe anginose scarlatina in houses where 
the surrounding sanitary conditions were good, and others where the filth was 
excessive. I have seen the former die, and the latter, while apparently no better 
able to withstand the encroachments of disease, and seemingly just as sick, would 
recover, with filth a half-inch thick on the floor, and in air one would think would 
kill a well person. Please do me the credit to think lam not arguing in favor of 
filth, but only stating facts as I have seen them. 

Of the three cases I have lost, the first was a healthy, strong girl aged 19 months, with 
a Scotch mother; she had anginose variety. The house was small, with only a living- 
room and bedroom; but the family are clean and neat. The child was well nursed, 
kept clean, and constantly attended; the air in the room was changed often. She 
died on the seventh day, with symptoms of extreme blood poisoning. The second, 
Wm. J., Cornish, aged oj^ years, was poorly nourished; same as above; surroundings 
not quite so good, but still not poor. He was kept clean, and the air was clianged 
often. He died on the thirteenth day, from exhaustion. Wm. IL, Irish, aged 3 years, 
strong, was Avell nourished. The disease was of the anginose variety. House was 
large, and kept moderatelj' clean, but was poorly ventilated. The clothes of the 
patient were changed but once. He was well attended. He died on the fourth day, 
from deficient aeration of blood. 

In the first case, the brother, aged 7, and two sisters, 10 and 3 years old, all had the 
disease moderately severe, and recovered with no particular trouble. In the second 
case, the two brothers of the patient, aged 7 and 10 years, had no symptoms of the 
disease, although (!onstantly in the room. In the last case, the whole famil}^ of seven 
children had the fever, all mildly except the one who died. I have had many other 
cases of about the same age, seemingly with as severe a form, and with the very 
poorest hygienic surroundings, who have recovered under the same medicinal treat- 
ment under which these died; hence my statement that I cannot see tliat unfavorable 
surroundings have aggravated the disease in any particular. Perhaps a remark made 
by a physician formerly holding the same situation I now occupy, will better illus- 
trate the extreme filth in some of the houses in this vicinity. When asked by a 
woman if it would harm her children to play outdoors in the clirt, he answered her: 
"No, it won't hurt them; and if there isn't enough dirt out there, carry some out!" 

I consider that the disease was spread in this township by schools almost entirelj"", 
and in the majority of cases cannot trace the spread of the fever to direct exposure, 
except in this waj',— that families having one or more children sick would, in many 
cases, persist in sending the well ones to school until they too evinced some symp- 
toms of the fever; but in very many cases there was no direct exposure possible. I 
have had no cases which I believe would be of special interest. I have noticed a 
trace of albumen in the urine of a majority of the cases, during the course of the 
fever, and in three cases have had albuminuria with tube casts, following the fever in 
from ten days to three weeks, all of which have improved markedly under the usual 
treatment. These three cases all followed light attacks of the fever. I have had, I 
think, about the usual proportion of otorrhoea, conjunctivitis, glandular aflxjctions, etc. 

Very respectfully yours, 

Greenland. Ontonarjon Co., Mich., March 4, 1S77. F. J. DOWNER, 

CASES OP SCARLET FEVER REPORTED I5Y JOHX BELL, M. D., OF IJENTON HARBOR. MICH. 

Secretary State Board of Health: 

Dear Sir:— In the month of March, two cases of scarlet fever, aged 3 and 5 years, 
came under treatment in one family of poor persons, living as poor people generally 
do. A short distance from this familj^ the disease of a mild form occurred in another 
house, and I believe no physician was employed. 



SPECIAL REPORTS, ETC., TO THIS BOARD. Ixxi 

Those were the only cases of the disease ia town or vicinity, that I knew of diii-iiig 
the present year up to June 12. 

(Case 1.) A hoy 8 years ohl was attacked with aH tlie symptoms of scarlatina, on 
June 12. Wiien I named it scarlet fever, the mother stated he had what I called scar- 
let fever 5 years previous (at that time the disease was prevailin,:^ in the village); 
nevertheless. I had no reason to change n)y diagnoses. 

(Case 2.) A Ijoy aged ."> j'ears was attacked July 1. He lived on the same street, 
oidy a short distance from case 1. There was no known chance for the operation of 
contagion hotween those two cases. 

(Case 3.) Julj' 7 anothei- case occurred in town, quite remote from the first two 
cases. It was a child aged 5 years. In this case also, the parents stated that he had 
the disease tliree years i)revions. 

(Case 4.) This occurred in the same familj' as case 1, on Jul}' 9, ahout 4 weok« after 
the first case. This was a child G years of age. 

(Case o.) This was a child aged 17 months, also in same family as cases 1 and 4. It 
was taken on July 15. 

In all of those cases, the families were in good circumstances, and there was noth- 
ing in the surrouiulings to account for the outbreak of the disease. 

There has not been another case of the disease in town since that time. 

(Case 6.) Six miles from town, on Sept. 17, three children, aged respectively 11. 14, 
and 17, were attacked with scarlatina. All three commenced complaining tiie same 
day; the disease ran a tolei'ably severe course. There was no known cause of con- 
tagion or infection, there not being any other cases of the disease in that section of 
country, and none of the family having been away from liome; in fact there does not 
appear to be the slightest chance for contagion. 

(Cases 7 and S.) Sept. 22, in the same family, a child aged 9 years, and Sept. 26. an- 
other child aged IT) were attacked. 

During the first day's illness of case 1, several of his playmates were with him dur- 
ing a great portion of tiie day, none of whom caught the disease.* Two children of 
another family lived in the same house with case 2, neither of whom were aflected. 
In all the other cases there were chances for the operation of contagion; but it has 
failed in its operation. 

About two-thirds of those attacked suffered from the anginosc variety: the remain- 
der of the cases Avere simple. All cases recovered; two were followed by sequela; 
one, hj'^ infiammation of glands of the neck, no suppuration; the other, by slight 
attack of droi)sy. 

Benton Harbor, Berrien Co., Oct. 5, 1877. J. BELT.. M. D. 

CASES OF SCARLET FEVER AND OTHER DISEASES, REPORTED I5Y HEALTII OFFICERS 

AND OTHERS. 

Tyler Hull, M. D . Health Oflicei- of Windsor township, Eaton Co., Mich., reported 
details of 2G cases of scarlet fever (12 male and 14 female) which occurred during 
March, April, and Jlay, 1877, one of which had died and four of which were still sick 
when the report was made (report not dated, but received June 25,1877). He said: 
"I was called to treat all but 5 of them. Most of them were mild but well-marked 
cases. All that I treated could be directly referred to contagion; and 3 of the 5. also, 
which I did not treat can positivelj^ be referred to contagion." 

September 29, 1877, II. S. Robinson, clerk of Berrien township, Berrien countj', 
reported seven non-fatal cases of scarlet fever oceuring in said townsiiip from August 
to September 2G, 1877, sonrce unknown. 

May 1, 1877. Noah LeBlanc. Clerk of Ecorse township, Wayne Co., Mich., reported 5 
cases of small-pox in one family; also, in the township, 3 cases of scarlet fever and 5 
of whooping cough. • 

October 1, 1877, Thomas Myron, clerk of Grant township. St. Clair county, reported 
one death from corebro-spinal meningitis in October, 1870; three cases of scarlet 
fever occurring subsequently to August 1, 1877; and a greater number of cases of 
cholera infantum and diplitherla occurring within the year ending September 30, 
1877, the last case of diphtheria oceuring in September. The scarlet fever was 
derived from the cit.v of Port Huron. 

The Circular, 17, of Inquiry with regard to Scarlet Fever, five correspondents ex- 
cused themselves from answering, on the ground that for several years tliere had been 
but few or no cases of the disease in their localities. Because of the importance of 
authentic statements of the absence from a locality for any considerable time or at 

*[Biit they may have disseminated it.— H. B. B., Sec'y.] 
I 



Ixxii STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1S77. 

any given time, of a leading disease, and as a matter of justice to these correspond- 
ents themselves, extracts from their letters are given, as follows: 

N. D. Yale. M. D., of Deerfield, Lenawee Co., Mich., wrote, Jan. 20, 1S77: " I have 
never treated cases of scarlet fever through an epidemic. 1 have had several sporadic 
cases, one verj' severe one recentlv. But Deertield has had no epidemic of tlie disease 
since 1870." 

C M. "Woodward, M. D., of Tecumseh, Lenawee Co., Mich., wrote. Ma}' 7, 1877 : " Xo 
cases of scarlet fever have come under my observation in this village in the last two 
years; and so far as I can learn, no cases have occurred in this village or vicinity in 
that time." 

C. Russell, M. D., of Hastings, Barry Co., Mich., wrote, May 14, 1877: •' I do not 
think that there has been a single case of scarlet fever here in four years." 

E. A. Chapman, M. D,. of Walled Lake, Oakland Co., Midi., wrote. May IG, 1877: 
"There has been no scarlet fever in this vicinity since 1 began practice." 

Robert Stephenson, M. D., of Adrian, 1-enawee Co., Mich.', wrote, Sept. 27, 1877 : "I 
have kept no record of cases; and as there have been so few cases during tlie last 
year, I have deemed it better not to answer the circular." 

May 9, 1877, Charles W, iS'iles, M. D., of Calumet, Houghton Co., Mich., wrote, in re- 
ply to the Circular: "We have had four cases of scarlet fever this Winter, only one 
requiring any special medical treatment. This case was very mild. At the AUouez 
mine, 4 miles north, and at the Franklin mine, and at Hancock and Hougliton, 10 miles 
south, scarlet fever was very ])revalent." 

March 12,1877, H. S. Taft, M. D., of Marquette, Marquette Co., Mich., wrote: "I 
know of nothing more remarkable in the public health here than the exceedingly 
mild form of scarlet fever." 

July 17, 1877, John P. Wilson, M. D., of Pontiac, Oakland Co., Mich., wrote : "■ The 
disease has prevailed in tlie surrounding country more or less all Winter, but has 
shown itself in this citj' only within the last 3 or 4 weeks; and there are not 6 cases 
altogether, as yet." 

Cases of Scarlet Fever were reported by A. ISTash, M. D., of Lapeer, Lapeer Co., 
Mich., in connection with his replies to the Letter of Inquiry concerning Diphtheria. 
Details are given in that reply, on pages 364-365 of this volume. 

DISINFECTION AND KESTKICTION, SCAKLET FEVER. 

With regard to the purification of material infected with Scarlet Fever contagium, 
the following fact is deemed of sufficient importance to be worthj' of mention in this 
connection : 

A successful case of disinfection of Scarlet Fever contagium is given in The Practi- 
tioner, London, Maj', 1877, page 345, Sulphur was used, being burnt in iron braziers, 
and upwards of 4,000 blankets, mattresses, etc., were thoroughly purified in 4 hours. 

J. R. Black, M. D., of Newark, Ohio, in a letter to the Secretarj- of this Board, 
dated July 12, 1877, made the following suggestion : "'In efforts for the limitation of 
scarlet fever, the head shoriM never be neglected. If it is, every time the little one 
scratches his head among his fellows, a little cloud of infecting dust will be diffused 
in the immediate vicinity; besides, the infecting scales stick amid the hair longer 
than on any other part of the body." 

TRICHIXIASIS IN OTSEGO TOWNSHIP, ALLEGAN CO., REPORTED DY DAVID MITCHELL, 

M. D.. OF OTSEGO, MICH. 

Secretary State Board of Health : 

Dear Sir: — I was called, February 2, 1877, to sec a fixmily living in the township 
of Otsego, Allegan county, consisting of husband, wife, two daughters, one son, 
and a hired man; all excepting the husbfmd were affected with symptoms very simi- 
lar, and which were as follows: 

There was a puffy swelling around and under the eyes; the limbs were slightly 
swollen; there was great inability to move, due to a stiff, painful feeling of the mus- 
cles; a general feeling of lassitude; loss of appetite; diarrhoea to some extent; moist 
skin; great sleeplessness: slightly accelerated pulse; tongue slightly furred; urine, 
normal in quantity but liigh colored; nausea in most of the cases, and in some, 
vomiting; temperature a little above normal; in the mother and older girl, a slight 
vesicular eruption manifested itself for a few days. The oedema of the face lasted 
for more than a week, and then the legs began to swell. Their ages were: mother, 
39 years; girls, 19 and 13 years; boy, 16; and iiired man, 25. Their surroundings 
were good ; localit}', healthy. All had been well until they wore sudflonly attacked 
Avith the above symptoms. 



TRICI1[XIASIS. Ixxiii 

I nifxtle the above diafjiiosis .iiul foiiiul that their having eaten raw ham seemed to 
verify my opinion; although it was three weelis afterwards when, by aid of micro- 
scope, trichinae were found in the ham by Dr. Chas. Gaylord and others. The hams 
were from a two-year-ohl sow, raised by the man, whicii had been iiealthy until he 
began to fatten her, when slie siclcened and failed in llcsli a good deal. Hhe then im- 
proved again, and was butchered; and tiie meat was used by tiie family, part of it by 
his brother's family, who were more slightly affected and recovered without med- 
ical treatment. 

All made good recoveries, but feel to some extent a weakness of tlie voluntary 
muscles, which are easily sprained, or rather the libros of which are easily ruptured; 
as some of the patients say that after trying to lift heavily they feel severe and 
sudden pain in the muscles, which lasts for some time. This condition of things con- 
titnies to some extent yer. The hair of most of the patients has fallen out. They 
were under treatment, or rather were looked after for something to treat for, from 
three to tive or six weeks. The mother and youngest girl were the worst, and were 
the ones who ate the most raw ham. A symptom 1 neglected to speak of was a feel- 
ing of snftbcation, at times, which lasted for about ten days, then gradually became 
less, and linally disappeared. 

Otsego, Mich., July 3, 1S77. DAVID MITCHELL, M. D. 

illuminatinct oils. 

MEMORIAL TO THE LEGISLATURE FROM THE STATE BOARD OP HEALTH. 

At the meeting of tliis Board held April 10, 1877, it was thought desirable 
to express the opinion of the members on the subject of illuminating oils ia 
this State, in a respectful memorial to the Legislature; and the Secretary was 
instructed to transmit such a memorial to the Senate and House of Represen- 
tatives. The memorial was as follows : 

Office of the Secretary of the State Board of Health, \ 

Lansing, Michigan, April 12, 1S77. ) 

To the Speaker of the House of Uepresentatives : 

Sir: — At the late meeting of the State Board of Health on April 10, the Secretary 
was directed to transmit to the Senate and House of Representatives a respectful 
memorial, praying that in the interests of public safety the present legal flash-test 
of kerosene oil for illuminating purposes be maintained. The Secretary was directed 
to include in this memorial resolutions passed by the Board at its last preceding 
meeting, as follows: 

liesolved. That the great reduction, since the present system of State inspection of 
illuminating oil has been in force, in the number of casualties from lamp explosions 
and otherwise through the use of the low-grade illuminating oils, is an indication of 
the value of such inspection, and of the present test; 

Resolved, That a committee, of which Dr. R. C. Kedzie shall be chairman, be 
appointed by the chair to take such steps as circumstances may require to furnish tha 
Legislature with any information in the possession of this Board regarding the 
workings of the law concerning illuminating oils in this State, and to act for the 
Board in endeavoring to maintain the present standard of inspection, so far as 
regards the flash-test. 

The foregoing is respectfully submitted .as an earnest remonstrance by the State 
Board of Healtli against any reduction of the flash-test for illuminating oil below 
the present standard of 140° Fahrenheit. 

By direction of the State Board of Health, 

Very Respectfully, 

HENRY B. BAKER, 
Secretary. 



Ixxiv STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1S77. 
IXSFECTIOX OP ILLUMIXATIXG OILS. 

As an instance of tlie importance of having an efficient State Inspector of 
Illuminating Oils, the following occurrence is here mentioned : 

In February, 1877, State Inspector Ave rill saw what looked like dangerous 
oil passing through Jackson, — the barrels being branded "Inspected and Ap- 
proved Michigan Legal Test — 150," but no inspector's name appeared on the 
barrel. He wrote to the Deputy Inspector at Saginaw, who went to St. Louis, 
the destination of ihe oil, and found that the oil flashed at 76°, and burned at 
85° F. The merchant immediately returned it, as he had purchased it, in good 
faith, of a dealer outside the State. 

DE.VTII OF A GIEL FROM EXPLOSION OF A KEROSEXE LAMP. 

J,^ S. Caulkins, j\1. D., of Thornville, Mich., in a communication dated Feb. 
14, 1877, gives statements by several persons, relative to the explosion of a kero- 
sene lamp, ]^ov. 14, 1876, at Copeland's Mill, township of Arcadia, Lapeer 
Co., Mich., in consequence of which Estelle Slack, a girl 15 years of age, lost 
her life. From these statements, the circumstances ajipeav to have been as 
follows : 

The lamp was a large one, with a "sun burner;" being large, it was kept partly 
filled with water. The statements are made, but also contradicted, that the top of the 
lamp was very loose, and that the lamp had been filled on the evening of the explo- 
sion. The wick would not turn up, and had been in that condition for a long time. 
The oil was bought at Copeland's store, and was the same as that used by all the mill 
hands. One of tlie men had "had some trouble with a lantern. It did not explode, 
but blazed up in a frightful manner. The men dropped it, and ran out of tlie barn; 
but seeing that it did not explode, they passed a long pole through the ring and 
lifted it out of tlie barn." 

The girl was at a neighbor's, where the woman had broken her leg, and where she 
had gone that day to do the work. At about 9 o'clock in the evening her mother left 
her, with the lamp standing on a shelf, and returned home. At about 1 o'clock, news 
came to the mother that the girl Avas burned. Her clothes were all burned off her 
body, except the corsets, and the whole surface of the body was burned to a crust. 
Her mind was clear and she was able to speak quite plainly, then and in the morning. 
She died at 4 P. M., Xov. 15. She said that she did not touch the lamp after her 
mother went away; that she had sat down to read and had gone to sleep in her chair; 
that she waked up with her clothes on fire and pieces of the lamp in her lap. She ran 
out of doors and tried to climb the fence, but could not, and fell down by the fence, 
where she was picked up. The explosion set the sick woman's bed on fire, but a boy 
10 years old put the fire out with a pail of water. Tlie oil was seen on the floor the 
next morning. The husband of the sick woman was away; she and the girl and boy 
mentioned were alone that evening. 

Whether this explosion was due to the quality of the oil or to the condition of the 
lamp or to both causes, it shows in a striking manner the necessity of maintaining a 
high standard for our illuminating oil. Dr. Caulkins says, "The evidence is conclu- 
sive that this lamp was unsafe." Not only is the liability to an accident greater with 
a low-grade oil, but wlien an accident occurs, the danger to life, limb, and property is 
far greater with a low-grade than with a high-test oil. In tlie case in question, the 
results might have been even worse if the oil had been— like oil sometimes used in 
the past— so volatile as not to remain on the floor till morning. Dr. Caulkins justlj^ 
remarks: 

"Meagre as is this account of a most painful accident, it teaches one lesson 
which we will do well to heed; namely, that it is not safe to use a kerosene oil lamp 
after the wheel that turns up the wick is worn out, or when for any reason it will not 
freely turn the wick. When this happens, the charred portion of the wick must ex- 
tend, every time the lamp is lighted, farther down the tube; and since this charred 
portion shrinks in size, the whole wick will eventually be in danger of dropping from 
the tube into the lamp,, when, if the oil Is lirjht, a catastrophe cannot be averted. It 



ILLUMINATING OILS. Ixxv 

seems to lue a probable theory, that in tlic above case this actually took place, and 
that the shriniken charred wick dropped from its tube and fired the explosive gases 
below. 

"There is another point in this connection to which the attention of the public 
should be called and warning be given them. That is the danger of running out of 
doors with a kerosene oil lamp. The danger is from the condensation of the gases 
■within the lamp, and the entrance of air, by which an explosive mixture is formed 
within the lamp. 

"Kerosene oil lamp explosions, like railroad accidents and deaths from chloro- 
form, are, happilj^ not of frequent occurrence in tlie experience of one individual; 
tmd, for that reason, the obligation is more imperative on each one under whose 
notice such an accident falls, to study as carefully as i^ossible the causes. 

"The question of the amount of danger from the use of kerosene is vitally impor- 
tant; for kerosene is, and is likely long to be, outside of cities, the world's source of 
artificial light." 

EXPEIIIMEXTS AVITH ILLOIIXATIXG OIL. 

AVhilc the law relating to illumiuatiug oils, printed on pages 80-83 of this 
IJeport, was pending, this Board appointed a committee to furnish the Legisla- 
ture with any desired facts in the possession of this Board concerning illumin- 
ating oils, and to ask that the present flash-test be maintained. Some 
experiments were made by the Secretary, as a member of the above-mentioned 
committee, with a view to ascertain, if possible, some of the conditions that 
would produce an explosion in a lamp. These experiments are published here 
to point out a source of danger in using low-grade oils, which has not hereto- 
fore been noticed. It has been the custom to speak of the temperature of the 
oil in lamps, and to consider that if tlie flashing point of the oil was above the 
temperature likely to be reached by the oil in any lamp in ordinary use, there 
was no danger of an explosion. These experiments show that tliis is a danger- 
ous error, and that explosions may and do occur when the temperature of the 
oil in the lamp is far below the flashing point of the oil. Tliis is because a 
small quantity of oil is constantly brought up the wick in contact with the 
heated metal tube, and is constantly heing vaporized, if its flashing 2Joint is 
helow tlie temperature of tlie metal tube. This is the reason why we need to 
have a high-test oil in order to be reasonably free from danger from lamp 
explosions. It is also a reason why it is important that the oil bo free from 
paraffine, which clogs the wick and causes the wick-tube to become much 
heated. In connection with the experiments — mentioned on pages xxx.-xxxii. 
of the Report of this Board for 1875 — it explains why explosions sometimes 
occur in lamps from which the chimney has been removed by breaking or 
otherwise ; it is because the wick-tube then rapidly becomes unusually hot, 
and, under such circumstances, even oil that flashes at 140° F. may form au 
explosive vapor. 

Office of the Secretary of tue State Board of Health, | 

Lansing, January 22, 1877 . j 

Tlie temperature of the room was 73° F. A kerosene lamp with suu-hiugc 
burner was lighted at 5:7, P. M. 

In twenty minutes the temperature of the collar of the lamp outside was 
1041° F. 

At 5 : 30 the chimnev was taken off. 



Ixxyi STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1S77. 

At 5:34 (that is in four minutes), the temperature of the collar was 127" F. 

At 5:35 (that is, in five minutes), the temperature of the collar was 137° F. 

At 5: 35^ the temperature of tlie collar was 140° F. 

At 5: 43 (that is, in thirteen minutes), the temperature of tlie collar was 
159° F. 

At 5 : 44 the temperature of the collar was 161° F. 

At 5 : 44| the vapor flashed, on application of a-small flame within the lamp 
— a lighted match through the filling hole in top of lamp. The flash was vig- 
orous throughout the entire space over the oil. It was Just 14| minutes from 
the time of the removal of the chimney to the time of the flash. 

The temperature of the oil in the lamp, immediately after the experiment, 
was only 85° F, 

The oil became of a milky color just before the explosion, or flash, and 
remained so afterwards. 

The lamp, burner, and wick, were all new and clean. The oil was the 
" water-white " brand, made by the Standard Oil Company. Its flashing point 
was 141° F., as proved by my re-inspection previous to the experiment. 

This experiment shows that the temperature of the oil in a lamp is not the only 
factor to be considered ; that the lamp may explode when the oil is only at 
about 85° F., the explosion being caused through the formation of an explosive 
vapor by heating the small quantity of oil in the wick, or which is splashed up 
against the collar of the lamp by moving it. 

In this experiment with oil that stood our State test — flashed at 141° F. — an 
explosive vapor was found in the lamp in just 14^ minutes after the chim- 
ney was removed, the lamp being allowed to continue to burn. The presence 
of an explosive vapor was proved by actually exploding it within the lamp. The 
temperature of the oil was then found to be only 85° F. 

In these experiments, the removal of the lamp chimney was to imitate the 
conditions where, from any cause, the chimney is broken, and because of tem- 
porary absence of members of the household, or for other reason, the lamp is 
allowed to burn for a few minutes thereafter. It will be seen that under such 
circumstances there may be danger, even with high-test oil, such as the law 
now requires in this State. 

With oil containing much paraffine, the temperature of the collar of the lamp 
will frequently rise to over 150° F., without the removal of the lamp chimney. 
Such oil is therefore dangerous at best. 

Lansing, Jan. 23, 1877. 

The temperature of the room was 70° F. 

The temperature of the oil was 69° F. 

The oil used was the "Headlight," Standard Oil Co., said to flash at 120° F. 
I tested it and found that it flashed at 115°, and burned at 131° F. A new 
lamp, with sun-hinge burner, new wick, and fresh oil, were used. The lamp 
\fa8 lighted at 4 : 45 P. M. Within twenty minutes, the temperature of the 
collar of the lamp was 104^° F., but was cooled every time the oil was thrown 
np agaiust it. 

At 5 : 10 the temperature was 102° F. 

At 5 : 20 the temperature was 102° 

At 5 : 20 the chimney was removed. 

At 5 : 22 the temperature of the collar was. 108° F. 

At 5 ; 24 (that is, in four minutes) the temperature of the collar was-122° 



EXPEEIMENTS WITH ILLUMINATING OILS. Ixxvii 

which was two degi'ees higlier than its reported flashing-point and 7 degrees 
above its actual flasliing-point. In 7^ minutes the temperature of the collar 
was 145°, which was 14° above the actual burning point of the oil. 

Afc 5 : 28 tlie temperature of the collar was 146° F. 

At 5 : 30 the temperature of the collar was 155° 

Immediately after this the temperature was 103° 

and the lamp was extinguished, because of apparent danger, the jumping of 
the flame indicating minute explosions at the tube beside tlie wick. A new 
stock of courage was soon regained and the lamp was relighted. 

At 5 : 41 the temperature of the collar of the lamp was 1G5° F., and an explosive 
vapor was then found within the lamp. The temperature of the oil immediately 
after the explosion was 80° F., five degrees lower than the higher test oil was 
found, but this was probably because it had not been so frequently moved in 
such a way as to bring the oil up against the hot collar of the lamp, as the 
collar of the lamp was hotter by about 4° than when the higher test oil was 
used. It should be stated that in these experiments the lamps were kept well 
filled with oil so that the heating of the lamp was probably less than would 
occur if the oil was low in the lamp. 

Lansing, January 24, 1877. 

A lamp with ''sun-hinge" burner, filled with oil that flashes at 115°, and 

burns at 130° F., was lighted at 11 A. M. The temperature of the room was 

74° F. The oil used was the "Headlight," Standard Oil Co., said to flash at 

120° F. At about 12 M. the temperature of the collar outside was 104|° F. 

At 12: 11 the chimney was removed. 

At 12 : 15 (that is, in four minutes) the temperature of the collar was. 121° F. 

At 12 : 16 the temperature of the collar was 126" 

At 12 : 17 the temperature of the collar was 129^° 

At 12 : 18 the temperature of the collar was 134^° 

At 12 : 19 the temperature of the collar was 136° 

At 12 : 21 the temperature of the collar was 141^* 

At 12 : 23 the temperature of the collar was 144° 

At 12 : 24 the temperature of the collar was 144° 

At 12 : 25 the ten;perature of the collar was — 145° 

At 12 : 26 the temperature of the collar was 146^° 

At 12 : 28 the temperature of the collar was 149° 

At 12 : 28 the temperature of the room was. 68° 

At 12 : 31 the temperature of the collar was 147^° 

At 12 : 31i it flashed. 

At 12 : 37 the temperature of the collar was - 1534^ 

The temperature of the oil after the experiment was 83° F. 
In testing for the flash, and frequently during the experiment, the cover to 
the filling-hole was removed. This would permit a draft of air to pass in at 
the filling-hole over the oil and out the veutilating-tubo beside the wick-tube. 
Such a draft would, of course, remove much of the vapor. As this draft does 
not exist in lamps as ordinarily used, the vapor would probably accumulate 
more rapidly under such conditions than it did in these experiments. 

In order that an explosion may occur, a sufficient quantity of vapor must be 
formed to make, with the air in the lamp, an explosive mixture. If the oil is 
"high-test," the wick-tube not very much heated, and the oil in the lamp is 
cold, the small quantity of heavy vapor gradually formed may be condensed as 



Ixxviii STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

fast as formed, and no explosive compound be made; but if the oil is ''low- 
test," that is, vaporizes at a low temperature, the vapor may be generated by 
the heated wick-tube faster than it can be condensed by the cold oil in the 
lamp, and then only other favoring conditions are needed for a terrible explo- 
sion; experience in this State before the recent laws were enacted, and iu 
other States quite recently, fully establishes the fact that those conditions are 
frequently present. Experience in this State under the present law, fully estab- 
lishes tlie fact that with high-test oil, that flashes at 140° or 150° F., the con- 
ditions for an explosion are not very frequently fulfilled, in ordinary lamps. 



This Fifth Annual Report is respectfully submitted. 

HENRY B. BAKER, 

Secretani. 



HEREDITY 



R'EL^TIOIS" TO PUBLIC HEA-LTH 

And to Legislation in the Interests op Public Health. 



THE FOURTH ANNUAL ADDRESS 

TO THE 

STATE BOARD OF HEALTH, OF MICHIGAN, 

By homer O. HITCHCOCK, M. D., 
president op the board. 



HEREDITY 

IT^r ITS RELATION TO PUBLIC HEALTH AND TO LEGISLATION IN 
THE INTERESTS OF PUBLIC HEALTH. 



In studying the history and the character of an intimate friend or a well- 
known acquaintance we are forced to ask, What has made this or that person 
what he or she is? 

This question has, I suspect, of no one ever been fully, definitely, or quanti- 
tatively answered. 

AVhat are the "preefficients"* of a man or a Avoman? What are the forces 
which develop an individual character and niake a personal history? 

When we widen the circle of observation to include all the members of a cer- 
tain family, the problem becomes still more obscure and uncertain ; but when 
the circle is made to include a nation or a race, or all the races of mankind, in 
all their generations, the problem is vastly increased ; and, although the same 
elements enter into its solution for a single individual as for the race, their com- 
binations are so varied and multiplied that the answer is as doubtful as the 
responses of the Delphic oracle, obscure as the words of the sybil, and uncertain 
as the flight of birds. 

The " preefficients " of a man in his entirety — physical, mental, and moral 
character — are resolvable into three general forces ; viz., heredity, spontaneity, 
and environment. 

By heredity is meant, in this paper, that endowment of all living things, 
whether in the vegetable or animal kingdoms, which tends to make "like pro- 
duce like." All living things were endowed with this force at their creation. 
The source of this force is the source of the universe. The original enuncia- 
tion of it is found in the history of the origin of the universe, — Genesis i. 10, 
12, and 24 : "And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding 
seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after liis kind, whose seed is in itself." 
"And the earth brought forth grass and herb yielding seed affe?' Ids kind, and 
i\\QixQQ f\Q\dL\\\g fvmt whose seed was in itself after his kind/' * * * <'And 
■God said. Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle and 
creeping thing and beast of the earth after his kind." 

A late writer has thus defined this force :f "Heredity is that biological law 
by which all beings endowed with life tend to repeat themselves in their de- 

*"A11 that has gone to the making up of,"— a word happily used by Mr. Galton in "EngUsh 
Men of Science." 

tTh. Ribot. "Heredity." D. Appleton & Co., 1875, p. 6. 



4 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— EEPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

scendants ; it is for the species what personal identity is for the individual. By 
it a ground work remains unchanged amid incessant variation." 

By spontaneity in this paper is meant that force in the individual that tends 
to make him unlike others of his race or family, — his own peculiar self. It is 
that which gives him a consciousness of individual, personal being, independent 
of family, nation, or race. It makes the " ego'^ possible, — it is the basis of the 
''meum^^ and "tuumJ^ It is the free will, — the power to weigh motives, to 
choose one's line of action, to decide one's personal character. It is the basis 
and reason of personal responsibility, and makes necessary, government, law 
punishment. It was superadded to the endowment of animals by God, when he 
''breathed into man the breath of life, and man became a living soul." 

Environment includes all those external conditions and influences that modify 
the character, physical, mental, and moral. It both curbs and ministers to 
both heredity and spontaneity, antagonizing and increasing their power. 

Traits of character markedly hereditary are often greatly obscured or wholly 
lost sight of under the influence of environment, while, by the same influences, 
other and new traits are fixed upon individuals, families, and nations even, by 
habits long repeated, which are then continued by heredity. 

Greater force, too, is given to sjDontaneity by surrounding the individual by 
influences favoring the development of traits of character peculiarly his own. 

Says Eibot: * "Great stress has recently been laid on the influence of the 
physical environment. It has been shown how the climate, the air, the char- 
acter of the soil, the diet, the nature of the food and drink, — all that in physi- 
ology is comprised under the technical terms circumfusa, ingesta, etc., — shape 
the human organism by their incessant action ; how these latent, silent sensa- 
tions which do not come into consciousness, but still are ever thronging the 
nerves of sense, eventually form that habitual mode of the constitution which 
we call temperament. The influence of education is analogous. It is a moral 
environment, and its result is the creation of a habit. \Ye might even affirm 
that this moral environment is as complex, as heterogeneous and changeable, as 
any physical environment. For education, in the full and exact meaning of 
the term, does not consist simply of the lessons of our parents and teachers ; 
manners, religious beliefs, what we read, what we hear, all these are so many 
silent influences which act on the mind, just as latent sensations act on the body, 
and which contribute to our education : that is to say, they cause us to contract 
habits." 

Heredity, spontaneity, and environment are to the physical, mental, and 
moral development of the individual, the nation, and the race what the uni- 
versal law of gravitation is to the unnumbered worlds and systems of worlds in 
the universe. 

Heredity is like the centripetal force. It tends to make all beings exactly 
like their one original progenitor ; while spontaneity, like the centrifugal force, 
tends to make all beings more and more unlike the original, to rush out of the 
common orbit into tangent lines, or to make new orbits for themselves ; and 
environment, like the influence of all the worlds of the universe upon each 
other, tends to modify and vary every individual character, and thus to change 
the character of a nation or the race. 

Of the wonderful tenacity of heredity a late writer has said: "Its law is 
absolute transmission ; and in spite of all obstacles which tend to weaken or 

♦"Heredity," p. 346. 



HEREDITY— ITS RELATIONS TO PUBLIC HEALTH. 5 

destroy it, it struggles on without truce or pause, losing much of its strength as 
it advances, dissipating itself, so to speak, so as to appear no longer to exist. 
And yet, when we see the same characteristics reappear, sometimes after 
a hundred generations, here indeed is matter for reflection. It may be said 
that heredity verifies in its own way the axiom, 'Nothing is lost.' With its 
character of unconquerable firmness, of absolute persistency, it appears to us as 
one of those many inflexible bonds by which omnipotent natui'e imprisons us to 
necessity." 

The laws of heredity are universal in their operation in the animal kingdom, 
from the simplest cell multiplying by fission, ujiwards, through all the grada- 
tions of living beings, to the most complex organism. 

The more simple the organism the more complete and unlimited is the appli- 
cation of the law, so that in the Hydra or the Nais, for example, the parent 
cannot be distinguished from its progeny ; the same is true also in those ani- 
mals multiplying by gemmation. 

As we rise in the scale of animal life we find the law of heredity modified and 
limited, in proportion as the organism becomes more complex and the relations 
of the animals to the outward world more varied, and the influences of environ- 
ment become stronger. 

Hereditary influence manifests itself in every part of the animal organism : 
in the size and shape of the body, the moulding of the features, the color of 
the skin, hair, and eyes, and in the size and form of the bones, muscles, and 
the various internal organs. This law was so marked among the Komans as to 
give origin to many names of families; e. g., Nasones, Buccones, and Capitones, 
families among whose members the size and form of the nose, the cheeks, or the 
head were the marked features. With equal propriety names might be given 
to certain families from the peculiar development of other organs among their 
members, such as the chest, the heart, the blood-vessels, the eyes, or the ears. 
Some families for several generations are characterized by great muscular 
strength, or agility, or grace of motion, beauty of eyes or hair, unusual fecun- 
dity or longevity. So persistent is the law in respect to some of these traits 
that tlie most unfavorable environment — as poverty, great hardship, and expos- 
ure — fail to overcome it. 

The fact that longevity depends far less upon the environment of the indi- 
vidual than upon his inherited tendencies is made available in the calculations 
of well-managed life insurance companies in estimating the risk upon the life 
of their applicants. 

But not only are physiological traits and qualities hereditary, but anomalous 
and pathological conditions and traits are frequently transmitted through sev- 
eral generations. The horny excrescences upon Edward Lambert were contin- 
ued in the male line for five generations. Harelip, supernumerary fingers and 
toes, and squint-eye, as well as peculiarities of complexion, are often bequeathed 
to descendants through many generations, as well as the most normal physio- 
logical fact. 

It is observable that almost every exaggeration of form or physical develop- 
ment is transmissible by heredity. Such exaggeration may be carried so far as 
to become really disease, or diseased conditions may be iirmly fixed upon cer- 
tain organs, and are then equally transmissible with physiological conditions. 

Thus we have certain diseases of special organs wiiich appear to be developed 
in members of the same stock, generation after generation, as apoplexy, asthma, 
the various forms of heart disease, and certain diseases of the urinary organs ; 



6 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— KEPOKT OF SECKETARY, 1877. 

while in other families few or no cases of these diseases are to be observed, but 
for many generations rheumatism, gout, consumption, scrofula, cancer, or vari- 
ous forms of skin diseases prevail among them. The liability to or the exemp- 
tion from various diseases in certain families are, for several generations, marked, 
characteristics; so that the children may say : "As our fathers did, so do we ; 
we sicken and die of the same disease that it has pleased our ancestors to have 
or to die of." These tendencies are noticeably increased in children both of 
whose parents had inherited the same characteristics. 

Fortunately also there may be observed a tendency in the law of heredity to 
come back to the original type, so that even when a new disease has been en- 
grafted upon a family there is a tendency to get rid of it in the greater and 
greater f aintness with which it is transmitted, unless indeed it is reinforced by 
other strains of blood tainted with the same vicious tendency. 

Were it not for this tendency to reversion and the advantage which might be 
taken of it when reinforced by environment, many families, if not the whole 
race, would speedily run out. This tendency and the advantages to be taken 
of it we shall further dwell upon, when we come more definitely to speak of the 
relation of heredity to laws enacted in the interests of public health. 

As all mental developments are so intimately connected with, if not abso- 
lutely dependent upon, the physical organization, it is not strange that all 
psychical traits should be transmitted equally with the physical traits by hered- 
ity; and as all forms of mental disease are now believed to be caused by some 
more or less obscure changes in some portion of the nervous centres, we might 
readily suppose, what by observation we find to be true, that mental diseases as 
well as diseases of other organs are hereditary. 

No one doubts that primitive instincts are hereditary, and that the law of 
their transmission is imperious and well nigh unchangeable. But instincts may 
be modified and new ones acquired ; as when the beaver under some circum- 
stances burrows in, rather than build a house above, the ground ; and birds 
change the form of their nests to suit the circumstances which may surround 
them. Indeed, all of our domestic animals, once wild and some of them fierce, 
have acquired new instilicts which are now, after long domestication, as trans- 
missible by heredity as their original ones. 

Normal conditions, as well as abnormal conditions and idiosyncracies of all 
the senses, — touch, smell, hearing, and sight, are, to the every day observation 
of all of us, seen to be transmitted by heredity and often through several gener- 
ations; e. ^., different degrees of hyperajsthesia, or ancesthesia, color-blindness, 
and defects of vision dependent on mechanical causes, such as strabismus, my- 
opia, and presbyopia. 

* " Among the most striking cases of heredity of defects of vision is the ever- 
increasing numbers of the myopic among persons given to intellectual labor. 
According to M. Giraud Teulon, continual application with the eyes near the 
object is the great cause of myopia. * * * * jj-^ England at the Chelsea 
Military School, among 1,300 boys only three were myopic. In the universities 
of Oxford and Cambridge, however, the number of myopic subjects was consid- 
erable — at Oxford 32 in 127. In Germany the results are even more decisive. 
Dr. Colin of Breslau undertook the task of examining, in the schools of his own 
country, the eyes of 10,000 scholars or students. Among them he found J, 004 
myopic, — about ten per cent. In village schools they are not numerous, — only 
a quarter per cent, in the town schools the number of the myopic increases with 

* "Hereditj'," by Th. Kibot, p. 39. 



HEEEDITY,— ITS KELATIONS TO PUBLIC HEALTH. 7 

the grade : In primary schools it is G. 7 per cent ; middle schools, 10.3 per cent ; 
normal schools, 19.7 per cent; gymnasia and universities, 2G.2 per cent. This 
explains why, in Germany, myopia is not a reason for rejection by the examining 
boards. Since constant study creates myopia, and heredity most frequently 
perpetuates it, the number of short-sighted persons must necessarily increase 
in a nation devoted to intellectual pursuits." 

Certain marked powers of memory as well as certain forms of memory are 
transmitted to offspring, as in the families of some remarkable painters and 
scientists. Indeed all the normal faculties of the mind, especially if of unusual 
development, are observed to be subject to the law of heredity more or less com- 
pletely. 

As an illustration of the heredity of imagination, take Coleridge, of whom 
Galton says: "His son Hartley, — poet, — a precocious child, whose early life 
was characterized by visions, had an imagination singularly vivid and of a 
morbid character. His son, the Eev. Uerwent, — author, — late principal of the 
Chelsea Training College. — His daughter Sara possessed all her father's indi- 
vidual characteristics and was also an author, whose son was Herbert Coleridge 
— philologist. 

In music the *Bach family is perhaps the most distinguished instance of 
mental heredity on record. It began in 1550, and continued through eight 
generations. * * * During a period of nearly 200 years this family pro- 
duced a multitude of artists of the first rank. There is no other instance of 
such remarkable talents being combined in a single family. * * In this 
family are reckoned hue7ity-7iine eminent musicians.'" 

In painting, Titian furnishes an example in whose family, says Ribot, ''were 
nine painters of merit." The following is his genealogy according to Galton : 






Francisco. 



Titian. 



Mario. 



Fabricio. 



Cesare. 



POMPONIO. 



Horatio. 



FlZIANELLO. 



TOMASO. 



♦"Heredity," by Th. Ribot, p. 63. 



8 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

Special and marked iutellectual characteristics are distinctly traceable as 
liereditary, both backward and forward in the line of many remarkable persons; 
e. g., Aristotle, whose father, son, and nephew were distinguished for the same 
intellectual traits as himself ; Sir Francis Bacon and his father, mother, and 
■bTothers ; Sir Benjamin Brodie, in whose family were six distinguished mem- 
^"bers ; Erasmus Darwin had two sons, Charles and Robert, distinguished physi- 
*dians, and a grandson, Charles, author of the '' Origin of Species"; Herschel, 
Hunter, Hallam, Macaulay, Grotius, and de Stael, all of whom were born of 
parents distinguished for intellectual endowments, and among whose descend- 
■ ants or more distant relatives are numbered many persons of like endowments. 

The sentiments, appetites, and the passions are equally transmissible with the 
■more purely intellectual qualities; especially is this noticeable when they be- 
^come uncommon or morbid in their development. Every breeder of animals is 
■aware of and takes advantage of this fact. A vicious and sulky horse will give 
those characteristics to his colts. "Lord Oxford," says Darwin, ''crossed his 
famous grey hounds, which failed in courage, with a bull dog. * * * At 
the sixth or seventh generation there was not a vestige left of the form of the 
bull dog, but his courage and indomitable perseverance remained." 

Appetites long indulged to excess may become in their exaggeration morbid 
passions, and as such are bequeathed to posterity. 

The exaggerated appetite for food, which in the gourmand becomes a passion, 
is transmitted to children; as in the case of "Louis XIV., remarkable for his 
greediness, which passion has been transmitted to all his sous and to their 
descendants.*" 

There is no neighborhood but that can furnish striking instances of the he- 
redity of the exaggerated and ungoverned sexual appetite, giving rise to vice 
and crime. 

When the appetites become morbid in their craving, as in earth-eating, they 
present curious instances of morbid heredity. Von Humboldt speaks thus of 
'this morbid appetite and its hold upon the people in some tropical countries : 
"^'The people have an odd and almost irresistible liking for a kind of greasy 
potter's clay, with a strong and unpleasant smell. The children have often to 
be locked up to prevent them from running out after recent rain and eating 
clay." 

Perhaps the most striking illustration of this part of our subject is to be 
■found in the almost unconquerable power that the appetites for strong drinks 
. and the narcotics have over those who freely indulge them, and the terrible in- 
heritances which they bequeath to their children to the third or fourth genera- 
'tion. 

Avarice, or the excessive desire for gain, may be transmitted as such, or it 
may be metamorphosed into other mental and moral degeneracies. f "In sev- 
eral instances," says Dr. Maudsley, "in which the father has toiled upwards 
from poverty to vast wealth, with the aim and hope of founding a family, I 
have witnessed the results in a mental and physical degeneracy, which has 
sometimes gone as far as the extinction of the family in the third or fourth 
generation. When the evil is not so extreme as madness, or ruinous as vice, the 
savor of a mother's influence having been present, it may still be manifest in an 
instinctive cunning and duplicity and an extreme selfishness of nature, — a na- 



*" Heredity," p. 83. 

t " Physiology aud Pathology of the Miud," by Dr. Maudsley, p. 



231. 



HEEED1TY,~ITS EELATlOl^S TO PUBLIC HEALTH. 9 

tnre not having the capacity of a true moral conception or altruistic feeling. 
Whatever opinion other experimental observers may hold, I cannot but think 
that the extreme passion for getting rich, absorbing the whole energies of a life, 
does predispose to mental degeneration in the offspring, — either to moral defect 
or to intellectual and moral deficiency, or to outbreaks of positive insanity under 
the conditions of life." 

Kibot quotes from Dr. Despine one, but a decisive and striking, instance illus- 
trating the heredity of the tendency to thieving and allied crimes.* "Jean 
Chretien, the common ancestor, had three sons, — Pierre, Thomas, and Jeau- 
Baptiste. I. Pierre had a son, Jean-Francois, who was condemned for life to 
hard labor for robbery and murder. II. Thomas had two sons : 1. Fraugois, 
condemned to hard labor for murder; 2. Martin, condemned to death for 
murder. Martin's son died in Cayenne, whither he had been transported for 
robbery. III. Jean-Baptiste had a son, Jean-Fran9ois, whose wife was Marie 
Taure (belonging to a family of incendiaries). This Jean-Fran9ois had seven 
children: 1. Jean-Fran9ois, found guilty of several robberies, died in prison; 
2. Benoist, fell off a roof which he had scaled, and was killed ; 3. X , nick- 
named Clain, found guilty of several robberies, died at the age of twenty-five ; 
4. Marie-Eeine, died in prison, whither she had been sent for theft ; 5. Maue- 
Eose, same fate, same deeds ; G. Victor, now in jail for theft ; 7. Victorine, 
married one Lemaire, and their son was condemned to death for murder and 
robbery." 

The most recent investigations lead us to believe that all forms of insanity, if 
not indeed all forms of psychological anomalies, including many moral abnor- 
malities, are but the outcome of some diseased condition of the nervous system. 
All forms of neuroses, the various developments of mania, monomania, hypo- 
chondria, hysteria, epilepsy, alcoholism, and the morbid tendencies to vice and 
crime, are but congeners or correlatives. 

Mr. E. L. Dugdale, member of the executive committee of the Prison Associ- 
ation of New York, in a pamphlet recently published,! has, in a most striking 
and interesting manner tabulated and studied the history of the i^rogeny of five 
sisters, two of whom married sons of one whom he calls Max, a descendant of 
the early Dutch settlers of a portion of the State of New York. One of these 
women is now known as "Margaret, the mother of criminals." 

''The progeny of these five persons," he says, "has been traced, with more 
or less exactitude, through five generations, thus making the total heredity 
which has been enrolled stretch over seven generations, if we count Max as the 
first. The number of descendants registered includes 540 individuals who are 
related by blood to the "Jukes," and 1G9 by marriage or cohabitation, in all 
709 persons of all ages, alive and dead. The aggregate of this lineage reaches, 
probably, 1,200 persons, but the dispersions that have occurred at different 
times have prevented the following up and enumeration of many of the lateral 
branches. 

"Taking a general survey of the characteristics of the family under consid- 
eration, an arrangement may be made as follows : 

* "Heredity," p. 91. 

f'The Jukes: A Record and Study of the Rclatious of Crime, Pauperism, aud Disease." G. 
.P. Putnam & Sons, Ne-n- York. 



10 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— REPOKT OF SECRETAEY, 1877. 

Consanguinity. 
Prostitution, o Illegitimacy, p 
.^ Exhaustion. o Intemperance. » 
Disease. o Extinction. 5 

Not Consanguineous. 

"In other words, fornication, either consanguineous or not, is the backbone 
of their habits, flanked on one side by pauperism and on the other by crime. 
The secondary features are prostitution, with its complement of bastardy, and 
its resultant neglected and miseducated childhood; exhaustion, with its com- 
plement intemjoe ranee, and its resultant unbalanced minds ; and disease with 
its complement extinction." 

The author has shown that in these families, whose history he has so care- 
fully studied, there has been an average of six and three-quarters times more 
pauperism than the average pauperism of the State : the percentage of pauper- 
ism for the whole family being 23.22 per cent, while the percentage of pauperism 
among the sick and disabled amounted to 5G.47 per cent. 

As an illustration of the expense to the State of these hereditary diseases, he 
mentions that ''in one case the hereditary blindness of one man cost the town 
twenty -three years of out-door relief for two people, and a town burial." 
"But," he continues, "the disease which the facts show to be the most com- 
mon, as it is by all odds the most destructive and the most subtle and impossible 
to eradicate, is syphilis." " Here we find the proportion of those blighted by it 
reaches 10.86 per cent, but this percentage does not include half of the victims 
of this class of disorders. On the authority of physicians who know, from 
twenty-five to thii-ty per cent are tainted with this disease." 

The records of this family show that not only syphilis, but other diseases 
more or less related to it, and engrafted upon the stock by its mixture with for- 
eign blood or by unfavorable environment, have been handed down to the 
children generation after generation until, vitality exhausted, extinction has 
closed the records of many branches. When the records of entailment of such 
a disease as syphilis in such a family as the "Jukes" is presented in a tabular 
and statistical form it is a matter of surprise and horror to most men, and is 
certainly believed to be exceptional. 

But let me quote from the address of the venerable Prof. S. D. Gross before 
the American Medical Association at Detroit, 1874. He says: "It would be 
a matter of deep interest, and, in a practical point of view, of the greatest pos- 
sible value, if we could ascertain, even approximately, the extent of syphilis in 
our cities and larger towns ; but for such a decision there are, unfortunately, no 
data. It may, however, be assumed that it is of gigantic proportions ; that it 
exists in many of the best and noblest families of the land ; that, since the es- 
tablishment of railway travel, it has penetrated every rural district ; and that it 
is poisoning and slowly but surely undermining the very fountains of life in 
every direction, sowing the seeds of death among our people, and gradually 
deteriorating the national health. It is no slander to assert that many of the 
cases of the disease, brought under the notice of the practitioner, occur in the 
higher walks of life, among married as well as among single men. Out of a 
population of forty millions, the present number of inhabitants in this country, 
it is safe to assert that nearly Uoo millions are at this moment infected with the 



HEREDITY,— ITS RELATIONS TO PUBLIC HEALTH. 11 

syphilitic virus. This estimate tallies very closely with tliat of Mr, Ilollarid, of 
tile number of syphilitic subjects in the United Kingdom of Great Britain ; and- 
what is true of that country may fairly be assumed to be true of our own." 
"After these appalling figures can we wonder at the enormous rate of infantile 
mortality which pervades London and other large cities, both of the old and 
of the new world? Like apples which rot upon the tree before they are ripe, 
the children of these infected persons drop dead from their mother's womb, or,, 
if they are born alive, they are sure to perish soon after birth." 

Of the actual mortality from this disease we have no exact statistics. "But," 
says Dr. Gross, "taking into consideration the great damage sustained by the 
general system during the progress of this malady, the malign influence it ex- 
erts both upon the blood and the solids, the derangement it causes in the secre- 
tions, and the predisposition it establishes to morbid action in the more impor- 
tant internal organs, the mortality must be very great. The mortality from this 
disease (inherited syphilis) in young children, as already hinted, is very great. 
In Philadelphia and New York the loss of life from this cause, counted for 
several years, in children under five years of age, is 80 per cent, if we may 
credit the statements made by Dr. Sturgis in the American Journal of Syphil- 
ography. The number of abortions and miscarriages occasioned by the syph- 
ilitic poison is incalculable. 

" The mortality from syphilis on the Sandwich Islands is absolutely appalling. 
Dr. John G. Brooks, writing in 1873, affirms that the spread of this disease has 
been so rapid, and its consequences so fatal, that in less than a century the 
population has been reduced 75 per cent." 

Probably among hereditary diseases scrofula in its various forms stands next 
to syphilis in its baneful influence upon the human race. 

I will now waive the question, as not material to my subject, whether scrofula 
in all its forms is only a modified development of syphilis. Prof. Gross, with 
many other distinguished j)hysicians, both on this and the other side of the 
Atlantic, are strong advocates for the affirmative of this question ; while others, 
and perhaps equally eminent men, as strongly affirm the negative. It is suffi- 
cient for my purpose to point out its prevalence, its fatality, and the persist- 
ence and almost certainty with which it is entailed as a diathesis to posterity. 

"At the present day," says Prof. Gross in the address quoted above, "the 
affections included under this denomination amount to upwards of twenty. 
Among the more conimon are chronic enlargements of the lymphatic glands, 
various eruptions and ulcerations of the skin, embracing the milder forms of 
lupus, chronic abscesses, especially psoas and lumbar, Pott's disease of the 
spine, psorophthalmia, chronic amygdalitis, caries and necrosis, oza^na, certain 
inflammations of the eye, known as strumous, coxalgia, and white swelling, as 
it was formerly called, onychia maligna, otorrhoea, rickets, arachnitis, hydro- 
cephalus, pemphigus, sycosis, and keratitis." 

Prof. Gross quotes Mr. Kichard Barwell to this effect : " That in the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain scrofula is so common that it would be below the truth 
to affirm that at least three-fourths of the people have the seeds of that malady 
in their constitutions." 

The scrofulous diathesis is probably chargeable with a large proportion of the 
deaths attributed to other well-known diseases. 

*"Strumosis and tuberculosis have no place in the Registrar-General's Ee- 

*Sir ■William Jenner, in "Practical Medicine of To-daj'," p. 42. 



12 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— EEPOET OF SECEETAEY, 1S77. 

turns ; and yet to the preexisfcence of these diseased states, in a large proportion 
of cases, is due the death in scarlet fever, in measles, whooping-cough ; and but 
for these states how large a number of cases of Bright's disease, hepatic disease, 
and puerperal mischief would never have occurred." 

According to Jenner, also, rickets causes, primarily or secondarily, more 
deaths in Great Britain than any other disease of childhood. "Although a 
preventable disease," he sa3's, "the mortality from rickets, from diseases which 
would not occur but for the jireexisting rickets, and from diseases which would 
be trifling but for coexisting rickets, is enormous. Laryngismus stridulous, 
chronic hydrocephalus, teething, convulsions, atrophy, diseases of the spleen 
and liver, remittent fever, tabes meseuterica, spinal disease, bronchitis, diar- 
rhcea, measles, whooping-cough, — these are some of the names under which 
deaths, really due to rickets, appear in the Registrar Geuerars Returns." 

According to the United States Census Report for 1870, there were in a total 
mortality of 492,263 deaths 69,896 deaths from consumption, or 1 to 7. In 
Maine the deaths from consumption were to deaths from all causes as 1 to 3.9; 
and in Michigan, as 1 to 6. These figures show how broad and how deep is the 
stream called scrofulous diathesis, which is continually flowing down the gen- 
erations, bearing disease, blight, death, extinction. 

Judging from the United States Census Report for 1870, which numbers 814 
insane persons and 613 idiotic persons in Michigan, and taking into considera- 
tion the increase in the population of the State since 1870, and also the prob- 
able inaccuracies in those statistics from various causes, there are in all proba- 
bility at this time fully 1,000 persons in Michigan actually insane, and 800 
idiotic. I think it is safe to say that there are 1,000 more persons in the State 
who have been at some time insane, but who now are not counted such, and at 
least 1,000 more, who, though they have never been insane, yet can find in their 
immediate or not remote ancestors the element of insanity. 

If such characteristics as supernumerary toes or fingers, and horny excres- 
cences upon the skin, and peculiarities of shape and size of the limbs or any of 
the organs of the body are persistently hereditary, shall we not believe that the 
morbid changes of that most delicate and susceptible structure, the brain, which 
^how themselves as insanity, are equally persistent in their entailment? 

Thus we have at present at least 3,000 persons in Michigan in a direct line of 
insanity alone whose inheritance, which they leave to their children, is some 
obscure cerebral change from a perfectly normal and physiological type, which 
may, on some occasion calculated to bring out the heretofore latent element, 
or to test the hitherto obscured deficiency, crop out as actual insanity, or, by a 
metamorphosis of diseased developments analogous to the correlation of forces, 
give rise to hysteria, epilepsy, idiocy, intemperance, immorality, or crime. 

Intemperance may be considered in this connection, both as an effect and as 
a cause. An inherited neurosis, engrafted upon the parent stock in any one of 
many ways may give to a person such a sense of exhaustion, such a demand for 
some nerve stimulant, as to draw him to indulgence in alcoholic drinks with 
almost or quite irresistible power. On the other hand a deliberate, habitual, or 
excessive indulgence in these stimulants will of ten unquestionably "produce a 
modification of the nutrition of the nervous system, which engenders a physical 
want, when they are withheld, comparable to that of hunger or thirst," and 
which results in an inheritable diathegis. 

Says Dr. W. B. Carpenter:* "There is one class of cases, moreover, in 

*" Mental Physiology," p. 369. 



HEREDITY,— ITS RELATIONS TO PUBLIC HEALTH. 13 

which a particular abnormal form of nutrition that is distinctly acquired by the 
individual, exerts a most injurious influence upon the offspring : that, namely, 
which is the result of such habitual alcoholic excess as modifies the nutrition of 
the nervous system." 

In a note JDr. Carpenter adds: "'We have a far larger experience of the 
results of habitual alcoholic excess than wc have in regard to any other nervine 
stimulant, and all such experience is decidedly in favor of the hereditary trans- 
mission of that acquired perversion of the normal nutrition which it has engen- 
dered in the individual. That this manifests itself sometimes in congenital 
idiocy, sometimes in a predisposition to insanity, which requires but a very 
slight exciting cause to develop it, and sometimes in a strong craving for alco- 
holic drinks, which the unhappy subject of it strives in vain to resist, is the 
concurrent testimony of all who have directed their attention to the inquiry." 

Says Ribot:* ''The passion known as dipsomania, or alcoholism, is so fre- 
quently transmitted that all are agreed in considering its heredity as the rule. 
Not, however, that the passion for drink is always transmitted in that identical 
form ; for it often degenerates into mania, idiocy, and hallucination. Conversely, 
insanity in the parents may become alcoholism in the descendants. This con- 
tinual metamorphosis plainly shows how near passion comes to insanity, how 
closely the successive generations arc connected, and, consequently, what a weight 
of responsibility rests on each individual. 'A frequent effect of alcoholism,' 
says Dr. Magnus IIuss, ' is j^artial or total atrophy of the brain; tlie organ is 
reduced in volume, so that it no longer fills the bony case. The consequence is 
a mental degeneration, which in the progeny results in lunatics and idiots.' " 
Confirmatory to this opinion is the recorded testimony of the late Dr. S. G. 
Howe, who testifies that nearly 50 per cent of idiot children in Massachusetts 
are the children of parents one or both of whom were drunkards. 

f "Dr. Morel mentions a man of an excellent family of laboring people, who 
was early addicted to drink, and died of chronic alcoholism, leaving seven chil- 
dren. The first two of these died, at an early age, of convulsions. The third 
became insane at twenty-two, and died an idiot. The fourth, after various 
attempts at suicide, fell into the lowest grade of idiocy. The fifth, of passionate 
and misanthropic temper, broke off all relations with his family. His sister 
suffers from nervous disorder, which chiefly takes the form of hysteria, with 
intermittent attacks of insanity. The seventh, a very intelligent workman, but 
of nervous temperament, freely gives expression to the gloomiest forebodings as 
to his intellectual future. 

" Quite recently, Dr. Morel had again an opportunity of proving the heredit- 
ary effects of alcoholism in the 'children of the commune.' He inquired into 
the mental state of 150 children, ranging from ten to seventeen years of age, 
most of whom had been taken with arms in their hands behind the barricades. 
'This examination,' he says, 'has confirmed me in my previous convictions as 
to the baneful effects produced by alcohol, not only in the individuals who use 
this detestable drink to excess, but also in tlieir descendants. On their depraved 
physiognomy is impressed the threefold stamp of physical, intellectual, and 
moral degeneracy.' " 

Associated with these exaggerated and morbid appetites and passions, and 
often their congeners or correlatives, are the passions for gambling, avarice, 
fast-living, various eccentricities, and many forms of neuroses and moral ab- 

* "Heredity," by Th. Ribot, p. So. 
t "Heredity," p. 86-87. 



14 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

normalities. *Dr. W. A. F. Brown, Medical Commissioner in Lunacy for 
;Scotland, remarked: "The drunkard not only injures and enfeebles his own 
nervous system, but entails mental disease upon his family. His daughters are 
nervous and hysterical ; his sons are weak, wayward, eccentric, and sink under 
the pressure of excitement of some unforeseen exigency, or the ordinary calls of 
■duty." 

f "Dr. Howe remarks that the children of drunkards are deficient in bodily 
and vital energy, and ai'e pi-edis]30sed by their very organization to have craving 
for alcoholic stimulants. If tliey pursue the course of their fathers, which they 
have more temptation to follow, and less power to avoid, than the children of 
the temperate, they add to their hereditary weakness, and increase the tendency 
to idiocy or insanity in their constitution ; and this they leave to their children 
^fter them." 

Intimately associated with the morbid processes and diatheses already men- 
tioned, and either correlated to, or coexistent with, them stand the two great 
facts of crime and pauperism, the bane and the burden of society. 

It is abundantly capable of proof that a very large majority of the crimes 
-committed in this State are, at least, intimately associated with intemperance, 
being committed by persons under tlie immediate influence of strong drink; 
i;hat in some of them there is, coexistent with the morbid nutrition of the 
nervous system which leads to drink, also, an inherited tendency to crime 
aroused by the indulgence in drink, is altogether probable ; while in others the 
■disposition to crime appears to have been actually originated by the indulgence 
in drink. 

This tendency to commit crime, like the tendency to insanity, exists in 
various degrees; and it may be, indeed, probably is, also dependent on some 
deviation from a perfectly normal condition of the nervous system; and, as 
such, is as inheritable as insanity, scrofula, or syphilis. 

This position is well illustrated and sustained by the case of the descendants 
-of Jean Chretien, already quoted in this paper,;]; as well as by the records of 
two branches of the "Jukes" so carefully tabulated by Mr. Dugdale, in one 
of which 60.71 joe r cent, and in the other 53.84 per cent, of the males were 
'Criminals. 

" The number of criminals," says Ribot, "whose ancestors have given signs of 
insanity, is very great. Verger, the assassin of the Archbishop of Paris, was 
•of this number. His mother and one of his brothers perished prior to his 
jCrime, the victims of suicidal mania." 

"It wore to be wished, in the interest of science," says Despine, "that 
inquiries should be made as to the progenitors of criminals for at least two or 
three generations. This would be an excellent means of demonstrating the 
kinship which exists between those cerebral infirmities which produce the 
psychic anomalies leading to crime, and the pathological affections of the nerve 
oentres, particularly the brain." § 

"Passions," says Ribot, "which are inexplicable so long as they are studied 
in the isolated individual, find their explanation so soon as we have studied 
them in their metamorphoses through generations, and brought them under the 
^reat law of heredity." 

Pauperism, also, accompanies and follows all of these diseases and diseased 

*" Mental Plivsiologv," W. B. Carpenter, ij. 370. 
tibid. 
4 P. 9. 
§ Psychologic Xaturelle, ii. 983. 



HEEEDITY,— ITS RELATIONS TO PUBLIC HEALTH. 15 

conditions, as the wolf or the vulture follows the caravan over the desert, ever 
ready to devour all who, exhausted, may fall by the way. 

Pauperism is the exponent of exhaustion of vitality in families by whatever 
means that exhaustion may have been accomplislied ; it is the last stage before 
extinction; and here, spontaneity having been eliminated, heredity asserts its 
force unmodified (except as it is strengthened by environment) imprisoning the 
posterity to necessary dependence. 

We have thus far considered heredity in its relation to public health. We 
have noticed how constant and how persistent are the currents in the various 
streams of heredity ; how new streams of morbid heredity take their origin in 
diseases developed by unfavorable environment or by willful wrong-doing ; and 
how pure strains of blood are tainted for all the future by mingling with impure ; 
and have, in passing, suggested how vast is the present amount of disease, and 
how numerous are the deaths, fairly chargeable to tainted blood and the various 
inheritable neuroses. 

We come now to ask by what means this force, bearing disease and early 
death, crime, pauperism, and extinction to coming generations, can be stayed 
or modified? What can be done to purify strains of blood already tainted, or 
keep pure those which are at present so. 

The proper answers to these questions have a direct bearing upon the conduct 
of the life of every person in the land. 

All young men and young women, do, as a rule, desire at some time to 
become parents. They wish to live again in their children, and that their 
names may be perpetuated through many generations. 

That hope, long deferred, in that grand old patriarch, Abraham, was blessed 
at length with full fruition in the gift of a son ; and the sublime and terrible 
trial of his faith was rewarded by the promise of the covenant, "and in Isaac 
shall thy seed be blessed," and '''thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth," 
''and in thee and in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed." 

Men and women — young men and young women, — who do not have such 
hopes, are unnatural, they are diseased or depraved. 

Mr. Darwin has given origin to the expression " the survival of the fittest," 
containing a truth which, if it does not prove his "development theory," cer- 
tainly illustrates and explains the progress and the development of the genera- 
tions of men. 

If the desire for children, and children's children through many generations, 
is natural and really lies at the basis of the family relation, that desire 
should certainly be so qualified as to include the idea of normal healthy children. 

We know by what means to secure sound and healthy young from our 
domestic animals. We always look to the health of both parents, expecting 
that the qualities of the parents will be given to their young. 

Is there any other law of descent in man than in animals? Can we expect 
to see Ileal thy children from parents both of whom are unhealthy? Is not the 
descent of children of far more consequence than that of the beasts? 

But it may be said, there is hardly a liuman being but that has inherited and 
will entail some morbid quality. We must then start with persons, both male 
and female, in whose blood the latent elements of some disease may be supposed 
to lurk. The problem is to eliminate the morbid diathesis and establish a 
healthy stock. 

Ought those persons in whom is a strongly marked tendency to disease to 
marry? or, if married, ought they to have children? We can readily name 



16 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— EEPOKT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

several morbid diatheses which almost all persons agree in saying should forbid 
marriage or at least progeny, — idiocy, complete or even partial, hereditary pau- 
perism, epilepsy, and insanity, when actually developed in the individual at or 
before the marriageable age. 

Ought a person who is conscious of having had or inherited syphilis to marry 
and have children? Is a person once tainted ever completely freed from the 
syphilitic poison? 

Certainly the greatest care should be taken not to bring together by marriage 
two streams of heredity which are alike or which are correlatives. A husband 
and wife, both of whom have an inherited tendency to scrofula, consumption, 
insanity, or alcoholism, or its correlatives by metamorphosis, may indeed have 
children, who, in infancy and in early childhood, may give promise of health, 
but are almost certain, if they survive infancy, to perish in adolescence or to 
come to maturity with bodies doubly charged with the germs of disease. 

If young men or young women are conscious of having some hereditary ten- 
dency to disease they should by all means, if they marry at all, seek partners 
of a stock as free from every hereditary morbid tendency as possible, and espe- 
cially those free from the same diathesis as themselves. 

Mr. Galton, in "English Men of Science,*' says that the history of the fam- 
ilies among which he found the eminent men mentioned in his book, shows that 
purity of blood is a marked element in their heredity. He speaks also of the 
folly of ''falling in love," as it is termed, — a state of mind often wholly unac- 
companied by an intelligent action of the will, based on that careful judgment 
which takes cognizance of all those most important facts which lie at the found- 
ation of a happy married life and which determine, to a great degree, the phy- 
sical and mental constitution of the children and their entire welfare. 

If either party to a marriage is conscious of having some hereditary tendency 
to disease, the most careful and judicious hygienic efforts should be made to 
eradicate the tendency to disease, if scrofula or consumption, or at least to keep 
it from actual development. If children are born then* environment should be 
made the best possible, — including pure air, dry soil, sunlight in the house, 
warm clothing, the best and most nutritious diet, and cheerful social surround- 
ings. 

If insanity be the taint, the greatest care should be taken to conduct the 
social, mental, and spiritual life of the party so as to avoid so far as possible all 
extremes of exaltation or depression. Let such persons pursue "the even tenor 
of their way." In the management of the education of children born of such 
parentage the most careful forethought and circumspection should be used, not 
to crowd the faculties with too severe or exciting tasks, and, above all things, 
to lead the children to a steady perseverance in a judicious course of study. 

Here is a field, mental hygiene, which I am sure has been too little culti- 
vated. My space is too limited to do more than merely hint at some of its im- 
portant principles, which, if properly and ably developed and carefully and 
judiciously applied, will do much towards eradicating from many families a 
taint of insanity which now hangs over them like the sword of Damocles. 

To the intelligent and attentive listener the voice of heredity is heard above 
every other, calling for wise legislation in the interests of public health, in many 
directions. It proclaims the truth that the wisest legislation for this purpose 
will look quite as much to the welfare of our children as to that of ourselves. 

It illustrates and ex])lains how many nations have become effete and actually 
have disappeared, by showing that families do often become extinct in conse- 



HEREDITY— ITS RELATIONS TO PUBLIC HEALTH. 17 

quence of morbid diatheses engrafted upon a healthy stock, perchance through 
some of the "follies or indiscretions" of youth or the willful self-indulgence of 
mature life, increased by unwise intermarriages and unfortunate environment. 

* " Tiieso organic causes will probably bo ignored for some time to come, 
but our ignoring them will not do away with them. The most amazing instance 
of decay presented by history is that of the Lower Empire, tracing step by step 
tliis degeneration througli a thousand years ; seeing in their works of art, the 
plastic talent of the Greeks fade away by degrees, and result in the stiff 
drawing, and in the feeble, motionless figures of the Paleologi; seeing the 
imagination of the Greeks wither up and become reduced to a few platitudes of 
description ; seeing their lively wit change to empty babbling and senile dotage ; 
seeing all the characters of mind so disappear that the great men of their latter 
period would elsewhere pass only for mediocrities — it appears to us that 
beneath these visible, palpable facts — the only facts on which historians dwell — 
we discern the slow, blind, unconscious working of nature in the millions of 
human beings who were decayed, though they knew it not, and who transmit- 
ted to their descendants a germ of death, each generation adding to it some- 
what of its own." 

The influence of heredity suggests the possibility of some legislation looking 
to the regulation of marriages in the interests of public health — not hasty, ill- 
considered legislation, justified only by the fact that our ancestors forbade the 
marriage of cousins or other near relatives — but careful, thoughtful, well-con- 
sidered legislation, forbidding or impeding certain marriages whether between 
relatives or others ; provided such marriages would bring together two streams 
of the same morbid heredity, as insanity, consumption, syphilis, or intemper- 
ance, or two marked morbid diatheses of different natures, such as insanity 
and consumption, or syphilis and intemperance. 

Such legislation should be based upon legitimate deductions from a large 
number of authentic recorded facts, which, unfortunately, we do not at present 
possess. 

Ought not the field of inquiry of the Census Bureau to be greatly enlarged so 
as to embrace such questions as these ; viz. : '' What are the facts in regard to 
the children of intermarriages of near kin?" — ''Is not the only clement that 
makes the children of near kin diseased the combined streams of morbid her- 
edity in the parents?" — "What are the actual facts, by percentages, as to 
insanity, consumption, scrofula, intemperance, crime and pauperism, being 
hereditary ?" "and what arc their congeners and correlatives?" 

The force of heredity shows the importance and necessity of wise and pru- 
dent legislation looking to the restriction or prevention of intemperance, — that 
most fruitful source and feeder of streams of morbid heredity, — which projects 
its malign influence through the coming generations, appearing in them as 
intemperance again, disease, insanity, idiocy, crime, pauperism, and extinction. 

To give origin and force to the wisest legislation in this field Ave need statis- 
tics upon very many points where we now have vague rumors, uncertain infer- 
ences, or the wildest assertion without any demonstration. 

The force of heredity, also, challenges the attention of our law-makers Avith 
respect to the suppression or restriction of syphilis, that dreadful attendant 
upon the great "social evil," — eating, as doth a canker, into and sapping the 
vitality, and endangering the continuance of the race. 

* "Heredity," p. 305. 

3 



18 STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH-KEPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

Does a wise forethought dictate legislation actually prohibiting prostitution, 
or licensing it under certain restrictions and hygienic oversight? Will the best 
results be obtained by licensing prostitution with a medical supervision of all 
prostitutes, or by requiring men who patronize them first to submit themselves 
to a medical examination and procure from the proper medical officer a 
certificate of soundness? 

Whatever views may be taken upon these questions, certain it is that the wel- 
fare of coming generations demands that some wise and efficient legislation 
should be adopted looking to the reduction, if not the entire elimination of this 
fearful element of morbid heredity. 

Our subject has a legitimate bearing also upon every brancli of the treatment 
of criminals and the management of our penal and reformatory institutions, 
especially the Eeform Schools and our State Public School, where are gathered 
so many children, who, if they have not directly inherited from their parents a 
morbid tendency to crime, have early shown that they have unbalanced minds 
and organizations which require the most favorable environment and judicious 
and careful training to keep them from careers of vice and crime. 

Education, — practical education, made pleasant and entertaining, — industrial 
training wisely adapted to the individual children, will do much towards curbing 
any morbid heredity, and the healthful development of the moral nature, will 
in most instances not only antagonize the old, but will establish a new and a 
normal, heredity. 

Let us for a moment consider what are the relations of heredity to the labors 
of this or any other State Board of Health. 

What does the law establishing this Board assign to it as its duties? 

First. "To have the general supervision of the interests of the health and 
life of the citizens." Shall we confine this duty to the present citizens of the 
State, or by a more general, far reaching, and intelligent apprehension of our 
duty, shall we conclude that all efforts are required of us which may in any 
way affect and benefit the future citizens ? 

Second. " They shall especially study the Vital Statistics of this State and 
endeavor to make intelligent and profitable use of the collected records of 
deaths and sickness among the people." 

What then are the vital statistics of a state? Are they not, when properly 
collected, the real accounts current of the vitality of her citizens? and when 
intelligently and skillfully compiled, do not the tables enable the prophetic to 
cast with great certainty the horoscope of the future generations of citizens? 

It is indeed of considerable interest to know how many people in every 1,000 
die in a single year; but of what paramount interest is it to know of what dis- 
eases they die, and especially how prevalent certain diseases are among the 
living ; or, in other words, to know in the blood of how many who are, or may 
be parents, the germs of disease float, which in future generations will bear 
increased harvests. 

What does the 'careful study' of these statistics mean but to point out hi/ shill- 
fullij compiled tables of authentic records of disease and death, all tlte elements 
which threaten the welfare, strength, and health of the coming citizens of the 
State ? 

Wliat more "intelligent and profitable use of the collected records of deaths 
and of sickness among the people" can be made, than by their aid to point out 
the strains of blood contaminated by hereditary morbid diatheses, cautioning 
against their continuance, and explaining how the morbid element may be 



IIEREDITY,-ITS RELATIONS TO PUBLIC HEALTH. 19 

eliminated therefrom, or pointing out the means by which blood at present free 
from certain morbid elements may be kept so? 

Third. "They shall make sanitary investigations and inquiries respecting the 
causes of disease, especially epidemics." 

Does this mean that we shall investigate and inquire respecting such causes 
only as, acting from without, directly produce disease and death, and not those 
causes inherent in the people themselves, — taking their origin jirior to the birth 
of the persons in whose blood they creep with stealth, ready not only to bring 
disease and death by a "mysterious providence" upon the present victims, but 
to throw a malign influence forward even through the ''third and fourth genera- 
tions?" Was there ever an epidemic, however general or however fatal, fraught 
with such fearful consequences to any nation as certain hereditary diseases? 
Epidemics rage for a short period only. Extinction of families alone sets 
bounds to the dreadful consequences of hereditary diseases. 

Fourth. ''They shall make investigation and inquiries respecting the causes 
of mortality, and the effects of localities, employments, conditions, ingesta, 
habits, and circumstances on the health of the people." 

What causes of mortality challenge our investigation and inquiry with such 
fearful importunity as inherited scrofula, consumption, insanity, and syphilis? 
Where small-pox, cholera, or the plague have slain their thousands, scrofula, 
consumption, and syphilis have slain — are slaying, and will continue to slay — 
their hundred thousands, as hidden causes only of infant mortality. 

The immediate effects of "localities, employments, conditions, ingesta, habits 
and circumstances " upon the citizens of to-day, whether as to life or death, is of 
small consequence when compared to their effects in causing malnutrition of 
the nervous system ; in establishing a morbid diathesis, engrafting disease upon 
the organism, to be entailed upon the offspring ; or in undermining or exhaust- 
ing the vitality of families so as to entail intemperance, crime, pauperism, and 
extinction. 

At the organization of this Board, in giving an introductory outline of the 
prospective labors and duties of the Board, I mentioned, among other things, 
"and most especially to point out the vast importance, to the welfare and per- 
petuity of the State, of properly rearing, training and educating the young." 
After four years of unpaid labor in this cause, in view of the subject I have 
here but too feebly presented to you, as then I "welcomed you to," so now I 
bid you God speed in "this work, grand, self-sacrificing, and sublime." 

Kalamazoo, April, 1877. 



LABELLING MEDICINES. 



REPORT TO THK 



STA.TE BOAJEID OF HEAXTH, 



Pkof. K. C. KEDZIE, 



Committee on Poisons and Special Sources of Danger to Life and Health. 



LABELLING MEDICINES. 



At a recent meeting of the State Board of Health "the subject of the better 
protection of the people against accidental poisoning by means of misplaced 
bottles, improper labelling, etc.," was referred to this committee. 

Any one who has attentively read that wonderful note-book of daily life, the 
newspaper, cannot have failed to observe the large number of accidents that 
have occurred from taking by mistake the wrong medicine. Sometimes the 
accident has occurred because the medicine was improperly labelled, but usually 
because it was not laheUed at all. The person trusted to his remembrance of the 
medicine, the memory perhaps assisted by tlie position in which the bottle is 
usually placed ; but it is very unsafe to identify a medicine by the position 
which it usually occupies. The bottle may be misplaced and one of very differ- 
ent propei'ties take its place. A prominent politician in Detroit lately took a 
swallow of extract of cocculus Indicus instead of bitters in this way, and came 
near losing his life by tliis exchange of position in similar bottles. Occasionally 
we hear of accidents in dispensing medicines in drug stores from the circum- 
stance that the clerk trusts to the fact that a given medicine is supposed to al- 
ways occupy a given place on his dispensing shelf, and does not verify his 
supposition by actual examination of the label on the bottle. By some casual 
disarrangement of the bottles the most deplorable results have occasionally 
occurred in this way. But a druggist who will trust to so fallible a means of 
determining the nature of the medicines he is compounding as the mere posi- 
tion of the bottle, without taking the simple but necessary precaution of reading 
the label, is unfit to tamper with the lives and health of a community. Such 
cases are spoken of as accidents, but the public are rapidly coming to the con- 
clusion that preventable accidents are crimes. No one is assuredly safe who 
trusts to the position of a bottle as indicating the nature of its contents. In 
the case of all active medicines and of all poisonous substances, whether medi- 
cinal or not, some more reliable means of identification should be adopted, and 
this one entirely abandoned. 

Many persons trust to the physical appearance of a medicine to determine 
what it is. But many medicines of very different properties may have similar 
physical appearances. Castor oil is a common domestic remedy ; oil of vitriol, 
or concentrated sulphuric acid, is an oily liquid which may easily be mistaken 
for castor oil, but tlio effect of giving a tablespoonful of oil of vitriol would be 
very different from giving the same quantity of castor oil. A friend told me of 
a case which came under his personal observation. A young mechanic had a 
bottle of castor oil, and another of oil of vitriol in the same cupboard. His 



24 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPOET OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

child was unwell and the mother decided that a dose of oil was the remedy 
needed. The child was usually very averse to taking medicine, and it had to 
be poured down his throat notwithstanding his resistance. The oil was poured 
out and the husband called in to help administer the dose ; he held the child 
while the mother poured down its tiiroat a tablespoonful of oil of vitriol ! The 
child soon expired in great agony. These parents discovered too late that it was 
not safe to judge of the medicinal properties of a substance by its physical 
appearance. 

Epsom salts and oxalic acid have a similar physical appearance ; but one is a 
eafe medicine, while the other would be a deadly poison if given in the liberal 
doses usual for epsom salts. 

But the most striking illustration of the unreliability of physical properties 
in determining the nature of a medicine is shown in quinine, morphine, and 
strychnine. As usually found, and especially when the crystals are broken by 
handling, they are not to be distinguished from each other by their physical 
appearance, as they are all "white powders ; they are all very bitter to the taste, 
and are not to be distinguished readily by this test. Yet their effects upon the 
animal system are exceedingly diverse, and the quantity which might be safely 
administered is also very different. What would be a safe dose of quinine 
would be a very dangerous dose of morphine, and a deadly one of strychnine. 
Yet it is not uncommon to find these medicines in families without any label 
or mark to distinguish them — nothing but the unreliable memory of the person 
■who obtained the powder. The instances where morphine has been adminis- 
tered in poisonous doses on the supposition that it was quinine are astonishingly 
frequent. Strychnine has also been administered in fatal doses on the supposi- 
tion that because it was white and bitter it must be quinine. ^A young man 
near Ionia was taken with a severe ague chill ; search was made for quinine, 
and a small white powder, very bitter to the taste, was found in the house and 
supposed to be quinine of course ; as such it was administered ; the young man 
was thrown into violent convulsions and soon expired. The stomach was sent 
to me for analysis, and I found it still contained enough strychnine to kill two 



men 



To keep in the house such medicines without being properly labelled is most 
Teprehensible; to administer them without knowing what they are, is criminal 
rashness. I would not be understood to restrict my condemnation of the 
administering of unlabelled and unknown medicines to the three I have 
instanced, but would extend it to all medicines that have not been properly 
labelled, or whose composition is not known with absolute certainty. Perhaps 
I cannot do better on this topic than to quote the following letter from a queer 
old doctor : 

DR. BLUE PILL TO HIS NIECE POLLY. 

Dear Polly: Your note saying John had conduded to move and that you are 
busy in packing up your household goods is just received. You ask what to do with 
the contents of your medicine box; that you have a good many medicines the exact 
uses of wlaicli you have forgotten and 5^ou neglected to label them at the time of their 
use, and you are not certain what they are and what they are good for; but as they 
ouce were useful, cost money, and may still be valuable, you do not want to waste 
them. "Bnt what shall 1 do with them?" Burn them^FoUyl Burn every blessed 
powder, pill, tincture, and syrup you have, which is not so marked and labelled that 
you k)iow just what it is and what it is good for. Do you say that this is sheer waste 
of what cost money? Then take them to some good chemist and get him to analyze 
them so that you may know just what they are, — he won't charge more than $5 to $10 



LABELLING MEDICINES. 25 

for each analysis. "What! give $5 to analyze some stuff that did not cost more than 
a dollar? That would be saving money with a vengeance!" Just so! But suppose 
you save your precious medicines, and some day John has an ague chill and you do 
not think it is worth while to send for a doctor ; all he needs is a few doses of quinine, 
and you give him what you guess is quinine but is really strychnine, and John is dou- 
bled up like a whip-cord with convulsions and dies before you can say Jack Kobinson, 
— how much have you made by the operation? Or suppose baby has the colic, and 
you give a little of what you suppose to be laudanum but what turns out to be extract 
of veratrum, and baby vomits himself to death or dies in a fainting fit? The fact is, 
funerals are costly affairs if done up in style, and life itself is worth something if you 
look at it in the right light. 

Polly, burn up the whole blessed lot. Do not try to save money and run such ter- 
rible risks. Besides this, you dose your family too much. If any little colic or child- 
ish ailment overtakes them, down goes a dose of something whether necessary or 
unnecessary. You do not feel that you have done your motherly duty unless every 
ailment "receives its just recompense of reward" in the shape of a dose of something. 
You are tempted tluis daily. Remember that wonderful little prayer you repeat so 
conscientiously every morning, and when you say " lead us not into temptation," think 
of your temptation to dose, and burn up the old medicine box. 

Did you ever stop to think what a misfortune is the feeling that you must be for- 
ever dosing in order to keep well? God never made our throat a mere tunnel down 
which to pour nauseous medicines. Eemember the epitaph on the Spaniard's tomb- 
stone : " I was well, wanted to be better; took physic, and died." 

If any of you are really sick, send at once to some doctor who is chockfull of com- 
mon sense instead of awful Greek words and wonderful cures, and let him say what is 
the matter and what to do. If he does not give a particle of medicine, but only says 
"Jemmiemust not eat green apples and sweetcake,— only bread and milk,— and he 
Avill come out all right in a day or two," do not feel that you have been cheated out 
of a few doses of medicine. If the doctor can cure you with medicine, well; if with- 
out medicine, better ! But while you are sick let the doctor decide what shall be done ; 
when you get well I need not say that you will take the reins in your own hands. 

Xow you may call me all the hard names you please ; it won't hurt me, and will re- 
lieve you somewhat. I always like to see folks enjoy themselves and "speak their 
mind." But whatever you say or do, burn up all the medicines you have that are not 
distinctly and accurately labelled, and then remember 

I am your crabbed but loving uncle, 

BLUE PILL, M. D. 

It has been proposed in the American Pharmaceutical Association, I believe, 
to have bottles made of different and characteristic forms for different kinds of 
medicine; one form where the medicine is designed solely for external use, an- 
other form for those containing medicines for internal use, a third form when 
the medicine is of a dangerous quality unless carefully administered, etc, etc. 
One claim made for tliese variously formed bottles is that they may be distin- 
guished by the touch and thus recognized in the dark. My advice is not to go 
in the dark in any sense on so important a subject. If a person is sick enough 
to require medicine, he is sick enough to require a light by which to administer 
the remedy. 

Besides this, tlie bottles, when once emptied will be cleaned up by the house- 
wife and then filled with other medicines, and all possibility of identifying the 
nature of the medicine by the form of the bottles would cease speedily in most 
families. The bottles might become a source of danger instead of safety in 
such cases. 

Since this report was Avritten, tlie following illustration of the danger of using 
unlabelled medicines has appeared in the public prints, and I insert it here : 

Poisoned. — The Ovid Register says: The wife of Frederick Cranson, of 
Duplain Township, one of the first settlers of the county, came to her death 
.suddenly on Friday last, at the age of sixty-nine years, under the following 



26 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

painful circumstances : Feeling somewhat indisposed at tlie time, Mrs. Cran- 
son thought she would take a dose of quinine, and stepping into the pantry 
swallowed a quantity of strychnine tliat had been purchased for poisoning rats 
an indefinite lengtli of time previously. Spasms immediately ensued, and in 
fifteen or twenty minutes, and before any assistance could be rendered, she 
was dead. The poisoning was jiurely the result of mistake or forgetful ness, as 
a neighboring lady who had called upon her, having expressed an intentiou of 
taking some quinine, Mrs. Cranson informed the visitor that she had the 
article in the house and invited the lady to partake of it, which she fortunately 
declined, and left the house as Mrs, Cranson proceeded to take herself what 
she undoubtedly supposed to be quinine. — Detroit Free Press, August 21. 

In my opinion the only safe and feasible way to prevent accidents in the use 
of medicines is to label every medicine, giving the name and dose of the medi- 
cine. If a medicine is not worth labelling it is not worth keeping ; label or 
BURN ! But if for any reason a medicine has lost its label or has never been 
labelled, never administer it to any person or animal in whose happiness, health, 
or life you feel any interest or care. Never trust to your memory, on this sub- 
ject, or to the position in which you usually place a given bottle of medicine. 
Be sure you arc right before you go ahead in administering any medimie what- 
ever. The subject is so important that I repeat the Avarning : Label every 

MEDICINE AND EVERT SUBSTANCE WHICH BY ANY POSSIBILITY MAY BE MISTA- 
KEN FOR MEDICINE ; NEVER ADMINISTER AS MEDICINE ANY SUBSTANCE OF THE 

COMPOSITION OF WHICH YOU ARE IGNORANT OR IN DOUBT. The patient may 
possibly die for want of medicine, but you have the consolation that he did not 
die by your act; but if he dies because of some substance which you have mis- 
takenly administered as medicine, your soul will be harrowed with unavailing 
remorse, more bitter than death, and more cruel than the grave ! 
Agricultural College, August 15, 1877. 



RECREATIONS 



COXSIDERED -VVITII REFERENCE TO 

Their Iistfluence on Health. 



An Essay, Read at the Annual Meeting of the Michigan State Boari> 
OF Health, at Lansing, April 10, 1877, 

By EEV. CHARLES H. BRIGHAM, 

MEMBER OF THE 

S T .A. T E B O .A_ I^ ID OIF H E _A_ L T H , 
And Its Committee on Occupations, Eecreations, Etc. 



RECREATIONS AND HEALTH. 



AN ESSAY, READ TO THE MICHIGAN STATE BOARD OF HEALTH, APRIL 10, 1877, 

BY CHARLES H. BRIGHAM. 



Work and play are usually brought into sharp antagonism in our familiar 
speech, as if each excluded the other, and there were between them only the 
relation of opposition. They are viewed as conditions of life essentially hostile, 
— the one as a state of toil and bondage, the other as a state of ease and release. 
The popular notion of heaven is that it is a state or place from which all work 
is put away, in which there is only enjoyment. Even in the opposite place or 
state, work is equally put away, in hell there is nothing but suffering and 
misery. The Greek Tartarus, indeed, made hard work part of the torment ; 
Tantalus reaching vainly for fruits, and Sisyphus rolling his stone, were 
wretched forever in their endless toil. But the Christian contrast between the 
final state of soul and the present state of soul is mainly between the active and 
passive states. Work is the law of the earthly life, pleasure is the law of the 
heavenly life ; and however much work may be urged as a blessing, the time is 
predicted when work shall come to its end, and only rest and leisure shall re- 
main. In the golden streets there will be no need of repairs, and the happy 
ones in their bliss will not have a highway tax to work out, as they have in these 
mundane regions where the pavements are of wood, or stone, or gravel. The 
occupation there is not work. It is only infinite and never-ending play. 

To the grim Puritan work was not only the law of human life, but the 
tyrannous and exclusive law. In this short scene of probation a man had no 
right to waste liis time in vain amusement, or to anticipate the time of the dis- 
embodied life. Sports were not to intrude into this scheme of service. Every 
moment must be spent in useful labor. Work was the lieritage of the race, 
and the only duty for mortal men in this mortal life. Play of any kind was 
the destruction of soul. This Puritan idea never did, and never could, over- 
come the natural instinct of men ; could not banish the smile, or hinder the 
sense of the ludicrous where God had given a genial temperament. The babies 
of the Puritans had their sports and their mischief, which could ilot be whipped 
away, even by those who were most strict in obeying Solomon's maxim of the 
rod and the child. No tlicory has ever been so rigid that seasons of enjoyment 
and methods of enjoyment have not had recognition in it. Those who could 
not get recreation from the sports upon the green, or the loud laughter in the 



30 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— REPOKT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

gatherings, have been allowed to find it in the meetings for prayer and in the 
decent psalm singing. Nay, the fact that the Puritan assigned psalm singing 
as the delight of heaven is a proof that he accepted this as an earthly recrea- 
tion. It was an interval of play in the course of his conscientious and steady 
•work. And the joy of this religious amusement continually denied the feeling 
which was heavy in so many devout souls that all joy was sin, and that any 
sense of pleasure in life ought to be confessed and lamented. 

No one now pretends to hold any theory of that kind. Eecreation now is 
regarded as a condition of life as honorable, as natural, as proper, and as 
useful, as the condition of work. The nursery distich about play and work is 
taught as sound philosophy. Eecreation is just as necessary as labor. With- 
out seasons of play work is spoiled of much of its value. Jack becomes a dull 
boy when he does nothing but work, and a ''dull boy" is not better than a 
''mere toy." Into every wise scheme of training recreation enters, and the 
life that allows no opportunity for this is only a prolonged suicide. As the 
Hebrew preacher tells, there is a time to laugh and a time to dance, as well as 
a time to plant and a time to build up. To make one cajjable of efficient 
work, there must be a chance to play. This is equally necessary, whatever the 
kind of labor may be, whether it be with the brain or with the hand, whether 
it be hard work or easy, light work or heavy. The physiologist tells us, that 
there can be no safety unless there shall be some kind of relaxation; that even 
when there is variety in work, there must be something which is not felt to be 
work, and has not that quality; that amusement is just as much an element of 
spiritual health as the most congenial toil; and that it is a woful mistake 
for any to say or to feel that they have no need of recreation or can get along 
without it altogether. A child who never plays is not what a child ought to be, 
however diligent he may be in his studies, and is a portentous phenomenon, 
even wlien his loving parents parade his wonderful precocity; and a man who 
never plays, and never cares to unbend, is only half a man, even if his capacity 
be conspicuous. 

But is there necessarily any distinction between work and play, it may be 
asked. Are not the same faculties, physical and mental, exercised in both? Do 
we not use the same muscles, nerves, senses, voice, and hand and foot, and brain 
in one as in the other? What is there peculiar in play? Is it any more than a 
slightly different arrangement of materials, a slightly different combination? 
Why cannot work pass into play without any actual change? Does not recrea- 
tion, continued by form and rule, become very hard work? Military drill, for 
instance, at first good fun, becomes in a little time irksome penance. The son 
of the house thinks it delightful to sweep out the store in the morning, but the 
apprentice hates it ; it is vexatious drudgery, and it will be nothing else, even if 
he is pious, and has read old George Herbert's lines about the servant and the 
fine action which comes in obeying the clause about the Divine law. Work and 
play may be identical in the material which they use, but they are not identical 
in the feeling which they arouse. The man who feels no fatigue in a day's 
hard tramp with a heavy gun on his shoulder, will dread the fatigue of half a 
dozen miles of walk in the way of duty. No amount of will and resolution can 
transform into play what is felt to be work, the task and the appointment of 
the day's toil. That one loves work and is constitutionally industrious, does 
not transmute the labor into recreation. A task is not a game, however hard 
one may make believe that it is. And when one finds that the sport which he 
has taken up is really hard work, he becomes disgusted with it. 



RECREATIONS AND THE PUBLIC HEALTH. 31 

And the best benefit of play is realized only when we have the feeling that 
this is not work and has not the end of work ; when we do not ask in our enjoy- 
ment what profit there is to be in this, what income it will bring; when it is 
pleasure for pleasure's sake, and not with any ulterior end of gain. When 
pleasure becomes business, then it ceases to be pleasure. Tlie pleasure in win- 
ning matches at base ball is very much alloyed, when the prize-money is the 
main thing; or perhaps the club wins the money by proxy, by picked players 
whom they hire and pay for their service. It is quite possible to make work out 
of pleasure, even more than it is possible to make pleasure out of work. 
Dancing, for instance, is an amusement which most persons take as a play the 
farthest off from work. Yet there is just as much drudgery in keeping a 
dancing-school as in keeping a grammar-school or in working in a machine 
shop. And we sometimes see individuals who take np sawing wood as the most 
healthful of pastimes relinquish it in a little time as the most hateful and wear- 
isome of all pleasures. Men cannot be beguiled by the argument that play is 
the same thing as work, and that if they only have work enough they have all 
the recreation that they need : that sophistry cannot deceive. Those peasants 
upon the Nile are not reconciled to their toil in lifting the shadoof, because 
every traveller who goes up that river is eager to try his skill in raising those 
buckets, and showing how easily it is all done. It is sport to the traveller, but 
it is pain and weariness and death to the workmen. Work is not merely play 
under a changed name. There is an essential difference in the idea. 

An accurate classification of recreations as to character and value is not easy 
to be made, and there is no rule which we may safely follow. There is no abso- 
lute criterion of judgment. Eecreations vary according to age. What are good 
for children may not be good for men and women. The sports of boyhood 
would be intolerably tedious to manhood, not to say most inappropriate. An 
octogenarian on skates is a pitiful object, and he deserves the derisive laugh 
when he 'measures his length upon the ice. When Mr. Dick, as in Dickens' 
story, finds his joy in flying kites, he is fit for a lunatic hospital. Mrs. BardelFs 
little son may play at ''alleytors" and "commoners," with "knuckledown ;" 
but Mr. Pickwick's good sense is badly impaired, if he is moved to join in that 
sport. It is ridiculous business for a full-grown man or woman to carry about 
a doll, even if its name be the "Bambino," and it be a doll of miracle. When 
one becomes a man, he puts away childish things, in sport as much as in thought. 
The games of childhood are not only much more numerous than those of man- 
hood, filling more time, but they are different in kind from those of manhood. 
The difference here is not merely a difference of proportion, but a difference of 
fact. And when we see a people like the Italians, perhaps, holding on in mature 
years to the sports of infancy, we have slight hope of manly self-government 
and self-respect from such people. They seem like overgrown children, from 
whom no great thing is to be expected. The shouts which echo in the noise of 
the groups in Home and J^faplcs are not much more than the jargon of school- 
boys, mimic contests of boys in their play. 

2. Recreations differ, moreover, according to sex. Even the most enthusias- 
tic advocates of woman's rights will hardly insist that the sexes naturally find 
pleasure in the same things. The question of sex goes into recreation as into 
work, and sisters find themselves separate from brothers in the things which 
give joy. This line of sex, indeed, is less marked and positive than it was 
some years ago. Sports are now allowed and favored for women which a 
former generation would not have tolerated for them. They skate and they 



32 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— EEPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

swim, and they even shoot with gun and pistol, as in the days of chivalry tliey 
shot arrows at a mark, and vied under the greenwood with Robin Hood and his 
archers. Yet in spite of this larger liberality, there is a marked separation in 
the sports of the sexes, marked by inclination as well as by social custom. 
Some sports which exhilarate one sex are stupid and unmeaning to the other, 
as much in childhood as in adult life. The needle-work, which is the running 
accompaniment to most of the pleasure of women, is weariness of flesh to every 
man who has not been trained as a tailor. And happily, very few women in 
civilized lands can find that enjoyment in chewing the Indian weed, which is 
such a sweet morsel upon the tongues of husbands and brothers. While there 
are numerous sports which the sexes can keep in common and can enjoy 
together, there are others which belong to the sexes apart, and cannot be 
shared or mutually appreciated. The character of the amusement which the 
man prefers goes very far to show whether or not he is effeminate ; whether, like 
Mr. Angelo Cyrus Bantam, he is dear to lovers of the ballroom as an "M. C," 
"Master of Ceremonies," or like Mr. Gladstone, is an ''M. A.," "Master of 
Arts," from Oxford. 

3. A third ground of difference in recreations, is climate. Some of the most 
exciting and health-giving of sports can only be enjoyed while the atmospheric 
conditions are favorable. They must vary with the general temperature of the 
place or with the season of the year. There are sports of hot regions and of 
cold regions, of the summer and the winter. To commend skating to the 
Egyptians and Hindoos would hardly be judicious, since they know ice only as 
the costly luxury for keeping food and for cooling drinks. To be sure, now that 
parlor skates are coming into fashion, and rolling wheels are taking the place 
of the gliding irons, the counsel is not so preposterous, and tlie hot regions may 
be blessed by this supple motion, appropriate to the lands of snakes and lizards. 
But there are certain sports of which it cannot be said that they have all seasons 
as their own. There is a periodicity in pleasure, known to the boys in the house- 
hold, and not unknown to children of a larger growth, — known to the American 
Indians, as to the youth of the cities. S2:)ring brings its round of amusement, 
summer follows with a different train, and then autumn brings its own. The 
well regulated mind observes this order, with no wish to infringe upon the rule 
or to confound the distinction. Unquestionably the sports of some nations 
widely separated in temperature and position have a strong family resemblance, 
as in the Scotcli game of golf and tlie Oriental game of polo ; and there are 
others which seem to fit themselves to all climates, like the migrating birds, 
which thrive under the tropics or on the crags of Labrador. Yet the tempera- 
ture and season are a fit measure, to a considerable degree, of the fitness of the 
amusement. 

4. Place and habit of life make another ground of difference among recrea- 
tions. There are the sports of the city and of the country, sports of rude life 
and of refined life, sports of class as well as age and sex. The sports which 
belong to London in England would not be congenial to London in Canada. 
The brilliant delights of Paris in France, where night is turned into day, would 
not be the social cheer of Paris in Maine, where they go to bed in the early 
evening, or find their pleasure in spelling-matches in place of the "cafes clian- 
tants." Home in New York has probably not yet adopted the profane amuse- 
ment of Home in Italy. A uniform standard cannot be fixed for the recreations 
of the backwoods and of the metropolis, and the lumberman must woo sleep 
with other visions than tliose of a Detroit ballroom. There is a fitness of 



RECREATIONS AND THE PUBLIC IIEAI/ril. 33 

custom to recreation which cannot be disre<^arded. Tlie ])o\ver of adivptution to 
the habits of the country, in this nnxtter of aniusenient, is a rare and valuable 
gift for those who travel, and it is an important art to conceal the disgust wliich 
these different kinds of sport excite. The dancing of the western nations is 
quite unlike the dancing of the eastern nations, and those who enjoy the one 
are annoyed by the ways and movements of the other. Before commending or 
condemning an}' sport, we have to consider its relation to the methods of life in 
the place where it is found. The horror at the European way of keeping Sun- 
day is greatly mitigated when we consider that it is the regular holiday, to be 
kept as the traditional holiday, and that church-going is only one of its ideas. 
The Frenchman, the German, the Italian, the Greek, see no such profanation 
in the way they take their pleasure on the Lord's day. They have never learned 
to regard it only as an extreme form of the Jewish Sabbath. 

5. Another, and a very frequent way of dividing between recreations is by 
the phrase ^' In-door''^ and ^'Oiit of door.'' Expressive as this seems to be, it 
is by no means as sure as the other divisions we have noticed, and is really very 
inaccurate. For of the sports that would be classed as "In-door," many can 
be enjoyed in the open air ; and of the out of door sports, many are most safely 
used under cover. Still, though the two kinds closely intermingle, there is a 
distinction which we recognize in the case of many of the more noted sports. 
All kinds of racing and chasing, of hunting and running, must be done out of 
doors. Field sports are a very distinct chiss from drawing-room sports. "We 
have parlor croquet, and table ninepins ; but there is no running with the 
hounds on the parlor floor, and there is no playing of cricket upon the table. 
And many persons look down upon in-door amusements as a contemptible 
variety, hardly worthy of the name, hardly fit to be classed with manly sports. 
A cricketer has no envy of one whose walk is only round a billiard board. Yet, 
in spite of this contempt, a very large proportion of the joy of society and of 
individuals, is found in these despised in-door sports, which give pleasure to 
millions who are wholly hindered from sports of the other variety, and have, 
on the whole, much more convenience, are cheaper and are safer than sports of 
the outdoor kind. 

6. Another division of recreations is suggested by the faculties brought into 
use, whether muscle or nerve, whether of the hand or the brain, of the body or the 
mind. There are some sports which are physical, others which are mental. A 
game of football is exercise of the body, a game of chess is exercise of the brain. 
In not a few cases botli body and mind are exercised together, and indeed in most 
muscular exercise the brain has also its share ; though there may be brain recre- 
ations in which muscle has little or nothing to do. In the close interaction of 
mental and physical force, in their practical fusion, it is difficult to separate 
active and sedentary amusements. What acts upon one part of our duplex and 
complex being, acts upon the other. Muscular pleasure acts upon the mind not 
less surely than the amusement applied directly to the mind, and the reverse of 
this rule holds to some extent. As a sanitary agent, mental relaxation is quite 
as real as bodily relaxation. For good or for evil, the sight of a drama or a 
spectacle of the street, is as powerful upon the physical system as upon mental 
perceptions. One who looks on upon a pageant from the window gets the ben- 
efit of the movement in his nerves and veins quite as much as one who walks 
in the procession. Sitting still is more genuine exercise, in the hygienic sense of 
that word, than walking or running, when the body is already fatigued. And 
the apparent paradox is true, that absolute rest is sometimes the best exhilara- 



34 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— EEPOET OF SECRETAEY, 1S77. 

tion. Sleep is often the best of all bodily recreations, and there is no sport so 
delightful as the drowsiness which steals upon the eyelids, and the blessed 
oblivion which annihilates the world, its joys and its cares at once. J^i^ay, sleep 
and physical exercise often come close together, as when the infant is rocked in 
the cradle, or the sailor is rocked in the cradle of the deep. There are some 
who become excessively sleepy from riding on the back of a camel, whose 
motion is a perpetual rocking and shaking to the bones of the rider. The 
combination and miugliug of brain pleasure and hand pleasure only gives to 
recreation more zest and value. 

7. Nationality, again, is a ground of division among sports, an artificial 
division, but none the less real for that. There are some amusements which 
suit well the people of one nation, but are not acceptable to the people of 
another, independently of the difference of climate, or of temperament. In 
Spain, for instance, the bull-fight is the national sport. That is the recreation 
of the people, high and low, old and young ; and no other nation has that sport 
or can ever tolerate it. It Avould be utterly impossible to inaugurate that sport 
in Paris, or London, or Boston. Even the countenance of the leaders of fashion 
could not make it pojiular. Base ball is called the national game of America, 
as cricket is the national game of England ; and thus far tlie attempts to plant 
these games on foreign soil have not been successful. The Carnival is the 
national sport of the Italian cities and especially of Rome. An American 
Carnival is only a ludicrous absurdity, however painstaking the imitation may 
seem to be. Sports grow out of the national spirit, and they characterize the 
national spirit ; and a trained eye can recognize the shades of difference in tlie 
methods of different peoples in their sports. I heard a western pioneer say 
that one could tell the difference between scaljis taken by the Sioux and the 
Sac Indians. In the one case, the scalp lock was larger than in the other. And 
it was once said of the matches between boys in Boston and Charlestown 
adjoining, that the boys of one town threw their stones with the left hand 
while those of the other threw their stones with the right hand. If we 
may take drinking as a form of recreation, national taste here rules, for the 
beverages are national. There is hardly a nation which has not this mark to 
distinguish it. The Mexicans have their pulque, and the Syrians their arrakee, 
which mark them as distinctly as their costumes and their dialect. 

8. Eecreations are separated, once more, by their morality and decency. 
Some are rude, boisterous, violent ; while others are refined, graceful, chaste, 
and dignified. There are some recreations which are perfectly proper for pure 
and sensitive persons to take part in, while others are repulsive to the sense of 
decency, and wound all fine sensibilities. There are some amusements which 
the sexes cannot join in together, to which a brother would not ask a sister. If 
all amusements to which morality has objection Avere stricken out of the list, 
the list would be much shorter than it is. There is a considerable class of 
sports to which those Avho enjoy them are not altogether morally reconciled, of 
which they are half ashamed, and which they do not attempt absolutely to 
defend. Yet among these immoral recreations are those wliich are popular and 
fashionable. The game of jjojccr, for instance, which an American ambassador 
made a special study, amusing and popular as it is, is not a game in which 
experts make very loud boast. It may be good to drive away melancholy, but 
is not quite decent in good society. 

The mention of all these grounds of discrimination among amusements sliows 
how difficult is anv exact classification. Xo rule can be uniform for all classes. 



RECREATIONS AXD THE PUBLIC HEALTH. 35 

There can l)e no revised and finished scheme of recreation auywliere. New 
varieties are continually brought forward, and the inventors of new games 
are as well employed as the inventors of new machines. Every year brings out 
more sports to vary the pleasure of the house or the field. And time carries 
away some amusements which were once in great favor. The games of the 
last generation are largely forgotten in this generation, and rarely now do 
blind-man's-buff, and sports of that kind, enliven the domestic merrymakings. 
In stationary nations the games are stationary, too; but in progressive nations, 
the games have to meet the general law. 

Can we make any general definition of good recreation in its bearing on 
health, which shall cover particular kinds and varieties? Perhaps as good a 
concise statement as can be made is, that the best recreation is that which 
gives the most exhilaration to mind and body, with most economy of time and 
strength, and with the least danger to life and limb. Stimulus, concentration, 
safety, these are the criteria of good recreations. And with this general 
formula we arc prepared to consider those particular kinds of amusement 
which hold their place, and are acknowledged as the material and source 
through which health comes to the community. The amusements of society 
are not so numerous as its occupations. There are more kinds of work than 
there are of play. Yet there are many more amusements than Ave might at 
first think, amusements both of in-door and outdoor life. 

1. The most important of all the recreations, used by the largest number, 
the cheapest, the most natural, the safest and the most effective, is the 
amusement of walking. By general confession, this is the best of all varieties 
of exercise. It may not meet all needs, but it meets more varieties of need 
than anything else. In fact, there is hardly any ill that flesh is heir to, hardly 
any kind of disease, which may not be prevented or cured, if taken in time, by 
persistent and regular walking in the open air. No panacea is so sure. 
There are fewer risks, too, in this than in other kinds of exercise. Limbs are 
in less danger from accidents, and it is less probable that any physical organ 
will be unduly stimulated. Walking has so much share in the works and cares 
of life, that it may seem unsuitable to speak of it as recreation. But it is 
better when it is viewed as pleasure rather than viewed as duty. Conscientious 
walking has its value, and it is not true that walking for the sake of the exer- 
cise is useless and ineffectual. It is more effective when it is not felt to be 
work, but as work it is a great deal better than nothing. But the more it is 
felt to be pleasure, and the hygienic purpose is kept out of sight, the more 
effective it is. There is no keener pleasure than a swift walk with an agreea- 
ble companion, in elastic air, and with pleasant scenery to look upon. Walk- 
ing involves much more than the mere stretching of the muscles, and movement 
of the limbs. It gives a rhythmical harmony to all parts of the system, and 
the mind feels it as much as the body. It is a social amusement, and one that 
is best enjoyed in company with others. And it is good for all ages and 
classes. One makes a poor confession when he boasts that he does not need to 
walk, because he has horses to carry him. There is danger to the health of 
any community, when men and women have to use the muscles of animals to 
supply the place of their own starved and flabby muscles. The multiplication 
of horse cars in our cities is by no means an unalloyed good, and does quite as 
much harm in destroying strength as it does good in saving from fatigue and 
exposure. It is bad that any convenience should discredit what is so exciting 
and spontaneous as the amusement of walking, or that fashion should set a ban 



3C STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SliCRETARY, 1S77. 

upon this. No folly of fashion can be more preposterous tlian tlic folly tliat 
Avill call a carriage to take home from the concert or the lecture those, who have 
been sitting all the evening in a close room or in a constrained position, and 
now need just the stimulus that a good walk would give them. In fact the 
walk to and from places of amusement is really in many cases more valuable 
than the play itself, more invigorating, a more genuine spiritual tonic. 

And yet this salutary and natural form of exercise is liable to abuse. These 
matches against time and premiums upon excessive walking are worse than 
foolish. Such performances as those of Elwood the pedestrian, and Bertha 
von Hillern, are condemned by good sense as pernicious and dangerous. Walk- 
ing which involves excessive strain of the physical organs, loss of sleep, irregu- 
larity of appetite, anxiety and distress, which is simply rapid and monotonous 
plodding around a fixed circle, or up and down in a room, is an injury much 
more than a benefit. The efi'ort to walk a thousand miles in a thousand con- 
secutive hours, or to walk 100 miles in 26 hours, and all such performances 
are to the last degree foolish, however they may show endurance and resolu- 
tion. They are the worst perversion of a good thing. This passion for long 
and fast walking defeats the best purpose of the exercise. There is a healthy 
limit here, both in speed and in distance. "Too fast and too far" may indi- 
cate a danger which offsets all the gain of tliis amusement. 

2. liunnmg is an amusement not very common with adult men in our time 
and land. The Greeks and Komans had it in their arena, and the red Indians 
practised it from infancy. It is the irrepressible habit of childhood, and is 
characteristic of the young of all animals. It is to bo regretted that the power 
of safe running is so easily impaired for the human race, and that so few have 
the power to resist this strain upon heart and lungs. Why should restless 
children, active as swallows upon the wing, so soon grow into rotund citizens, 
whose tread must always be sedate and measured? But few, even of the stu- 
dents of our colleges, emulate the crowning grace of Homer's hero. And there 
is little hope that this ancient delight will come again mto favor. Compara- 
tively few at the "cattle shows," enter as contestants in the foot races. 

3. Hiding on horsehach is an amusement which docs not lose its charm by 
familiarity. Those who enjoy it most are usually those who have practised it 
longest. As a hygienic remedy it has some very great benefits and some disad- 
vantages along with these. It adjusts admirably important physical functions, 
and reaches hepatic disorders more effectually perhaps than any kind of exer- 
cise. It cheers up the spirits and dispels morbid sensations, gives a sense of 
power, opens the chest to fresher breath, and enlarges the capacity for breath- 
ing. But on the otlier hand there is serious risk in this exercise. There is 
risk -in trusting one's limbs to the care of another animal, however docile, sure- 
footed or sound that animal may bo. A sudden fright, the contagion of 
excitement, many kinds of accident may make this wholesome sport a danger 
and a menace. The imagined control of the rider may be delusive. Especially 
for women, in the j^osition which social decency requires of them, and with the 
dress which they are compelled to wear, is there great risk in equestrian exer- 
cise; and some physicians maintain that more diseases come upon women from 
horseback riding than are cured by tliat process, that more functions suffer 
harm than are adjusted. Htemorrhoidal tumors are one of tlie most frequent 
of the penalties of this joy, and disease of the spine is caused by the unnatural 
posture which has to be taken. As between the general good and evil of this 
exercise, there is not much to choose. Adding to the obvious d lingers, the 



RECREATIONS AND THE PUBLIC HEALTH. 37 

unsuitable liours at Avliich the exercise is taken, on au empty stonuich before 
breakfast, tlic excessive heat and violent pers2)iration generated, and there is 
hardly a balance on the side of good from the exercise. 

4. Kindred to this is the amusement of driving, which also has its good and 
and bad sides. It has some of the same risks as riding, \vhile it has much less of 
physical excitement. There is very little good physical exercise in being drawn over 
a smooth road in a luxurious carriage hung upon yielding springs, and uphol- 
stered with soft cushions. There is the fresh air, and the breeze in some direc- 
tions. But when driving is felt as a luxury, it has much less hygienic value. 
The cart witliout springs is undoubtedly healthier, though it may bring more 
torment than joy. And carriages of all kinds are liable to be overturned, to 
break down, or to be dashed to pieces. There is no recreation more precarious 
than that of racing with horses, whether on the highway or on the race course. 
The great danger hero comes from the fact that the principal joy comes in the 
speed of the movement. Slow driving is tedious and annoying. If we cannot 
go rapidly we would rather walk. Fast driving is the passion, more or less, of 
those who love driving at all. And many sympathize with the clergyman, who 
said that he drove fast to illustrate his advice not to waste time ; he thought it 
as great a sin to waste time upon the road as to waste it in tlie house, or any- 
where else. It may be that driving prolongs life, as it compels men to be more 
in the open air; it is said that Vanderbilt attributed his vigorous constitution 
to this source. But as matter of fact, horse jockeys are not usually long-lived 
men, more than musicians or miners, Not only are they exposed to fatal acci- 
dents, but they suffer from pulmonary complaints, the results of exposure and 
of recklessness. They are more likely not to live out half of their days than to 
die at a good old age, 

5, Siuimming is another amusement of great hygienic im])ortance, fascinating 
to those who are expert in it, Man is not an ampliibious animal, and the civ- 
ilized infant, if we may use such a term, unlike the young of other animals, 
does not swim naturally, and has to be taught, often with infinite pains and diffi- 
culty. But the infants of many savage races take to the water almost as readily 
as ducks, and need no training in this art. Of course, this recreation can only 
be for a small part of the year and at a particular season, nor is it a recreation 
which all enjoy. But the most who practise it are passionately fond of it. It 
is an exercise at once of exhilaration and of cleanliness, acting upon the skin 
and upon the nerves, and giving a sense of strength and of purification. Yet 
it has its dangers, which with many seem to nullify its value. Some consci- 
entious and careful fathers will not allow their children to learn to swim. The 
risk of cramp and drowning, of taking cold in coming from the bath, outweighs 
all the good of the purification and invigoration. The loss of life every year 
from this recreation is quite considerable, and, if the statistics were gathered 
into a mass, would seem almost frightful. And there is great liability to excess 
in this kind of sport. Not a few of those who were accustomed to bathe in the 
surf at Newport have given up the practice altogether, feeling that it rather 
weakens than braces their bodies ; and some who own villas in that charming 
watering place, and have the beach convenient at hand, never once go into the 
water in the whole season, and say that they feel all the better for omitting the 
bathing. The cool air bath, loaded with mists and exhalations from the sea, 
is quite enougli to satisfy them. Swimming is an amusement which to be 
healthy and safe must be guarded by very sharp restriction, and be confined to 
special places. The water cure, in any kind, is a questionable blessing, and 



38 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1S77. 

not to be commended as a universal or an infallible remed_y. There are syrens 
in the deep, even when everything seems safe upon the surface, whose insidious 
charm is more fatal than the jaws of the sharks. And those most careful of 
their health may become victims of these sj^irits of the deep. 

6. The amusement of skating is the counterpart of swimming. Like that, it 
can only be enjoyed at a particular season, and for a small part of the yeav. 
In Holland and in some other northern lands, it is recognized as an approved 
form of locomotion ; journeys are made upon skates, and time is so economized. 
As an invigorating sport it can hardly be surpassed. Yet there are serious 
objections to it when carried to excess, as it is apt to be. There are dangerous 
reactions in a sport so violent. Limbs are in peril from fall and fracture. The 
binding cords around the feet hinder jiroper circulation of the blood ; and the 
best physicians discourage the sport for women, as injurious to the pelvis, and 
the reproductive organs. The favor for the amusement which was so strong 
some twenty years ago, has been very largely withdrawn, and the skating rink 
is much less a place of resort than it was. Yet for young men who have no 
tendency to organic disease, this form of amusement is one of the best, and 
irndoubtedly helps to lay in a stock of health and strength in the winter 
months. The roller variety of skating has not so genuine a charm, and is 
attended with nearly as many risks, and it is not likely to come into very gen- 
eral use. It has no advantage over walking, in any hygienic respect. 

7. Ball plai/ing, in its various forms, is a sport which does not seem to 
become tiresome or to wear out in favor. Almost all the nations have it in 
one kind or another. Children enjoy it, and men enjoy it, and even school- 
girls find delight in throwing the ball from hand to hand. It captivates the 
college student as much as the bashful rustic. Indeed, skill in ball playing is 
now as much credit to a student as skill in Greek or mathematics, and the 
University is as proud of her pitchers and her catchers as of her first scholars. 
New forms of this amusement are continually introduced, and the rules of each 
variety are drawn up in more exact system. Yet this ball exercise, in any form, 
is not absolutely safe. The bat is a dangerous weapon in the hands of a bungler, 
and its blow not unfrequently falls in the w'rong place. Dislocated joints, 
wounded hands, eyes blackened, and teeth knocked out, are the signs of zeal 
in these contests, as much the scars of the duel on the face of a German. If 
ball exercise brings suppleness to the limbs and agility to the system, it leaves 
also deformities, which sometimes are lifelong, suppleness dearly purchased 
at the cost of these deformities. And in some of the foreign varieties of the 
sport which have been introduced, there are other risks. Ball play on horse- 
back, which is the plain English of the chivalric game of Polo, has the excite- 
ment of a steeple chase, in addition to the hard knocks and disasters incident 
to ordinary ball playing. Torn clothes are not the worst penalty that one has 
to pay in the rush and jostle of the foot-ball match; and the blue stockings 
become red as the runners are struck by the flying missiles. Yet making due 
allowance for the accidents and disasters, the hygienic value of these ball 
sports is certainly high, and the good in the saving of doctor's bills, and the 
prevention of chronic maladies is real and unquestionable. The manly sport 
of cricket has done a great deal for the physical vigor of the English race, and 
the racing and chasing in the game of golf have done much to eradicate the 
evil in the perfervid temper of the canny Scot, and to oifset the bad influence 
of his favorite beverage. 

8. The name of sjjoi-tsman is technically and specially given to one who 



RECREATIOXS AXD THE PUBLIC HEALTH. 39 

slioots with gnu or rifle, and whose sport is found in the destruction of the life of 
animals or of birds. To object to this destruction is treated only as squeamish 
sentimentality. And many scorn all idea that any wrong is done in destroying 
these inferior lives. A grand day's sport comes -when the talc of death is long, 
and when the "bag" is full. This kind of recreation is counted as tlie man- 
liest, the most in harmony "with man's divine prerogative. Most Ijoys get a sense 
of new importance and feel that they are men, Avhen the wished for gun is given 
to them. And it is undeniable tliat some important spiritual faculties come 
into this sport as into no other, patience, endurance, discipline to eye and ear; 
that while the sport is destructive enough, it is instructive too. Many a natu- 
ralist got the direction of his taste and his knowledge from his training as a 
sportsman. Such recreation, certainly, will hardly make men kind, humane, 
and tender-hearted. Yet it has scientific, not less than liygienic, value. And 
it makes the material for the army when men are called into the service of 
their country. It trains men for patriotic duties. Yet this sport ^vill hardly 
meet the test of safety to life and limb. The enthusiastic sportsman takes 
many needless risks, exposes himself to the peril of long tramps in unwhole- 
some regions, to loss of food at his regular hours, to hunger and fasting, and 
wet feet, and excessive fatigue, beside the treacherous dealing of villainous 
saltpetre. His gun may burst, or may go off too hastily. He may have to 
fight -with the animals which he wounds before he can capture them. Sooner 
or later, however fortunate he may be, tlie persistent sportsman is sure to come 
to grief. The old distich ran "And he that will a gunning go, will surely die 
a beggar." He is very likely to die by a sudden and untimely death. Not 
much will be lost, if moral considerations can set a ban upon this fascinating 
sport. 

Some of the objections to this sport of hunting apply equally to the sport 
oifisliinrj. It inilicts pain; it destroys life ; and it involves serious exposure, 
fatigue, lumger, and discomfort. Yet the disciple of Isaac Walton gets a great 
deal of genuine pleasure, and his conscience is usually easy as to any moral 
wrong that he does. The risks whicli he takes are comparatively few. And 
in spite of wet and dirt, and tramping through slime and swamps and marshes, 
of leaky boats, and other annoyances, the exercise of fishing is nndoubtedly 
healthful, good for both mind and body. The angler grows stronger and his 
diseases disappear. This fact was recognized by Oppian in his treatise written 
more than 1,000 years ago. Fishing is sometimes treated as a religious sport, 
when it is remembered that tlie first disciples of Jcsus were fishermen ; but this 
can hardly bo made a rule or a sign, as in their case it was rather an occuj)ation 
than a recreation, a source of livelihood rather than of delight, of toil all the 
night rather than of pleasure all the day, and was pursued in the business way 
of the net, and not in the fastidious pleasure of the hook and line. But it has 
been maintained that Jesus preferred fishermen for his Apostles because they 
Avere more likely to be robust men pliysically and fit for the service to Avhicli he 
called them. And it is a remarkable fact that not one of these Apostles seems 
ever to have been upon the sick list, or to have been disabled by malady from 
active service. Peter's wife's mother had a fever, but not Peter, or Andrew, 
or James or John, so far as the narrative tells us. There must have been a 
charm about tlie occupation when they could go back to it so readily. For 
after the Master had left them, Peter said to John, "I go a fishing," and they 
kept on in it, night after niglit. There is no record that they were huntsmen 
or had any interest in hunting, whether with dogs or leopards. 



40 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH-REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1S77. 

y. If much noise, and large expenditure of time, money, and feeling, are a 
criterion of valne, no recreation of our time can be compared \vith that of 
roiuing. The chief end of a University education, in many cases, seems to be 
the knowledge of this art. The boat club is the child of this generation. No 
sport has ever become so popular in so short a time. To gain fame and skill 
in this exercise, all sorts of self-denial will be submitted to, men will keep a 
perpetual Lent and deny themselves their most cherished delights. Indulged 
in moderately, there can be no doubt that this is one of tlie best of physical 
exercises, enlarging the chests, strengthening the lungs, knitting the muscles, 
and sendinof ;i healthy vigor through the whole body, an exercise as good for 
Avomen as it is for men. But emulation and overstraining may make it very 
dangeron.s. It is a hazardous amusement, -when it taxes the muscles and lungs 
severely, and lays the foundation for phthisis and functional disorder. It is a 
fact that many of the heroes of the oar have fallen victims to pulmonary mal- 
dies, the seeds of Avliich were sown in tlieir seasons of triumph. To make this 
exercise safe and healthful, it should be kept strictly within bound, and never 
degenerate into a trial of strength or a trial of speed. The weight of the oar 
should be proportioned to the size of the oarsman. It is a poor ambition to 
get notoriety in tlie work of the galley slave. AVith this proviso, rowing can 
be commended as one of the most salutary of the forms of physical exercise. 
It is cheaper than riding on horseback and much safer. The keeping of the 
boat costs very little, and tlie chance of upsetting is small when one has learned 
the art of management. It is foolish to set rowing above study in considering 
the work of Colleges, but boat clubs are to be commended as combining in a 
rare degree health with pleasure. 

10. There is another variety of aquatic sport, to be classed among luxuries, 
of which very few can avail themselves, Yachting. As usually pursued, this 
has about the same value as driving in a carriage upon soft cushions. It is an 
aristocratic sport, and involves great waste of time, extravagant expense, mad 
emulation, and some dangers. It is not every yachtsman who knows when it is 
safe to trust his vessel to the boisterous wind or to the angry sea. There are 
very few ways in which so much money can be spent upon pleasure with so 
little sanitary gain. The sight of a yacht regatta, indeed, with its fleet of 
white sails and streamers flying, is beautiful to see, and very exciting. But 
except as it gives good air to breathe, and a glow to the spirits, yachting has not 
as much hygienic value as riding on a rough road, or a brisk walk; and not 
much need be said of it, as with all but a few it is out of the question. 

11. After these, the primary purpose of which is sport and pleasure, come 
another class of recreations which are primarily sanitary contrivances, and only 
incidentally amusements, the various appliances for securing health, which are 
advertised as such, whose name is coming to be legion. Gymnadic conveniences, 
of all sorts, sizes, and materials, bulky and comijact, horses for leaping, paral- 
lel bars, ropes, loose and tight, trapezes, ladders for the hands, and fixtures too 
numerous to mention. For a long time weights in the form of dumb bells, 
were the approved instruments, of iron, of lead, even of wood and stone, and 
the amusement prescribed was to swing these for one-half an hour or an hour 
in the day. The fault of these contrivances, as of most gymnastic contrivances, 
was that after a time the exercise became monotonous, and fatiguing to soul 
and body. The pleasure became only a painful task, from which all the 
excitement dropped out. In place of these we have now lifting for health, 
machines in which there is the excitement of increasing strength, as the weights 



RECREATIONS AND THE PUBLIC HEALTH. 41 

are lifted ill a progressive series; aud the newsjiapers are crowded with certifi- 
cates from clergymen, teachers, lawyers, men of sedentary habits, as to the 
magical virtue of this or that Health Lift, the relief from all maladies, the 
quintessence of all remedies, driving out from the body all its aches, aud from 
the soul all its devils, aud couceutrating into a few minutes of the day all the 
exercise that is needed to keep the body and soul in good condition. The 
principle of all these Health Lifts is the same, aud it was urged by tlie famous 
Dr. Winsliip, who beginning as a puny consumptive, transformed his frame 
to the frame of a Hercules. There is reason in it, and yet a large part of tlie 
magic virtue claimed is imagination, and idle va]3oriug. To get the benefit of 
these Health Lifts very careful precautions are necessary. Disorder of the 
heart, valvular disease, lameness of the abdominal muscles are quite as likely to 
come from this handling of heavy weights, as release from lameness and pain. 
It is doubtful gain, when headache is removed only to break the heart in a lit- 
eral sense. And these puffs of the machines in the newspapers, and circulars 
sent out so widely are not to be implicitly believed, but are to be taken with very 
large allowance. We know of more than one instance where this indispensable 
source of comfort, after use for a little while, has ceased to perpetuate the joys 
of Elysium, and has been consigned to the garret, as ponderous lumber, there 
to rust and gather rust, a painful sign of disajipointed hope aud misplaced con- 
fidence. Some who have certified to their physical regeneration from the 
Health Lift, are mortified to find that the enemy has been silenced for the 
time, but not dislodged, aud that now again they are victims of dyspepsia, and 
that the blue devils still haunt them. It is not to be expected that these new 
methods of bringing a sound mind in a sound body will supersede tlie old 
methods, or make a clearing out of the old forms of amusement. 

12. Militarxj Drill is a recreation which has come into large notice since the 
recent war, and has been urged upon parents, teachers and school trustees with 
not very marked success. In discipline of the body, and the formation of 
mental as well as physical habits, it is valuable. But when anything becomes 
a part of routine, and is taught as part of a prescribed course, it becomes irk- 
some and disagreeable ; and it is safe to say that this has been the result in 
most of the cases where drill has l)een introduced. Drill is a fatal designation 
for any kind of amusement. It is hondage, and all amusement to be genuine, 
must be free and not be confined to rule. For some natures military work is 
attractive. But the drill of the schools after the pupils have got used to it, 
loses all its charm, aud is no better than the drill of the camp. Yet the 
actual benefit of the exercise is so great, that it is worth wliile to try all possi- 
ble arts to make it agreeable, to prevent the play from becoming hard work. 
A skillful master may keep the charm that flies before the maneuvres of a 
conceited bungler. It makes all tlie difference in the world whether the drill 
be conducted by a West Point captain or a rustic corporal. 

13. Excursion and Travel are a kind of recreation which cannot be excluded 
from a complete survey. From the sanitary point of view, no amusement is 
more beneficial than this. There are many diseases which are warded off by 
this remedy. Change of scene, new associations, freedom from care, deliver- 
ance from routine, these are more effective than nostrums or medical treat- 
ment, even with the best medical skill. A journey for a year, or a few months, 
or weeks, will work wonders in renewing healthy digestion, in restoring languid 
appetite, aud giving a new lease of life to morbid and complaining souls, 
llecreation of this kind is literally recreation. Soul and body are made over 

6 



42 STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH— EEPORT OF SECEETARY, 1S77. 

again, and the man comes out as good as new. There are occasional instances 
of persons "who have never gone away from their homes, but have stayed year 
after year in the same place with no change of scene, and yet have kept phys- 
ical health, are never sick, and have no occasion to ask the advice of a doctor. 
But such instances are very rare, are not numerous enough to make the exam- 
ple safe or wise. Even the healthiest locality is not so good as an occasional or 
frequent change of scene, and the body and mind are more likely to be sound 
in movement and in new impressions, even if some of the experience is in iusalu- 
brious places. There is great benefit even in the confinement of a sea voyage, 
in Avhich the only walk can be of the promenade on the deck ; and the seasick- 
ness which goes with it, in most cases of those who suffer, is an advantage 
rather than a harm in the end. 

14. The recreations of which we have thus far spoken would be classed as out- 
door recreations, though some of them are enjoyed under cover. Thev are 
mostly muscular amusements. But quite as important as these, in their 
charm and their excitement, is the large variety of amusements of in- 
door life, some of which belong to the kinds of which we have spoken. The 
sports of tlie billiard room and the ninepin alley, are properly varieties of the 
ball game, but they are free from the objections to which the outdoor games 
are liable. There is a prejudice against them in some minds from the fact 
that they are associated with gambling and dissipation. Bat there is no neces- 
sary connection between these vices and the sport itself. Where there is room 
in the house, it is good economy and good sense to add a billiard table to the 
furniture, — much more reasonable there than useless chairs and knick-knacks 
which have no meaning and are not even beautiful. There is no game which 
concentrates more valuable exercises than this, for the limbs, for the hand, for 
the eye, for the brain, which stimulates so much while it fatigues so little. It 
is a game which intelligent physicians commend, and which preachers ought to 
commend, instead of leaving it to corrupt and wicked men, who tempt the 
young to their destruction. The billiard table in a well ordered house is the 
best auxiliary to the library, and is properly honored in some houses by being 
set in the vestibule, the first sign of a healthy hospitality to the entering guest. 

15. Of proper in-door recreation, the most favored, and probably the most 
beneficial in hygienic value, is music, in its different kinds, of singiug and 
playing upon instruments. There are wise physicians indeed, who deprecate 
the over enthusiasm for this art, who insist that the lungs and throat are 
injured by undue straining of the voice, that health is blown away by much 
devotion to the horn, that the lips are injured by the mouth-piece of the 
clarionet and bugle, while the fingers are hardened by the strings of the harp 
or viol. Yet the moderate use of the voice in singing, in rooms properly 
heated and ventilated, unquestionably strengthens the lungs instead of weaken- 
ing them. Music more than anything transforms work into play, and makes 
a Joy of what were else a burden. It drives away fatigue. The negro who 
whistles as he is sawing wood, knows this. The chimney-sweep knows this. 
All sailors know this. They have to sing together if tliey would haul the bow- 
line with any success. The Nile boatmen when they ply their heavy oars, need 
the chant of the Nagadil horses to keep their arms vigorous, and when they 
tow the boat upon the shore must have their refrain of ''Allah Mohammed" 
to keep up their spirits and enable them to resist the burning sun. Music is a 
common ground on which pleasure and hygiene happily come together, and fo-r 
which the church has only an encouraging word. Other things being equal, a 



RECREATIONS AND THE PUBLIC HEALTH. 43! 

musical community will be a healthy community. And it is a great mistake 
to suppose that the large amount of money spent in the cultivation of tliis art, 
is wasted. The musical races of the world are the hcaltliiest, savage ov civi- 
lized. A "robust tenor" is not merely a technical name, but is tlio statement 
of a physical fact. Singing will make men robust, and it offsets the evil effects- 
of bad air and unwholesome diet. Nightingale" s tongues are dainty food, but 
these only symbolize the exquisite satisfaction which comes in the concord of 
sweet sounds. The more music we can have the better. And it is one of the- 
happy signs of our time that the piano, once only the rare luxury of the rich, 
too precious for a rude touch, has now become the very commonest of household 
necessities; that it goes everywhere, into tlio cottage of the laborer, into the hut 
of the backwoodsman, as well as into the high-ceiled house of the cities ; that 
the humblest workman may now enjoy what the cpiecn, two centuries ago, 
could hardly buy; that even the wild Indian may be subdued into quiet and 
decency as he listens to these sounding strings. With music recreation is not 
far to seek. And it anticipates what is most confidently promised as the joy of 
the future heaven. 

16. A recreation closely joined to this historically, but by no means in such 
universal favor, is the recreation of dancing. Tlie fact that it is Scriptural 
and very ancient, being painted on the walls of tombs, and sculptured on the 
classic monuments, has not prevailed to dispel the Puritan prejudice against it;. 
But if the amusement be irreligious as some think, it is exceedingly fascinating 
to the young, and many never outgrow their love for it. Ic is a sport at once 
democratic and aristocratic. Court balls are the highest grandeur of royalty, 
and there are balls of the people in almost all the nations. As to the hygienic 
value of this amusement, opinions widely differ. No one can dispute that it 
cheers and exhilarates, and that if it were enjoyed in proper places and at 
proper times there would be no harm in it. It is a beautiful sport, and ''the 
poetry of motion" is not an idle form of words. But it goes so often with 
insufficient dress, with late hours at night, with excessive perspiration and 
physical exertion, with irregular and indigestible food, that it is quite as often' 
dangerous to health as refreshing and salutary. It is one of those amusements- 
vhich will hold their place against all denunciation and ban ; and it is the part 
of wisdom to regulate rather than prohibit it, to separate it from the abuses 
which have no necessary connection with it. 'Che ballroom may be a gate of 
jierdition, as it invites to turn night into day, and murders sleeps and stifles 
the lungs with unwholesome air ; but these abuses do not belong to the amuse- 
ment by any necessity. Terpsichore was as worthy a member of the glorious- 
nine as Polyhymnia. The sport of dancing only reduces to grace and order 
the motion which is natural and spontaneous. Of course, to give warrant to 
this amusement it must be kept within the bound of decency. But in itself 
there is no reason why the measured movement of the winding dance should 
not be as healthful as rude running upon the lawn, or chasing the ball accord- 
ing to the rules of the game. Tliis amusement, moreover, has the merit of 
bringing the sexes together, and imparting the magnetism of each. 

17. Not much can be said of those sedentary amusements, which are the 
resort of so many to hinder ennui, and make time pass pleasantly. Chess- 
may be a superior mental discipline, but rightly regarded this g;une is hard 
intellectual work, though it is called play. It is only a false use of words which 
calls a sport which taxes so severely the powers of thought and attention a 
^'gaine." This is not the best exercise,, either for the wearied mind or body^ 



44 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1S77. 

Nov is any game such which tries the brain severely. The games of cards are 
less trying to the brain. But it is difficult to see that these have any sanitary 
value except as distractions. Other things being equal, there is no gain to body 
or mind in the excitement of the rubber of whist, agreeable as it may be at the 
time. Tlie good is all in the social element which it brings out. And when 
the gambling spirit is excited, the result is positively evil, in disordered brain as 
well as disordered conscience. Card playing brings not a few to insanity, if 
the testimony of experts maybe trusted. And softening of the brain is penalty 
of an inveterate passion for this sport. The wrecks of college life are as often 
traceable to this sport as to overstudy. And it is a mistake to suppose that the 
fountain of youth is found at the card-table and that senility is kept back by 
devotion to this amusement. 

But we need go no farther in specifying and considering separate kinds of 
recreation. There are many more than those which have been mentioned. And 
women have some recreations which they characterize by the equivocal name of 
■"?cor/i-," work with the needle and embroideries. 

Before we leave the subject, there are some general remarks to be made and 
counsels to be given. 

1. All public institutions should have conveniences provided for recreation as 
much as for work. No school building is properly placed, which does not have 
an ample play ground attached to it, with room for the freest relaxation. UMiis 
is just as necessary for a school building in the city as for a school building in 
the country, and the excuse that land in the city is too costly to be used in this 
manner is simply disgraceful. It is bad enough to herd children together in 
huge brick receptacles of three, four and five stories in height, often without ven- 
tilation, but the evil is intensified where there is no space around the building for 
relief from this confinement. We might say, too, that every college should 
have its gymnasium, witli suitable apparatus, proportioned to the size of the 
institution and the number of its students. The gymnasium is as important 
as the recitation-room. In Germany, gymnasium is the name of the prepara- 
tory school, such as our Colleges or Universities actually are. 

2. And in the order of school work, tliere should be sufficient allowance for 
rehixation. The "recesses" should be numerous enough, long enough, and 
lax enough, to give relief to both mind and body. A "recess" which is ham- 
pered by many rules and restrictions loses half its value. As far as possible, 
the pupils should forget restraint in their time of play. 

3. Other things being equal, recreations should be of a kind in which there 
is least risk of bodily injury, in which there is least violence, in which the 
fatigue is less, and the strain upon any part is not excessive. That violent 
sports arc popular, and carry the crowd with them, is no reason for tolerating 
or glorifying them. 

4. Other things being equal, too, those sports are best which are most free 
from passions, in which anger and envy and hatred are not aroused, and which 
are free from the reality or the appearance of brutality. Boxing, wrestling, 
fencing, with all their ancient fame, cannot be highly commended in their 
tendency to arouse the spirit of fight, however free from personal antipathy 
they may seem to be. Any sport wliich disturbs the normal balance of the 
healthy soul, is hygienically bad. All the symmetrical physical development 
Avhich comes in the sports of the arena will not compensate the evils to temper 
and to nervous symmetry which these sports foster. Gladiatorial matclics have no 
claim to come into pure and innocent recreations. There is the same objection 



KECREATIOXS AND THE PUBLIC HEALTH. 45 

to pigeon shooting iind to turkey shooting thah there is to bull lights and cock 
fights and dog lights. They are cruel and they tend to harlcn the heart, and 
so to deprave the man. 

5. Other things being equal, again, that recreation is best which exercises 
the largest number of faculties, spiritual as well as physical, which has the 
greatest variety of movement, and the most thrilling enjoyment. The pretence 
of any kind of exercise that it brings into action every muscle in the body is 
preposterous. But some kinds bring many more muscles into action tlian 
others. It is not necessary that every muscle in the body should be used, in 
order to keep health and strength. There are some muscles which we can dis- 
regard. There is no reason why a man should wish to move his ears, or why 
he should roll his eyes half out of their orbits, as Booth in acting Richard III., 
or why he should throw his joints out of their articulation, like the devotees of 
the Turkish bath, or why he should make a hoop of his body like a Japanese 
acrobat. The laws of health do not require men to writhe and twist themselves 
like serpents, or to imitate the antics of the Vokes family. The play of the 
body is best when it exercises those muscles which are brought into use in work 
and in the ordinary needs of life. There is no need that one who has to walk 
a good deal in his work, or stand at his machine, should take his exercise in 
running up and down ladders or standing upon his head. Eccentric exercise is 
less health-giving than exercise conformed to the general habits of life. The 
fact that some faculties but little used are brought out in such an exercise does 
not make walking on the tight rope a praiseworthy sport, or relieve it of fool- 
hardiness. 

6. And it is necessary to say that exercise should not be continued when one 
is tired, whether in bodily or in spiritual fatigue. While it is well to devote regu- 
lar time every day, so many minutes or hours at least, to recreation, it is not 
well to have an unvarying rule, which disregards all hindrances and emergen- 
cies. The forcing of recreation is anything but wise. When the system needs 
rest, it is bad to give it stimulant. A forced laugh is the most melancholy of 
pleasures. We have to consider that rest and exercise are not equivalents, and 
that amusement is not always repose. It is a mistaken consistency which will 
walk so many miles every day, no matter what the weather may be, or in what 
condition the body is, or will rush to an exciting drama, when the mind is all 
tired out. In the great Philadelphia Exhibition there was quite as much 
weariness to the flesh as there was joy to the spirit, and in not a few cases, the 
high wrought pleasure had a fatal termination. 

7. Kccreation is not less necessary where work is easy than where work is 
hard. An artist needs it as much as a mechanic, the clerk in a city warehouse 
as much as a college student. He is a cruel master who lets his apprentices 
have no vacation, hut confines them to the leisure which they get in the store, 
when business is not brisk. No matter what the work, sound health in it 
requires an occasional change of scene. One may sing that there is no place 
like home, and believe it; yet the blessing of homo will not come to one who 
never goes away from home, and never sees any other place. The scheme of 
healthy life should include, for all the members of the household, parents, 
children, servants, too, an absence from home, at some time in the year. Light 
duties are often as wearing as heavy duties. 

8. A question not easy to be answered is of the proportion which play should 
bear to work, what share of time should be given to recreation. Perhaps in 
the reaction from the old prejudice against all recreation wo may go too far, 



46 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

and allow amusement too large a share in the experience of life. The tendency 
now is to multiply holidays, to increase tlie number of days in which idleness is 
legal and in which men leave their regular toil and occupation. But it is safe 
to say, that as yet in this land we have not come to the point when holidays 
have become a danger to health or morals. We fall far behind in this matter 
most of the civilized nations. Our Sunday has not as yet become a playday, as it 
is in most of the countries of Europe. Saints' days, even those which have an. 
ecclesiastical origin, are not much observed, and the national holidays can be 
•connted upon tiie fingers. Except the Sundays, half a dozen days in the 
year include about all the special days of festivity and leisure. As a rule, our 
people Avork too hard, and do not give themselves the relaxation which they 
ought to give. The loungers are always numerous, indeed, and there is a large 
proportion whose habit proves the theory that man is naturally a lazy animal. 
But taking the community as a whole, we suffer more from over production 
than from slack production, and the supply of labor and its product are more 
than equal to the demand. There are more who break down in health and 
strength from too constant work, too steady confinement, than who lose force 
from lazy indulgence. The brain and the hand are both overworked. It is a 
fault of our system of education that it is worked at high pressure. Tlie chil- 
dren in the schools are required to do more than they ought, and lose the health 
which they ought to lay up for the future work of life. More amusement and 
less brain work, would train a better race of men and women, and it is still a 
question whether the mischief done by our public school S3'stem, with its multi- 
plication of studies, its rigid discipline, its emulation, its mechanism, is not 
•quite equal to its benefit ; whether the noblest vigor of human life is not lost in 
all these restraints and contrivances. Perhaps tlie statistics may not prove that 
mortality is not greater where school discipline is rigid and school-houses more 
numerous and tyrannous than where children are left freer. But the impres- 
sion is inevitable that this forcing and mechanical system cannot be so whole- 
some as the system where natural inclinations have freer way. A prison may 
be better ventilated than many city houses are, and prison life may be free 
from epidemics and fatal maladies. Yet we cannot help the feeling, however 
well constructed a prison may be, that the kind of life is not a healthy life, and 
that a prison is not a fit place to live in. All the appliances and precautions 
cannot make a life which is all penance and no pleasure, wholesome and beau- 
tiful. Health and freedom are ideas which we cannot well separate. 

Good sense, therefore, will use all the innocent recreations which we have 
already, and will increase rather than diminish their number. There is a 
stronger presumption in favor of those which have come to us from ancient 
date, and have kept their place against hostile influence. Prima facie an 
amusement whicli has survived the ban of the church, and the warfare of 
formidable prejudice, and has proved itself pleasant to men of all classes, has 
vindicated its ri2:ht to exist. 



HEALTHFUL DWELLINGS. 



HENRY F. LYSTEK, A. M., M. D 



MEMBER OF THE 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH, 
AND ITS COMMITTEE ON DRAINAGE, SEWERAGE, ETC. 



HEALTHFUL DWELLINGS. 



BY HENRY F. LYSTER, M. D., DETROIT. 



Tlie homes of the people show tlio elevation in the scale of cnlightenmeut 
aud civilization to which the nation has attained. 

There can be no great advancement made, no permanent leadership acquired 
on the part of any people Avherc the dwelling places are lacking either in com- 
fort or in the surroundings which contribute to tlie healthful development and 
Avell-being of the occupants. These axioms are apparent to every one who has 
given thought and attention to the history of the gradual progress of the race. 
In the World's fair recently lying open like a great volume for the perusal 
of every one who turned aside from the occupations of every day life, mav have 
been found page after page proving that excellence in living and abundance of 
material comfort in the homes, go hand in hand with the highest perfection in 
art, literature, and science, taken in the largest acceptation of the terms. 

To enable the people to inform themselves correctly of the present status of 
each country of the world, were these magazines of usefulness and beauty 
brought together ; and of the many lessons, none was more readilv learned than 
that which pointed out the fact that at an equal pace with ahealthful and 
legitimate advancement in civilization, are the knowledge of sanitary laws 
and the construction of dwellings, factories, and public buildings in conformity 
with them. 

The rude shelter of the earlier inhabitants of prehistoric times, and the 
gradual development of domestic architecture, and improvement in the modes 
by which dwellings have been constructed, have been in keeping with the gen- 
eral condition of the race, and any advancement in these respects has been 
cotemporaneous with the slow emergence from its primitive condition of 
barbarism. 

The first rude shelter of men depended for its selection or construction upon 
the simple wants of the savage, as indicated by the climate and natural condi- 
tion of the country. In one place caves were depended upon, and at another 
huts made with the branches of trees interwoven with reeds and rushes plastered 
with mud were used. As the various tribes progressed a step beyond their 
former state, stones were used cemented with clay, or walls were formed in 
molds and dried in the sun, and tlie huts of skins and branches gave place to 
those composed of timber roughly joined or hewn aud mortised to2:ether. 
7 



50 STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH— EEPOKT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

These dwellings were located regardless of any other considerations than cou- 
venience or protection from the elements, or from natural enemies. 

As the different tribes moved from one country to another in obedience to 
laws of emigration which have influenced the race from the earliest times, and 
about which we know little, excepting that they were in conformity to the nat- 
ural v\'ants of those governed by them, the architectural style and design of 
their habitations was changed to suit the changed conditions of country and 
climate. 

Nations which inhabited the wooded mountainous parts, as they came down 
upon the plains destitute of forests, formed out of the stone ready at hand, or 
else out of stiff clay, dwellings in which they reproduced, even in the most 
minute details, the appearance of the structures in wood. When these tribes 
moved again, ages subsequently, and again reached wooded country, they 
abandoned the clay and stone and resumed again the log houses like those of 
their ancestors. 

Eeviewing, so far as the limits of this paper will permit, the very interesting 
subject of the habitations of man, questions naturally arise regarding the salu- 
brity of the locations which have been chosen, upon which cities and dwellings 
have been built or are now being erected. 

In earlier times, when in the possession of but little scientific knowledge, and 
with less regard for human life, when the avocations by which individuals sup- 
ported themselves did not permit of their large aggregation into a limited 
space, with exceptional instances, but little thought was taken as to the salu- 
brity of the ground cliosen for either a dwelling or a town. Cities have always 
occupied particular localities more by accident than design, and this remark 
applies to many noted for their present rapidly increasing size and importance, 
as well as to others founded centuries upon centuries ago. Rome has always 
been unhealthy notwithstanding the introduccion of aqueducts and a supply of 
pure water, and the building of the cloaca maxima, which to-day drains away 
the sewage as well as it did twenty-four hundred years ago. It was built upon 
seven hills, and yet with all these excellencies in its favor, they have been to a 
great extent counteracted by the poisonous emanations from the Pontine 
marshes and the Campagna. It is noted for its fevers and dysenteries of a 
malarial and typhoid type. 

Berlin, which has so rapidly accumulated a population of seven hundred 
thousand, and which is growing more rapidly than any other city in Europe, 
has no natural advantages of situation, and on the contrary is so low and level 
that engineers have not yet solved the problem of efficient sewerage. Enteric 
(typhoid) fever prevails here, and should the Asiatic cholera again pursue its 
westward course through Europe, it would prove a doubly formidable scourge 
at the Prussian capital. We might mention many other illustrations to show 
that but little improvement has been made regarding the choice of a healthful 
site for a city by those living at the present time over those made by the 
ancients. The peculiar geographical, mercantile, and political relations have 
always held a much greater influence in determining this point than any ques- 
tion of salubrity. From small beginnings, starting from an oriental inn, or a 
northern hamlet or fishing port, liave the great majority of towns and cities 
grown. The location sufficiently adapted to a village, has been overreached by 
the extending town and wide spreading city, until its borders have encroached 
upon the low suburbs or neigliboring bayous which are required to be subse- 
quently graded and filled in after the manner so familiar to most of us. 



HEALTHFUL DWELLINGS. 51 

As socict}' is constituted with us, and as villages, tlio prospective cities are, 
for the conveniences of trade, depending entirely u[)on navigable waters and 
railroad communication for their location, but little can be done at tiie outset; 
and sanitary measures must be limited ratlier to remedying the natural defects, 
and in complying with the generally received plans of preventing sickness and 
death by the introduction of pure water and the removal of efEcte material, and 
in the adaptation of the buildings to proper dryness and ventilation, trusting 
to the gradual and general enliglitcnment of the people to make in future 
those plans readily available by the proper selection of sites for new towns so 
far as can be done in conformity with the laws of commerce. 

When we come to the selection of a site for the dwelling itself, tlie matter is 
much more generally under the control of the individual, and although in 
many instances the circumstances controlling the location are so determined by 
distance from work, or place of business, or neighborhood, that but little 
opportunity is allowed to exercise the knowledge of hygiene which we possess ; 
■on the other hand, in the much larger number of cases, ample scope is permit- 
ted for the complete employment of all the wisdom we may possess. If it is to be 
in the large town or city, the lot may be selected in the most healthful quarter, 
where there is plenty of pure air, an abundant supply of good water, and perfect 
facilities for drainage and sewerage. When we have availed ourselves of all 
these we have accomplished everything. 

If the dwelling is to be u])on the farm or plantation, we look to the same 
general objects ; as wide a choice is often afforded, so far as extent of territory 
is concerned, in which to select the favorable site, as there is in the town or 
city ; but here a wider range of accurate knowledge regarding causes which tend 
to produce disease must be at command, for although the boundaries of the 
farm determine the limit of choice, yet the location of the dwelling may be 
selected in any portion of this area. 

Here an acquaintance witli the character of the contiguous country is of first 
importance. 

The vicinity of low, undrained, or swampy lands and marslies, or of mill- 
joonds or overflowed lauds should be avoided, and the contrary topographical 
conditions should be sought. 

Upon the lower peninsula of this State, the mountains or steep rock walls 
are not found, and we are not influenced by those extremely obdurate neighbors, 
as are many of the people of New England, Pennsylvania, Utah, and Cal- 
ifornia. The generally rolling and open face of the country gives a much 
.greater opportunity for choice in this matter of locating the dwelling, and 
does not drive with ns the hard bargain made with many of our eastern and 
western brethren by the divides of the great continental mountain chains. 

We may safely assert that no geological formation offers a better choice than 
that of the drift period, wliich covers almost tlio whole of the settled portion of 
this State, with its gently undulating hills and valleys with their gradual slopes. 

It is not necessary in the selection of the location (we will presume for the 
;sake of elucidating the various truths we are endeavoring to inculcate, that the 
area is somewhat ample), that we should look for tlie dryest and most porous 
.soil, or the most elevated, or the least accessible or convenient point. We are 
not necessarily obliged to sacrifice everything to accomplish our laudable pur- 
pose to obtain a desirable spot. A clayey soil is just as healthful to build upon 
as the most porous sandy loam, and, many times, much more so. 

People have lived year in and year out upon a clay bank fifty to one hundred 



52 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

feet in depth, and have not suffered from terrestrial emanations or noxious 
vapors ; while up from the most beautiful and pure white sand have come 
malarious poisons, which in a single night have in certain seasons permeated 
the system of the unwary traveller and produced the most virulent fevers and. 
dysenteries. 

A gravelly or sandy loam may appear to the superficial examiner dry, and 
such an excellent disposer of water that truces of the heaviest rains disappear 
shortly after they have fallen, and yet upon a deeper investigation water may 
be found a few inches from the surface lying upon a bottom of impermeable 
clay. x\ site upon such insecure foundation would, unless it could be rem- 
edied by drainage, be most unfortunate. 

The near presence, particularly if lying to the side of the prevalent winds, 
i. e., to the south or west of a pond of stagnant water, as a mill-pond, or of a 
swamp or marsh, which could not be drained, would render infeasiblc a place 
which otherwise might be considered unexceptionable. 

The fact that this locality is within a few rods of the corners, even if it is not 
desirable, will not compensate the family for all the ills that follow in the train, 
of malaria; a perfect Pandora's box they are : agues in the spring, dysentery 
and fevers in x\ugust and September, pleurisy, pneumonia, and consumption in 
the cold weatlier. 

If human life can be not only prolonged but made much more enjoyable, for 
the reason that good health is preserved, why should we not regard all these 
palpable and many of them most palatable truths which come to us by sanitary 
observances? 

There are a few limited situations in which no amount of precaution will 
prevent the local influences of the surrounding neighborhood from producing 
certain forms of sicl^ness dependent upon malarial origin. That these are 
much less frequently met with in this State now than formerly is due to the 
general settlement of the interior and to the opening up of the country by clear- 
ing off the land and especially by ditching and consequent removal of stagnant 
surface water and relief of wet lands. 

The earlier opinion of many that the central portion of this State was to a 
great extent insusceptible to cultivation, on account of the large amount of Avet 
land, has proved entirely without foundation. The interior is much higher in 
elevation than the marginal portions of the State, and but a very small acreage 
is not capable of some kind of management. Malarious fevers are diminishing 
in frequency year by year, and in no part of the State are characterized by the 
severity which distinguished them twenty and thirty years since. Yet the influ- 
ence of malaria is present Avith us, some years, it is true, more than others, 
particularly in the latter part of Summer and in the Autumn, and if not shown 
by more violent symptoms of former years, influences sickness very materially^ 
particularly fevers and dysentery. 

In districts which are more or less influenced by malaria, a great deal can be 
done in the way of locating the dwelling so as to avoid as much as is possible 
its pernicious influence. 

The house should be built upon ground which can be thoroughly under- 
drained. "Excess of moisture is often rendered visible in the shape of mist or 
fog particularly toward evening; efficient drainage causes the removal or at 
least a diminution of such mists, and a proportionable decrease of diseases gene- 
rated or aggravated by dampness." — I3r. B'd Health Keports, 1852. 

If the land can be drained, it matters little what the particular kind of soil 



HEALTHFUL DWELLINGS. 53 

may be in the chosen localit}-. Sandy or loamy soil docs not need the same 
amount of artificial drainage if the underlying subsoil is deep enough to permit 
the surface ^vater to go down several feet below the top of tlie ground and then 
to flow off into lower levels and away into natural conduits, the streams and 
lakes. 

A thick tenacious clay will need, unless the natural slope is well marked, 
tile drains in the vicinity of the house, to bo placed not more than twenty feet 
apart; wliereas in open, porous soil, drains may be constructed at twice that 
distance with perfect relief to the land of all the surplus water that falls 
upon it. 

Whenever it can be obtained, a fall of between one and one-half and three 
feet to the hundred should be aimed at. 

The cellar should always have a good tile drain leading from it ; and this it 
would be well to connect with one laid around the outside of the foundation of 
the house, which will not only drain the ground within twenty or thirty feet of 
the house, but will relieve the wall and prevent the infiltration of water through 
or under it into the cellar, particularly noticeable during the spring rains. 

Nothing is of more importance in the management of the location for the 
dwelling than that it should be well underdrained. 

In the ordinary country farm house, the only drain, except there may possi- 
bly be one from the cellar, which will be found, is an open one from the 
vicinity of the kitchen door to receive the semi-liquid waste from that important 
laboratory. 

This very essential improvement, about the necessity of which every house- 
keeper will bear me out, should be covered, and sliould be long enough to carry 
away the kitchen sewage to a distance of at least seventy-five feet, or twice that 
distance would be better where it could safely debouche upon the surface, and 
discharge its contents into the soil or upon earth placed there to receive it, 
which might subsequently be used as a valuable manure upon the garden. 

This drain could be durably made of glazed tile cemented at the joiuts, or of 
wood in the style of an ordinary box drain four inches wide and the same in 
depth. Prof. Kedzie, one of the members of this board, suggests that the box 
drain be placed upon its edge in order to make it less likely to become 
obstructed. 

The end next the house could bo connected with the kitchen sink by lead 
pipe with a trap, and it could also have an external o^iening just outside the 
door for the reception of such material as might be able to go through the per- 
forated colander at the bottom of the hopper. One of the rainwater pipes 
might be conducted into this drain to tiush it at every rain. 

The general use of kitchen drains would, we are convinced, diminish sickness 
in a marked degree ; and we have taken the time and space to call particular 
attention to this, in the estimation of too many, an apparently insignificant 
affair. 

The decomposition of kitchen sewage and wash water from the house, under 
the windows opening at the rear of the house, is in Summer an important factor 
in the production of cases of disease, particular!}'' those indicating serious intes- 
tinal irritation and inflammation; asdiarrhroa, dysentery, and enteric (typhoid) 
fever. 

The ground becomes sour, and saturated with fermenting poisons, rank weeds 
spring up, and it only needs the steady heat of July and August to cause it to 
send out the poisonous gases, or ripen the germs of disease, whichever may be 



54 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— EEPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

the correct theory, and these readily find their way into the house through the 
open windows, 

Tiiese waste materials are often, in fact usually, thrown out in the immedi- 
ate vicinity of the well, and in heavy rains the soakings run into the well 
through the curbing or permeable walls. 

A well, unless properly made, acts as a drain upon all the subsoil water within 
thirty to seventy-five feet in every direction, and consequently drains into 
itself much of the imperfectly filtered material in its vicinity, all of which is 
detrimental to the quality of the water, which should only come in at the bottom 
and from a living spring. 

The large majority of wells are left open at the top, and with very inefficient 
curbing; the walls are fissured and cracked, or at least are not water-tight and 
permit the inflow of water from the ground surrounding it. 

Tlie well, in Avhatever manner it may be built, should be tightly covered at 
the top and should have its walls laid in cement impermeable to water. 

Recently wells have been, in many cases, made of iron pipe of small diameter 
driven down to the water supply ; a pump is then attached to the tubing. This 
form of pump is adajited to prairie lands, and locations where there is not 
much stone. 

The cheapest and most desirable wells are now constructed by means of a 
well auger which can bore from twenty-five to fifty feet in a day; the well is 
lined with glazed tile or pipe cemented at their joints with water lime cement. 
When the well has been lined, a filter is made by throwing in coarse sand and 
washed gravel to the depth of fifteen or twenty inches ; the top is securely 
closed with stone laid in cement. 

AVells of this class are a great improvement upon those loosely built, as they 
avoid completely the contamination by soil water, which is a great desideratum. 
If the water comes from a good depth, and especially if from below a stratum of 
considerable density, it will remain uninfluenced by the local impurities in the 
vicinity, such as vaults, and sinks, and cesspools, for a much longer period than 
will those of ordinary construction. 

The supply of pure and wholesome water being one of the most important 
of all matters pertaining to tlio welfare of the household, too much attention 
cannot be given to obtaining it, and to preserving its quality when found. 

Much lias been written and more said regarding the contamination of water 
supply by digging too near tlie well, or above its level, the vault for the recep- 
tion of human excreta; and it will be in place rather to refer to former reports 
of the Board for information upon this subject, than to go into details. I may, 
however, remark, that "where the water-carriage system cannot be applied, 
and the necessity for a vault is con.sequently apparent, that it be made water- 
tight. The free entrance of air should be permitted into vaults of this con- 
struction. Ashes or dry earth should frequently be thrown in, and occasionally 
some chemical disinfectant, as green vitriol (sulplate of iron), dissolved in 
water. Vaults should be emptied at least once each year." — Vide State B'd 
Health Kept., 1875. 

While reviewing the usual measures by which the house can be rendered 
healthful, we wish to give particular importance to the necessity for the removal 
of dampness in and about the premises. 

Dr. Bovvditch, in his report upon the Causes of Consumption (2(1 Ann, Rept. 
Mass. tState Board of Health, 1871), shows that they can in many instances 
be summed up in three words, viz. : "premises too damp." The same results 
have been confirmed by others in all parts of the world. 



HEALTHFUL DWELLINGS. 55 

In recent reports made to the British goverunicnt, under the supcrititcndeiico 
of Mr. Simon, the same observations have been made, and remedial measures 
have been jjrojiosed and steps taken looking to the carrying out of plans which 
will undoubtedly prove of the greatest value, not only to their own people but 
indirectly to the whole civilized world. 

Asiatic cholera, diphtheria, and cerebro-spinal meningitis are, besides those 
local or endemic disorders already mentioned, more generally found prevailing 
in low and wet places. 

The poison of all epidemic forms of disease is of such a virulent character that 
it leaps over all ordinary bounds, and shows itself in localities sometimes the 
most unexcei)tionable ; but when tlie violence of the onset is over it will be 
found conforming to the general observation of all diseases, and committing its 
greatest ravages in the localities ordinarily considered unhealthful. 

In order to illustrate the views which have been advanced, we will instance 
the histories of two or three families as they occur to us at the present writing, 
believing that they will call to mind similar instances in the experience of very 
many who may read this paper. A young married couple of good health and 
strength settled upon tlie bank of the Connecticut river nearly fifty years ago, 
and built a house upon the side of a high hill at some distance above its base. 
The lawn upon which it was erected was not large enough, so the hillside was 
cut intio in order to get room enough for the rear buildings. This side of the 
hill was walled up to a good hight with brick. The sun for a good part of the 
day was behind the hill, and the air was to a certain extent prevented from 
moving with as much liberty as it should have had. Small rills of water very 
constantly trickled from under the brick wall : particularly were these observed 
passing over the premises in the rainy season and when the snow was melting 
upon the hill. The general character of the place indicated too much dampness. 
Of the children born at this house two died of consumption in adult life, and 
another was saved from a similar fate by having been sent "away to school at 
comparatively early age. 

The pecuniary circumstances of the parents having improved so as to enable 
them to purchase a new place and build a new elegant mansion, the new local- 
ity selected was in the same village but at the top of the ridge, where the sun 
and air had their full influence. The children who were born subsequently, 
and there were several, were all of good and robust constitutions, and have 
enjoyed good health, showing none of the signs of constitutional dyscrasy 
evinced by those born at the old homestead. 

Another family who lived at the foot of the hill near tlie river, and who were 
influenced to a still greater degree by the insalubrity of the house, lost all the 
children, eight in number, by scrofulous complaints before they attained adult 
age. 

A couple, of Scotch extraction, settled upon a clay farm in the Province of 
Ontario, many years since, and built a frame house. The land was not under- 
drained, and the house was in time overshaded with trees. There was for a 
good part of the year too much dampness in the house and about the prem- 
ises. The wife died after having a number of cliildren, of a general decline 
of vitality a few weeks after cliildbirth ; two of the sons died of i)htliisis pul- 
monalis, one of acute pleurisy, not a first attack; another son has had an 
attack of pleurisy of severe character, and a daughter has suffered from 
Bright's disease. Not one of the cliildren has grown up with the health and 
strength of the parents. 

Shade trees, so desirable as neighbors, when scattered about the grounds and 



56 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— KEPOKT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

grown upon the borders of the enclosure, should not be allowed to encroach too 
much u\)on the house or to reach over the roof. 

They are better friends when kept at a little distance and not allowed to 
interfere with the free circulation of air and the presence of the sunlight. 
Shade trees, when too near and of thick foliage, gather and retain dampness, 
and exercise in this latitude an unhealthful influence. 

Homes must not be embowered in shade. Too much shade impresses the 
constitution of the family, and particularly those of the children, rendering 
them susceptible to asthma, phthisis pulmonalis (consumption), scrofula, 
rheumatism, goitre, anaemia, rickets, hip disease, and the hundred ills that 
come to our notice when the blood is deficient in color. Those who survive 
infancy and childhood grow up with weakened frames and diminutive statures, 
and are liable to run into a decline ; and are at best but the shadows of what 
they might have been under more fortunate management and in air and rooms, 
and on grounds dried and warmed by the sun's rays. 

I call to mind at the present moment, two instances where the shade had 
probably more to do with the very unfortunate history of the families than had 
any other agent. The frame house was completely overshadowed by elm trees ; 
in some places the moss was grown over the roof. All the children, and there 
were five or six, grew up with delicate health, one of the girls a victim of 
asthma, and two others succumbed to consumption before middle life. 

Another similar instance occurred within a few miles of Detroit. The house, 
although built with a high basement, was damp, as the cellar had no drain. It 
was completely surrounded by a grove of hickory trees, the foliage of which is 
very dense. All the children grew up delicate, and several died of consump- 
tion before comino^ of ase. 

instances like these might be enumerated to the end of the chapter, and 
serve to show the want of observation on the part of the people of the most 
apparent hygienic laws. 

A writer upon these subjects observes: "When experienced medical officers 
see rows of houses springing up on foundations of deep retentive clay ineffi- 
ciently drained, they foretell the certain appearance among the inhabitants of 
catarrh, rlieumatism, scrofula, and other diseases, the consequence of excessive 
damp, which break out more extensively in the cottages of the poor, who have 
scanty means of purchasing large quantities of fuel and of obtaining other 
appliances by which the rich partly counteract the effects of dampness." In 
contradistinction to this method of building so frequently recorded, we are 
glad to mention the fact that exceptions occasionally occur. An enterprising 
firm purchased in 1871 between seventy and eighty acres in northwesterly por- 
tion of Detroit, the soil was composed of a stiff tenacious clay with occasional 
pockets of sand. This land had been used as a farm and pasture for fifty years 
or more, and was, although in reality seventy feet above the river, so covered 
with water in the spring that it was supposed to be almost on a level with the 
river. Tliey first of all ran lateral sewers through the whole length ten feet 
deep with the proper grade. Tliese were oval in shape and ra;ide of brick laid 
m cement. These act as surface drains and as drains to any cellars which may 
be dug on the property. Then they paved the main street, and built brick 
houses each on a fifty by one hundred and twenty to twenty-four feet lot, 
with cellars seven to seven and one-half feet deep floored with concrete. A 
tile drain runs around the foundation of each house, Avhicli serves to drain 
the ground between the houses. 

Twenty-eight houses have been put up since 1872, and there have been no 



HEALTHFUL DWELLINGS. 57 

cases of ague or (l\-seiitery, or fever; indeed, the locality has been rendered 
exccptionably healthy. Anotlier gentleman of large landed property has been 
pursuing a similar course, or at least requiring it to be done, east of Woodward 
avenue, with similar results upon the healthfulness of the section of the city 
upon which these improvements have been made. Such efforts should be 
noticed and encouraged wherever they may be found. The pecuniary advan- 
tage, as shown in these instances, has been very great, and ought to encourage 
others, ]n'oving the old saying, that the best is the cheapest way in the end. 

In order to elicit the views of the correspondents of this board, the following 
circular has been addressed them by the committee : 

Dear Sir. — In the preparation of a paper upon Healthful Homes, for the State 
Board of Health, the Committee on Drainage and Climate is desirous of obtaining 
information upon the following points, and will feel under obligations to those Cor- 
respondents of the Board who will consider them and communicate with the Com- 
mittee: 

1. What is tlie nature of the soil and the geological formation in your location? 

2. What is the practice in your neighborhood in regard to the use of tile draining 

the ground upon which the dwelling is erected? 

3. What, in your opinion, is required to render a house and its surroundings healthful 

in your locality? 

4. What has been your experience in regard to the location of dwellings in your 

vicinity as regards immunity of families from different forms of disease? 

5. From what source do the inhabitants obtain their drinking water, and that used in 

cooking ? If from wells, what is their average depth ? In what manner are they 
constructed? Are they liable to receive the surface water? 

6. Do the houses generally have cellars, and if so are they walled with stone, and 

A'entilated and clean, and free from water? 

7. Are vegetables allow^ed to decompose in the cellars? 

8. AVhat is the usual mode of disposing of the animal excrement, or fajcal and urinary 

matter? 

9. What is the usual mode of disposing of the waste Avater and kitchen wash? 

10. Please give your views upon any matters pertaining to the construction and 
maintenance of a healthful home. 

Adrian.— KTLPORTED BY ROBERT STEPHEKSOX, M. 1). 

1. Soil sandy loam eighteen inches to twentj'-four inches in depth, resting on clay 
ten to forty feet thick; underneath is white sand and then coarse gravel and white 
sand below until shale is reached at a depth of one hundi'ed feet. 

2. The system of sewers is such that tile draining is unnecessary. 

3. That the barns and vault be some distance from the dwelling, and the well upon 
higher ground than the vault and yard. 

4. The higher the ground upon which the dwelling is situated the greater the 
immunity from disease. 

5. From wells thirtj' feet deep walled up with stone and brick. They do not 
receive the surface drainage. 

6. Cellars walled and ventilated, and free from water. 

7. No. 

8. By cesspools and l)y sewers, if near. 

10. High ground, with plenty of room between floors, well ventilated, and separated 
from barns and sinks. 

8 



58 STATE EOAED OF HEALTH— REPOET OF SECRETARY, 1S77. 

Albion.— TfEFOKTKD BY JOHN P. STODDARD, M. D. 

1. Sandy loam lying on alluvial deposit with here and tliere the outcrop of the 
Marshall sandstone. 

2. Tile sparingly used. 

3. House should be raised two and a-half feet, with cellar six feet below surface. 

4. Have been able to trace one or two cases of sickness to a want of drainage, but 
there are few houses ou these locations. 

5. Wells wholly supply the water, twenty-five feet depth, generally stoned up; a 
few are " drive " wells. 

6. Yes. 

7. More or less. 

8. In pits, an execrable wa}^ 

9. On surface and by cesspools filled with stones and covered with soil. 

10. House on highest point of lot with good cellar; shade trees not too near, and 
plenty of light, large rooms, and a general cultivation of a happy and contented 
frame of mind. 

Ann Arbor. — reported by prof. Geo. e. frothingham and rev. c. h. brigham. 

1. Soil sandy loam resting upon alternate beds of sand and clay drift. 

2. No tile draining used so far as known. 

3. Better ventilation, especially of cellars, more sunlight, better facilities of i-emov- 
ing oifal, especially ftecal matter. I am suftering from a low form of typhoid fever 
resulting, I believe, from foul privies in my neighborhood; and a majority of cases of 
this disease are due to this cause, according to my observation. — (G. E. F.) 

4. Favorably located. 

5. Mostly from cisterns. A few wells averaging fortj' to seventy feet in depth. 
"Wells generally walled with brick and stone, but not always free from surface drain- 
age. Cistern water filtered. 

6. Cellars under most of the houses, usually good, but poorly ventilated, and many 
not clean. 

7. Very commonly. 

8. Close vaults, sometimes in the house. When filled are abandoned and covered 
one or two feet witli soil. 

9. Thrown out of back door and into cesspools in a few cases. 

Augusta.— RKVOKTED BY AVM. WORSFOLD, y. D. 

1. Sandy drift formation. 

2. None. 

3. Disinfection and proper removal of waste at a greater distance. Elevation of 
the house sufticiently to ventilate under it, and a better ventilation of the rooms 
in winter. In this county Miiere the marshes are numerous, I think a screen of ever- 
greens should be planted and might lend a protecting infiuence in some cases. 

5. Good water. AVells 15 to 20 feet; some driven; others curbed, but mostly stoned 
or bricked, with composition. Generally they do not receive surface water. In the 
farms thej' are more careless. 

6. Yes; stoned and drv, but not well ventilated. 

7. No. 

8. The vault is allowed to become too full and is oflfensive, and is not disinfected. 

9. Waste water, slops, kitchen waste is generally thrown too near houses, so that the 
' stench encountered in going to the back premises is usually more or less marked. 

Brooklyn.— R-EPOKTED by e. n. palmer, m. d. 

1. Soil sandy loam fifteen feet, then hard blue clay eight feet, then sand or coarse 
gravel ten to twentj' feet, then sandstone rock. 

2. Tile draining is coming into general use where required. 

3. Good ventilation, and drains for waste matter. 

4. Tho-e away from the creek and on high ground are healthful. 

5. Some cisterns. Wells twenty feet deep usuallj^; mostly bricked; some are bored 
and tubed with iron; but few receive surface water. 

6. Good cellars, walled, and dry and ventilated. 

7. Not as a rule. 

8. Vaults, which are in many cases disinfected. 
0. Drain, covered, and cesspools. 

10. Avoid marshes, creeks, millponds, and particularly those upon the side of the 
prevailing winds. Be sure of dry subsoil; good water, not too much shade. 



HEALTHFUL DWELLINGS. 59» 

Canno7isbur<j.—Rv:,vORTKD I5Y c. L. chambeklin, m. d. 

1. Sand, clay, and gravelly loam. 

2. No tile on account of rolling surface. 

3. Build on elevated, but not necessarily the liigliest ground. 

4. Those on highest ground sick the most, especially trom malarial fevers. 

5. Wells twenty feet, well stoned and not liable to surface water. 

6. Yes, good and drj\ 

7. Not often. 

8. Vaults. 

0. Surface. 

Coltlwater. —■REFORT'ED BY J. n. BEECH, M. I). 

1. Gravelly loam twenty to thirty inches, reddish hard pan six to eighteen inches, 
sand and gravel eight to twenty feet, and clay about the same. 

2. Tile used at State Public School, where it has been of great advantage. 

3. Some substitute for cesspools and privy vaults. The only practical improvement 
on these is for the first, its removal by wagons, or scattering it over large surface at a 
distance from house, and for the latter the dry earth plan. Tile draining would be of 
use in some sections. 

4. It is well established that in sickly seasons more than seven-tenths of the cases 
occur on the east and northeast border of streams or marshes. 

5. Wells, twelve to thirty-five feet, bricked and surface water guarded against by 
banking. Drive wells are used where required. 

6. Cellars usuallj' good; some not well ventilated; others well ventilated and clean.. 

7. Not often. 
S. Vaults. 

9. Short kitchen drains and cesspools nearly omnipresent. 

10. Highest elevation front east; cellar under whole house, five feet under surface 
and two and a half feet above ground. Well drained if not on very porous subsoil- 
Ceiling high; ventilating flues in walls. Sleeping rooms large and on east or south 
sides. Furnace with slieet iron heat chamber, so that house can be dried on moist or 
humid days readily. A drive well if possible. Dry earth commode. Barns north- 
ward from the house, with row of evergreens between. Deciduous trees on all other 
parts of grounds, not too near. 

Detroit.— RF.POHTED BY AV. H. ROUSE, M. I)., AND H. F. LYSTER, M. D. 

1. Clay sixty to one hundred and fifteen feet to underlying limestone rock, occa- 
sional pockets of sandy loam, slightly elevated ridges lying parallel to the river. 
Land rises from the river to an elevation of seventy-five teet in three miles. 

2. Tiles are not used generally except around the foundations of new houses and 
cellars, and connect \vith the house drains. Too much reliance is placed upon the 
sewers, which are supposed to be impervious to water. 

3. Tile draining of premises twelve to twentj' feet apart, connecting with sewer, is 
more needed than anything else. House elevated from ground, which should be ele- 
vated enough for the water to run oft". Houses well ventilated, and with plenty of 
light, and clean and free from garbage. 

5. Detroit river; few wells in city now in use. 

6. The better built houses liave cellars walled and ventilated and drained. Many of 
the one and two-story frame houses have no cellars. 

7. In some cases. 

8. Water closets in better class of houses, and for nearly all cottages or one and 
two-story frame houses constructed within ten years, vaults are used connected by a 
drain with the lateral sewer; the drain from the kituhen empties into this vault, and 
in some cases the water from the eaves lams into it. There are manj' old vaults ia 
use not connected with anything, which are emptied once in a year or two as 
required. 

9. The liquid wash water and waste from the house is carried to the sewer by a 
deep drain, and the garbage is received into a barrel which is emptied by persons 
who need it as food for cows, hogs, and chickens. The maiuire from the stables is also 
taken out of the city for its value in enriching the soil. 

Dearhonville. — reported by e. s. snow, yi. d. 

1. Clay soil eighty to ninety feet on limestone rock five feet thick. Sand hills 
along the streams. 

2. Seldom done, as the dwellings are upon high ground. 



60 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH-REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

3. Locate on dry ground away from stagnant water. Dry earth system for fecal 
matter. Kitchen waste to be removed a proper distance. 

4. Higli and dry locations much the healthiest, especially as regards malarial fevers. 

5. Wells ten to forty feet deep, walled with brick; seldom receive surface water. 
Eleven wells in this township sunk through the limestone, arc all flowing wells of 
sulphnr water. 

G. The better class of dwellings have cellars walled with stone, and clean and ven- 
tilated. 
7. With farmers it is often the case. 
S. Vaults. 

9. Carried a short distance in open drains. 

10. Dry location away from stagnant water; barns and outhouses a proper dis- 
tance; dry earth system. 

East Sarjinaw. — reported by n. ii. claflin, m. d. 

1. Clay. 

2. Very few lots tile-drained. 

3. Suri'ace water removed by drain, and no organic matter allowed to be thrown 
out. The houses should be elevated above the ground, and permit a free circulation 
of air, as the ground is level, and after rains is saturated with water. 

4. More sickness in dwellings on low gronnd, and where surrounded with saw dust 
and decaying slabs, than in those upon higher ground. 

5. Wells tlfteen feet deep bricked without lime or mortar. Surface water enters 
heavy. 

6. No cellars are dug here. The water would stand in them. Inmost places it will 
stand in dry weatlicr in holes three to five feet in depth, and in wet weather, or when 
the river is higli, will come up to the surface. Cellars are built above ground, double 
Avails. 

S. Vaults. 

9. Surface of gronnd near kitchen. 

^feje.— REPORTED BY E. V. CHASE, M. D. 

1. Sandy and clay loam. 

2. Few use tile drains. 

3. Little drainage required owing to rolling surface. 

5. Wells lifteen feet, planked up or stoned wells. Do not receive surface water. 

6. Cellars clean, dry, walled with stone. 

7. No. 

8. Vaults usually at some distance. 

9. Surface of ground, or removed a short distance by drain. 

10. General cleanliness of premises and removal of vaults and cesspools to a distance 
of at least fifty feet, and removal of stagnant water. 

Grawl Bapids. — reported by a. hazlew^ood, m. d. 

1. Sand}' loam. 

2. Tile not needed. 

3. Good sewers and good water, and draining well the lower lying lands. 

4. Dwellings upon high ground, freer from malarious diseases than those on 
low land. 

5. Wells, cisterns, and river by water works. Depth of wells eight to fifteen feet, 
usually protected from surface water. 

6. Cellars generally good in all respects. 

7. Not according to my observation. 

8. Vaults, andwiierever there are sewers they are connected. 

9. Thrown out on surface, except where there are sewers. 

10. Supply of good water, good sewerage and drainage, and ventilation. Dry earth 
system where there are no sewers. 

Howell. — reported by c. v. beebe, m. d. 

1. Clay loam predominates. 

2. Tile not used generally. 

3. Good elevation and ventilation, good water and general cleanliness. 

5. Wells depth thirty feet, walled with stone and protected from snrface water. 

6. Good cellars, walled, and ventilated and dry. 

7. Not generally. 

8. Vaults. 



HEALTHFUL DWELLINGS. Gl 

9. Surface of ground at kitchen. 

10. Ventilate through pipes leading to chimney. A bath room in every house. 

JTafitings. — reported by a. p. drake, m. d. 

1. Sand and clay loam lying upon gravel and blue clay. 

2. Not needed. 

5. Wells twenty to fiftj' feet deep. 

6. Good cellars. 

8. Vaults. 

9. Surface of ground. 

Homer. — reported by o. s. phelps, m. d. 

1. Clay loam resting upon gravel and clay subsoil, and below this for from twenty 
to twenty-five feet loose gravel dipping southwest. 

2. Not"used. 

3. Dry earth system most important improvement needed here. 

5. Wells twenty-five feet, walled with brick or stone in most cases. 

6. Good cellars. 

7. In some oases, 

8. Vaults or upon surface of ground. 

lZi7fef?«^e.— reported by j, w. falley, m. d. 

1. Sandy and claj'ey and gravelly loam, rolling, 

2. A great deal of tile draining has been done, although most of the county has good 
natural drainage. The lakes have in many cases been'lowered and marshes drained. 
Though we luive three times the population of twenty years ago. we have not one- 
fourth the amount of malarial disease. Even pneumonia has changed in similar 
ratio, 

3. No change is required in most cases, the drainage and water supplj- is so 
excellent, 

5. Wells twenty to sixty feet deep, well stoned and protected from surface water. 

6. Cellars excellent and well made and clean. 

7. Not usually. 

8. Vaults, except at county house and a few other places where the dr\- earth 
system is used. 

9. Ordinary ways, cesspools or surface of ground. 

Ilnbbardston.—Ji^PORTED by ii. yv. broavne, m. d. 

1, Sandy and clayey soil, rolling, 

2, Tiles not used. 

3, Good cellars and ventilation, and light and cleanliness. 

5. Wells twenty feet, chiefly stoned up. There are some old barrel or planked 
wells ; many " drive " wells. 

G. Cellars usually walled with stone or plank; usually dry. 

8, Vaults not common, surface privies used generally, 

9. "Thrown out at back door, as near to the well as can be done handily," Of 
course there are exceptions, 

Kalamazoo,— -REVOKTED by w, b. southard, m. d., and ii. O. IHTCIICOCK, m. d. 

1. Gravelly loam and clay twelve to twenty inches thick resting on gravel bed. 

2. No tile draining. 

3. Houses should be built upon foundations four feet above surfiace, to allow of 
ventilation of cellars. 

4. More sickness in houses near the river than in those upon the plain above. 

5. Holly water works supply one-third the people. The water is from a spring 
twenty-five feet below the ordinary water level. Jlany wells bricked up twenty-two 
and twenty-four feet deep. Some are liable to receive surface water. Many of the 
recently constructed wells are "drive" wells. 

6. Most of the houses have celhu-s; some have none. 

7. Not usually, 

8. Vaults frequently within twenty to thirty feet of well, A few earth closets, 

9. Cesspools and surface of ground, Tiiore is no system of sewerage, 

10. Houses should be well elevated. Earth closet's should be used in preference to 
vaults. If wells are used they should be drive wells. As much sunlight should be 
admitted to houses as is possible. 



62 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH-REPOKT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

Lansing.— REVORJ-ED BY J. B. HULL, M. D,, AND IRA H. BARTHOLOMEW, M. D. 

1. Clay loam resting on clay from fifteen to twenty feet, then sand. The formation 
is chiefly of a limestone character. 

2. 'J'ile draining is used to a limited extent. 

3. The general use of tile drains and the proper disposition of slops and garbage. 

4. Dwellings over undrained cellars have usually more disease. 

5. Wells eighteen to twentj^-five feet deep to the sand. They are stoned or bricked 
up. Many protected against surface water. 

G. Cellars usually walled up, but not always dry, as many have no drains. They are 
tolerably ventilated and clean. 

7. Not usually. 

S. Vaults, and leach into the clay. 

9. Waste from kitchen spread out on gardens or removed usually; in some instances 
thrown over the premises. 

10. Houses should be elevated and cellars drained with tile and kept clean. Dry 
earth svstem should be used. The only cases of typhoid fever here to my knowledge 
liave occurred where the slops were not properly removed, and when the well 
became poisoned from the vaults. The wells should be protected by mortar and 
cement from surface water. Impure water causes more sickness than any other cause. 

Lexington.— REP ORTEV by a. m. OLDFIELD, m. d. 

1. Eastern, clay, and in western part sand. 

2. Tile not generally used. 

5. Western part, springs, eastern part, wells; average depth fifteen feet deep, 
stoned. These wells depend upon surface water for supply. 

6. Many do not have cellars. 

8. Vaufts. 

Marquette.— REPORTED BY OEO. J. NORTHROP, M. D. 

1. Sand over a sedimentary schist. 

2. No tiling needed. 

3. Cleanliness. 

5. Lake Superior and wells; wells forty to ninety feet deep, and curbed with plank. 
Some are liable at times to surface water. 

6. Usually have cellars walled with stone or plank, usually stone. 

8. Vaults. 

9. Thrown upon ground; a few drains and sewers; no regular system, 

Mendon. — reported by h. c. clapp, m. d., and edwin Stewart, m. d. 

1. Sand and gravel with gravel sub strata. 

2. Not used. 

3. Cleanliness, dry and well ventilated cellars, good water, vault at some distance, 
not too much shade, house away from marsh or stagnant water. High and dry sit- 
uation for house. 

4. Those living on the prairies least liable to sickness, those in openings, more so, 
and those in heavy timbered land, most of all. 

5. Wells twenty to thirty feet deep, generally curbed with wood, but a few walled 
up with brick and water lime; not liable to receive surface water. 

6. Cellars usually built and walled up, dry and clean, and well ventilated. 

7. Very seldom anj^ decomposing vegetables in tliem. 

8. Vaults. 

9. Surface of ground at back door. 

10. Ventilation and sunlight, elevated situation, open fire-places in the rooms. 

Milford. — reported by kobert johnston, m. d. 

1. Clay. 

2. No tile used. 

3. Cleanliness, ventilation and underdrainage, and removal of fecal matter. 

5. Wells, of good depth. 

6. Good cellars, ventilated, and dry and clean. 

7. No. 

8. Vaults. 

9. Tiirown on the garden. 



HEALTHFUL DWELLINGS. 63 

JVoHh Lansing.—ii'EVORTY.D by o. Marshall, m. d. 

L Clajr soil and subsoil with veins of sand and gravel. 

3. A better system ot sewerage and water supply; houses should be better ventil- 
ated. 

4. The families living near the stagnant water and low lands have more sickness. 

5. Wells about twenty feet; in wet weather many receive surface water if open. 
There are many drive wells. 

6. A majority of houses have cellars and these are walled with stone. Ventilation 
is not good, and from the nature of the soil they are damp and mouldy. 

7. Yes, often; but not difi'erent from other towns. 

8. Vaults. 

9. Generally on surface of ground near back door. 

OZsesrO.— REPORTED BY IMILTOX CHASE, M. D. 

1. Sand, clay, and sandy and gravelly loam. 

2. Xo tile draining. 

3. Those on sandy soil and away from the water are less liable to rheumatism, 
tj^phoid, and malarial disease. 

5. Wells, many of them thirty feet deep, bricked up or curbed np with oak boards. 
A few use water from cisterns and springs and wells liable to receive surface water. 

6. Cellars under the majority ot houses, and many are not well ventilated, or 
drained or cleaned. Less than one-half are walled up. Some on clay soil have drains. 

7. Many cellars are not free from decaying vegetables. 

8. On surface or in shallow vaults. 

9. Surface of ground at kitchen door. 

10. Every town, village, and city should employ a sanitary architect to advise as 
to the location of the house and about the construction. ^ 

Otisville. — REPORTED BY A. AV. NICHOLSON. JM. D. 

1. Santly and clay loam. 

2. But few instances of tiling. 

3. Cellars should be more frequently placed under the houses. Many of the houses 
are upon blocks. 

4. The houses should be elevated from the ground and built upon higher portions 
of ground. Of forty-one cases of malarial fever, forty were in houses resting upon 
blocks of wood and having no cellars. In a recent serious epidemic of scarlatina, the 
most serious manifestations of the disease were where the dwellings were nearly 
enclosed by trees and shrubbery. In such situations pulmonary difficulties are 
strikingly manifest. 

5. Wells twenty-four feet deep. The shallow wells are usually stoned, but are fre- 
quently recipients of surface water. Tlie deepest are driven, and have a walled basin 
about ten feet in depth. 

6. Cellars under the new houses; a large number of tlie older houses have none. In 
the latter there is substituted an unwalled and undrained excavation, not clean. The 
new cellars are walled with stone and drained with board drains, but not well ventil- 
ated, and decomposed vegetables are frequently left in them. 

8. Vaults. 

Paw Paw. — REPORTED BY JOSIAH ANDREWS, M. D. 

1. Sandy loam on blue clay from two to sixtj^ feet. 

2. No tile draining. 

3. House in many cases too deiYsely shaded. 

4. Families living near bank of river and mill i-ace more liable to malarial disease. 

5. Wells, ten to seventy feet deep; generally bricked up; some are drive wells. 
Very few liable to surface water. 

6. Cellars under most houses, ventilated, clean, and generally free from water. 

7. I think not. 

8. Vaults. 

9. Surface drainage. 

10. Sunlight, dryness, ventilation, and pure water. 

Port JJuroJl.— REPORTED BY C. M. STOCKWELL, M. D. 

1. Sandy and clay loam, on blue clay 75 to 100 feet. 

2. Very little tile draining. 

3. Thorough under draining with i^orous tile, and cemented basement floors. 



64 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— EEPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

4. Those living upon sand plains or ritlges have far greater immunity from disease 
than those upon elaj' soil, although the sand retains water in many places.- 

5. Northern Lake water from St. Clair river by Holly system of water works. For- 
merly from wells ten to tifteen feet deep, and consequently mostly surface water. 

6. Cellars are low, a majority of these are not walled nor ventilated, nor free from 
water. 

7. In a few instances. 

8. Vaults. 

9. Surface of ground; occasionally carried oft' by box drains. 

10. Double walled and ventilated", and well lighted houses. Underdraining by tiles; 
cement cellar floor; good sewer for drains to connect with water closets. 

Fort Sanilac. — kepokted by j. m. loop, m. d. 

1. Sand and clay loam resting on clay stratum flftcen to thirtj' feet thick. 

2. Little used. 

3. Drainage. 

4. Location does not make so much difl'erence here as the manner in which the 
dwellings are kejit. 

5. Wells, of variable depth; manj' contain only surface water. 

6. Cellars not frequentlj^ found. Some of those are walled with either stone or 
wood. 

7. Not generally. 

8. Vaults. 

9. Surface of ground near kitchen. 

10. Drainage, deep wells, dry earth system. 

St. Clair. — repokted by a. l. padfield, m. d. 

1. Part sandy loam, other sections tenacious clay; limestone foundation. 

2. Tile draining is becoming common latelj'. 

3. Houses should be upon stone fonndation two or three feet above ground. Tile 
should be used. 

4. On low lands in the city malarial fevers are more prevalent than on higher 
ground. 

5. Wells are chiefly used (generally surface water), ten or twelve feet deep. 

6. Cellars usual)}' made, but not always clean, and almost always wet. They are 
the cause of much sickness. Overground cellars are becoming more common. 

7. When cellars are wet vegetables usually decompose in them. 
S. Shallow vaults. 

9. Surface of ground. 

St. Jose;!/*.— reported by r. p. strattan, m. d. 

1. Sand and clay alternating. Away from lake a rich loam with subsoil of gravel 
through which water i^asses freely. The sand generally rests on claj'. At about 
seventy-five feet the finest beacli sand is found, and in this we get the best water. 

2. The better class of people drain the ground. 

3. Perfect drainage of surface for at least twenty rods in all directions. Cellars 
should be dry. House should not be shaded, and should be located on highest part 
of the ground. Cleanliness. 

4. Houses upon east side or near marshes have more sickness, particularly malarial 
fevers. 

5. Wells six to twelve feet deep, and liable to receive surface water. A few wells 
are seventy-five feet deep, and contain the best water. 

6. Not half the houses have cellars. The cellars are damp and filled with water 
once a year. 

7. No. 

8. Vaults. 

9. Surface of ground near the kitchen. Some spread it on the garden. 

St. Johns. — REPORTED BY G. E. CORBIX, M. D. 

1. Fifteen feet of clay upon quicksand of undetermined depth. 

2. Not generally used. 

3. Cleanliness more needed as regards disposition of refuse. 

5. Wells, twenty to thirty feet, "in some places much less in depth. Generally well 
built and walled up. and free from surface Avater. 

6. Cellars well built generally, and walled up and dry. 



I 



HEALTHFUL DWELLINGS. 05 

7. With some familiGS fi-cqiiently ; iu others, never. 
S. Vaults, sometimes tlisinfecied. 

9. Surface of ground. 

Tecumseh.—UKVORTKD by c. jr. woodward, m. d. 

1. Clay loam fifteen to twent.y feet to gravel. 

2. Not commonlj" used or required. 

3. Cleanliness, and the proper removal of garbage and fecal matter. 

"). AVells thirty feet deep, walled up with brick; some are driven or artesian. 
C. (Jellars, usuallj', Avell nuvde, ventilated, and drained. 

7. Seldom, 

8. Vaults. 

i». Some drains, and others upon surface of ground av/ay from the building. 

10. Drainage; good cellars; walls of househard finished; vaults at least'sixty feet 
from house; wells seventy or eighty feet from the residence, uidess earth closets are 
used. 

Three 7?iyers.— reported by l. s. stevens, m. d., and C. w. backus, m. d. 

1. Sandy and gravelly loam. 

2. Not used. 

3. Good cellars, dry and ventilated. 

4. Families on east side of millpond and river more subjected to Interraitteut 
fevers. 

5. Wells, thirty-two feet deep, well made; many drive wells used; not subject to 
surface water. 

6. Cellars well built, and ventilated and dry. 
S, Vaults some distance from house. 

9. Drains used, mostly wooden pipes. 

10. Good water, dry soil, large, well ventilated cellars; and refuse carried well 
away. 

ThoriieviUe. — reported by john s. caulkins, m. d. 

1. Clay and clay loam and sandy loam. The drift is very thick, no rock having been 
reached at one hundred and twenty feet. The ^Michigan salt group lies imder this. 

2. Tile draining of premises about the house has not been practiced here, 

3. The dwelling should not be to the north or east of stagnant water or Avet lands. 
If this cannot be avoided, make drainage as perfect as possible and leave or plant 
trees to the south and west. 

5. Wells, springs, and cisterns. Wells are chiefly used, varying from ten to one 
hundred feet; average twenty to thirtj' leet. Those on sandy land are the deepest. 
Those on clay land are dug to the water and walled up \vith stone. Drive wells have 
been used, but the water usually is roily. 

6. Cellars common, usually walled with stone; ventilation frequently imperfect. 
In some cases, on clay ground, damp. 

7. Too frequent. 

8. Vault. 

9. Usually a drain near kitchen door; not always kept free and clean, and is 
offensive. 

10. Ventilation; hard finish to walls. 

VermontviUe.—TiF.vonTKiy by wm. tarmenter, hi. t>. 

1. Sand and clay. 

2. Only in one instance. 

3. Good surface drainage and general cleanliness. 

4. In houses near swamps, pools, and soil for the first time disturbed, there are 
more cases of malarial fevers. 

5. Wells mostly; springs in a few cases; average depth thirtj' feet, stoned up. Of 
late years a few lined witli pine tubes. Many are lial)le to surface water, 

6. Cellars walled up with stone and dry. Wet in spring gencralh', 

7. Probably not, 

8. Vaults; a few dry earth; some cases no vaults. 

9. Conveyed a short distance by drains. 

10. Cleanliness, dryness, and sunlight. 

9 



66 STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH— EEPOKT OF SECEETAEY, 1877. 

Wyandotte. — reported cy e. p. christian, m. u. 

1. Yellow sand for the most part, eight or ten feet in deepest part. A part directlj' 
on the clay. There the land is low, hut little ahove the river. 

2. Very little tile draining. 

3. The greatest necessity is a system of sewerage for removing contents of cess- 
pools and vaults. 

4. There is a greater prevalence of malarial disease on lower ground, although the 
water there is probably better. This is accounted for by the want of drainage and 
the humid soil. 

5. Surface water collected in wells of a depth of from four to twenty feet. They 
are usually stoned or bricked. 

6. Cellars usually built outside and not undei\the houses. Walled up, ventilated, 
and dry. 

7. I think not. 

8. Vaults. 

9. No sewers and few drains, and soil is permitted to absorb all the waste water. 

10. Dry soil; pure drinking-water; plenty of soft water for bathing; good sewer- 
age; and prevention of contamination of soil with decaying organic matter. 

Wallecl Lake. — reported by e. a. chapman, m. d. 

1. Sand, gravel, and clay. 

2. Tile draining of premises not practiced. 

3. Thorough tile draining, clean cellars, and removal of waste matter. 

5. Wells chiefly; average depth twenty-live feet, stoned up; manj' drive wells. 
Open wells are liable to surface water. 
G. Cellars generally used; walled with stone. Many not clean or free from water. 

7. They are, in many instances. 

8. Vaults. 

9. Surface of ground near kitchen. 

ljis<7an<j.— reported by edward batwell, m. d. 

1. Gravelly loam four to thirty feet resting on bard blue claJ^ Under this the 
water is found. 

2. Kot much drainage required on account of elevated character of the ground. 

3. Strongly opposed to underground cellars under the dwellings for storage of 
vegetables. 

5. Good wells, not liable to surface water. The water coming from below the clay 
is not liable to be contaminated. 

6. Good cellars, dry and free from water. 
8. Vaults. 

From the replies of the several correspondents, it is apparent that there are 
many points upon which they all agree in regard to the best means of preserv- 
ing the health of the people. Among the most important, seem to be the neces- 
sity, in all parts of the State, to remove dampness from the dwelling and its 
surroundings, not to permit too much shade, to allow plenty of sunlight and 
air in the house, to supply good water, and to carry away and remove all 
decomposing and waste matter. 

The material from which the house should be constructed has not been 
spoken of. So long as dryness is obtained, it is not important. The necessity 
for the avoidance of poisonous wall paper has already been forcibly pointed out 
in a previous report of this board, and the value of walls of hard finish will be 
more and more appreciated as the people l)ecome educated in the necessity for 
the disinfection of houses after contagious fornis of disease have occurred. 

The several modes of the ventilation of dwellings depend so greatly for their 
successful employment upon the peculiarities of the heating apparatus used, 
that they would occupy too much space for their complete elucidation here. 
We would, however, remark, that every facility should be afforded for perfect 
ventilation by constrncting ventilating shafts connecting Avith or adjoining the 



HEALTHFUL DWELLINGS. 67 

cliimneys where possible, with openings, near the floor and ceiling, furnished 
with adjustable registers where furnaces and stoves are used. The upper 
opening is more particularly for use in the Summer to let out the warm air. 
The open fire-place will obviate the necessity of the lower opening in rooms 
where it is relied upon for heating. 

It will be seen by those who have taken the time and patience to follow the 
several ideas and principles outlined in this report, that much can be done by 
every one, however limited his purse, in the way of locating and constructing a 
dwelling in accordance with our present knowledge of sanitary laws. Eemem- 
beriug that the violation of any law of nature is followed sooner or later by a 
punishment commensurate with the degree of such infringement, he who 
erects and maintains his dwelling in accordance with known and recognized 
sanitary teachings, lays the foundation on a rock which will stand, and builds 
upon it a habitation that will prove in every sense a home. 



ILLUMINATrnG OILS M MICHIGAN. 



A Lecture Delivered before the Legislature, January 25, 1877, 



Prof. E. C. KBDZIE, M. D., 



MEMBER OF THE 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH, 



And Its Committee on Special Sources op Danger to Lipe, etc. 



ILLUMINATING OILS IN MICHIGAN, 



Senators axd Eepeesextatives : I thank you for this opportunity to ad- 
dress you on the subject of illuminating oils, and in behalf of the State Board 
of Health to present a plea for the safety and lives of the people of this com- 
mon'wealth. 

Before our law creating the office of State Inspector of Illuminating Oils was 
enacted and enforced, the newspapers were filled with recitals of deplorable acci- 
dents from the use of coal oils of low grade. You could scarcely take up a 
daily paper of our State without seeing the startling head-line, "Another 
Kekosene Horror." People got the idea that such calamities were the natu- 
ral if not necessary result of using the inflammable material. But since this 
law has been enforced, scarcely a single accident has occurred in the use of 
kerosene in our State. So complete has been the change that the people are 
fast forgetting the terrible history of the past, and many are now demanding a 
retrograde step towards the former conditions of danger. Nor have the good 
effects of our law been confined to our State. Other States have followed our 
lead and enacted similar laws for protection of the public. Even States which 
have not passed such laws have felt the benefit of tlie exposures here made of 
the villainous Ohio inspection, because the refiners were compelled to make a 
better oil and inspect with more care. Tims the protection which your wise 
legislation has afforded the people of our State has carried a certain degree of 
protection to neighboring States. Michigan stands in the front rank of States 
in the protection she has thrown around the lives and property of her citizens, 
and a backward step on our part will cause increased insecurity in other States. 

So far as security to person and property is concerned, the people of our 
State are to be congratulated : so far as the burning quality of most of our oils 
is concerned, they are to be pitied. The "people sitting in darkness," but 
(thanks to our law) not "in the land of the shadow of death," have still a right 
to demand something better than the wretched stuff so generally sold as kerosene. 
They do right in complaining and in demanding a change for the better. But the 
change must be one that will effectually remove the evil without impairing the 
public safety. Kerosene is emphatically the illuminating material for the masses. 
Outside the cities and large villages it is almost the only material used for arti- 
ficial light. Legislation on this subject therefore reaches almost every home 
in our State, and any legislation which shall increase the danger in its use, or 
diminish the present conditions of safety, will cast a shadow over the homes of 
the great mass of our citizens. Every one is interested in securing safe tests 
for an article in such general use. The question does not alone concern the 



72 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— EEPORT OF SECRETARY, 1S77. 

safety of the family using it, but tlie community are also interested. In the 
I'armers' Institute at Grand Traverse, wliere this subject was brought up. Judge 
Rarasdell said : "Every one is interested in securing safe oil. If any family in 
this village uses unsafe oil, the whole village is endangered ; if by the use of low- 
grade oil a man sets his house on fire, the whole village may be wiped out, 
and if the wind is high and in the right direction, no human power could save 
it." It is said that the great Chicago fire originated in a cow's kicking over a 
kerosene lamp. If the oil had been good Michigan test oil instead of the inflam- 
mable material it was, the fire might have been extinguished, and the greatest 
fire in modern history might have been avoided. Chicago learned to her cost 
that she had an interest in the quality of the kerosene used by her humblest 
citizens. Even if people say they are willing to incur some risk of personal 
safety for the sake of better light, it is not the part of wise legislators to aid and 
abet such incendiary and suicidal ci'avings, provided some better and more effec- 
tual means can be provided for removing the evils complained of. 

Before speaking of the qualities of illuminating oils, let me call your attention 
to the method of refining oil, because this will aid us in understanding many of 
the points involved in the oil question. In order to intelligently enter upon this 
subject, I visited Cleveland last month and spent several days at the refineries, 
iu order to become familiar with the details of this process. 

PETROLEUM. 

Petroleum is the crude material as it is pumped from the earth. This is 
"brought from ''the oil regions" of Pennsylvania, in the vicinity of Titusville 
and Oil Cit}^ but large quantities are now brought from Butler county. The 
Butler county petroleum has been in use only a short time, and differs from the 
petroleum in other parts of Pennsylvania in having a very large amount of par- 
affine. This fact may help to explain the large amount of paraffine found iu 
Qur kerosene of late. Petroleum is also largely produced in West Virginia. 

REFINING. 

Kefihing consists in separating the complex materials contained in petroleum, 
By distilling and condensing. The crude petroleum is placed in large iron stills 
made of boiler-plate, which resemble steam boilers. They vary in size from 85 
barrels to 1,000 barrels. The stills are heated like steam boilers, and the vapor 
produced is condensed in condensers made of gas pipe, which are placed in long 
wooden boxes filled with cold water. These boxes are usually 4x4 feet in cross 
section, and are 200 to 250 feet long ; in the bottom of this box the iron con- 
densing pipes are placed side by side and run the whole length of the box; a 
stream of cold water enters one end and is discharged as warm water at the end 
nearest the still. The condensing pipes all end in a " receiving house," and the 
condensed products of distillation are received in troughs, from which they run 
into large cisterns for storage, being run into different cisterns according to their 
quality, especially their specific gravity. 

When the still is heated up by the fire, the petroleum soon begins to boil and 
the lighter products pass off in the form of vapor; then heavier materials pass 
over in the form of vapor; and last of all some tarry matter is left in the still. 
The first materials which are vaporized are not condensed by cold but escape as 
gas ; then a veiy volatile oil passes over which may be condensed by a freezing 
mixture, but not by cold water. This oil boils at 05°, and produces very intense 
cold by its evaporation. It is called Khigolene (frost oil) from the cold it i^ro. 



ILLUMINATING OILS. 73 

duces when rapidly evaporated. It is used by dentists and surgeons to destroy the 
nervous sensibility by freezing the part. Here is some of the oil. It is exceed- 
ingly dangerous because it is one of the most volatile and inflammable liquids 
known. If this bottle should break in this room, with all these lights burning, 
an explosion would be the natural result. Mr. Stearns' drug store in Detroit 
was burned a few years ago by means of Rhigolene : a boy carried a tray filled 
with bottles of this oil down cellar ; he probably dropped the tray, for a crash 
of breaking glass was heard ; the inflammable vapor almost instantly reached 
the furnace and the cellar was at once filled with flame, so that not a single 
person escaped from the burning cellar, and those in other parts of the store had 
^reat difficulty in escaping. 

Rhigolene is not saved at the Cleveland refineries, but escapes with the incon- 
densable gas (Cyniogene). The first products of distillation saved at the 
refineries are stored together under the general name naphtha, and this continues 
to be stored as naphtha till the density of the liquids distilled reaches 63° Beame 
of the coal oil hydrometer. The products of distillation from this point are 
stored in another reservoir under the name of kerosene, and it continues to be 
stored as kerosene till the gravity becomes 51° Beame. At this point a heavy 
oil containing a large amount of paraffine comes over, and this is usually stored 
as paraffine oil. A good deal of this paraffine oil comes over in the last part of 
the distillation of kerosene. A quantity of tarry matter remains behind in the 
still, which is usually distilled in a separate retort, and affords more paraffiue 
oil, and leaves a heavy coke behind in the retort. 

According to Prof. Chandler, 100 parts of crude petroleum will yield IGg 
parts of naphtha (including gasoline and benzine), 55 parts of kerosene, 19|- 
parts of paraffine oil, and 10 parts of coke, etc. But Cleveland refiners claim 
to do better work than this — that they can get 70 to 75 barrels of kerosene from 
100 barrels of petroleum. 

The first materials which are condensed are the lightest and most combusti- 
ble — the density of the liquids increases constantly as the distillation proceeds, 
and their combustibility as constantly decreases, till we reach the paraffine oils, 
when the combustibility very rapidly decreases, and the oils become very diffi- 
cult to burn in ordinary lamps. The naphtha and the paraffine oils bring but 
a small price in the market, because there is very little demand for them com- 
pared with the amount produced. On the other hand, kerosene is in very large 
demand and commands a good price. Paraffine oil is worth about 10 cents a 
gallon, and naphtha 3 or 4 cents. There is so little demand for naphtha that 
the Standard Oil Company were burning it instead of coal to heat their retorts 
in refining petroleum. The refiner finds, therefore, for his lightest and his heavi- 
est products but small demand and little profit: for his middle products, a large 
demand and heavy profits. The difference between naphtha and kerosene is 
not in hind, hut in defjree. The dividing line between heavy naphtha and light 
kerosene is a perfectly arbitrary one; the difference is that the naphtha is a 
little more volatile and intlammable than the kerosene. The refiner, then, is 
tempted to run into the kerosene as much naphtha as he can, to increase his 
profits. He finds this lowers the test, and to bring up the test he runs in some 
of the paraffine oil, which brings up the test. I have brought up the test of an 
oil 14° by adding paraffine. He can thus nuike a profit both on his naphtha 
and paraffine oil. If he can run into each barrel of kerosene 5 gallons of each 
of these adulterants, he will make a clean protit of more than §;'i on each barrel 
■of oil. In works where 6,000 barrels of oil are retined every day, the profits on 
10 



74 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

sucli an operation ^TOu]d be enormous. Perhaps it would not be possible to 
practice so large an adulteration, especially as regards the naphtha; but I have 
the best of reasons for believing that a very large amount of paraffine oil is thus 
added to Michigan oil, and the refiner's profit on every gallon of paraffine oil 
added to our oil is not less than 20 to 25 cents. There is nothing in our law 
which Avill prevent the refiner adding all the paraffine oil he chooses. 

But the influence of this paraffine oil on the burning quality of kerosene is 
very injurious : the lamp burns dimly, the wick chars and gums up, and the 
light will often go out before half the oil is consumed; when the liglit is extin- 
o-uished, a stifling smoke escapes from the charred wick. When such oil is 
cooled to a low temperature, the paraffine will separate, and the oil becomes 
white, thick, and turbid, or even becomes solid, like lard. I have a specimen of 
such oil bought for my own use, which I could not burn with any satisfaction ; 
it was from the Standard Oil Company, and sold as " Michigan State Oil." 
By chilling and filtering I extracted four ounces of solid paraffine from one 
quart of the oil, or a pound to the gallon. Here is the paraffine taken from one 
quart. From all parts of the State we hear complaints about the oil freezing; 
in some places they have to get the barrels in by the stove and thaw the oil 
before they can pump it out. From the same quarters we hear the complaints 
that the oil will not burn. That is not Kerosene ! There may be some kerosene 
in it, but it is essentially paraffine oil. No oil containing so much paraffine oil 
will burn in our ordinary lamps, no matter what is the inspection test. Here is 
a lamp which contains some of the 120" oil, for which people are petitioning, 
to which I have added some paraffine oil, and you see how it burns. Suppose 
you reduce the test to 120°, and suppose the refiners find it for their interest to 
reduce the test still lower, they may find it to their interest, as they certainly 
do to their profit, to run into the 120° oil enough paraffine oil so that it would 
not burn satisfactorily ; and the people would again demand a reduction of the 
test, so that they could have an oil that would burn. The refiners, through 
their agents, tell the people that it is our high test that causes the oil to be of 
such wretched quality. I venture to say that our high test has no necessary 
connection with this poor burning quality. I have some oil which is ''legal 
test" which burns as brightly as any oil I ever used. I have placed here side 
by side two lamps exactly alike and trimmed in the same way in all respects 
except that one contains a pure water-white oil, free from paraffine, which flashes 
at 141°, and is therefore a little above our test, while the other contains a 
"water-white headlight oil" which flashes at 115°. They have both been 
burning here undisturbed for more tlian an hour ; tell me which gives the best 
light. Several voices say "No. ]," and one says "No. 2." You are not 
unanimous in your opinions, and this shows that there is very little difference 
between the lamps, so far as the quality of light is concerned. Lamp No. 2 
contains 115° oil, and No. 1 contains our heaAy 141° oil, yet a majority say that 
this gives the best light. This demonstrates that the poor burning quality of 
"Michigan test oil" has no necessary connection with our high test. But the 
oil in lamp No. 1 contains so little paraffine that when it is cooled for hours 
down to zero it remains perfectly clear and transparent. It is because our oils 
have been adulterated with paraffine oil that they will not burn. I do not care 
how high the test is, if the oil is free from this paraffine oil it will burn well ; and 
if any oil is heavily laden Avitli paraffine oil, I care not how low the test, it will 
not burn well. Here are two lamps exactly alike and trimmed in the same way, 
and filled with oil from the same barrel ; but the oil in one lamp contains the 



ILLUMINATING OILS. 75- 

same amount of paraffine as was found in the oil, while the pavaflinc has been 
extracted, as far as possible, from the other by chilling and filtering. You can 
judge of the influence of the paraffine on the burning quality by comparison of 
the flames of these two lamps. 

The jiresence of paraffine has a singular power of lowering the cai)illarity of 
oil. 1 tried the folloAving mode of compai'ison : I took several glass tubes of 
the same size, and placed some candle-wicking inside the tube. The Avicking 
was thoroughly moistened with oil, and the tubes placed in oil of different qual- 
ities to see how high the top of the tube could be carried above the surface of 
the oil and the flame continue to burn steadily at the top of the tube. With 
good Michigan test oil, I found the flames would burn for hours at the height of 
93 millimetres {o§ inches) above the surface ; but with paraffine-laden oil only 
at 7 millimetres {^ inch) ; after chilling the oil and filtering out the i:»araffine, 
the flame would burn at 80 millimetres (3|- inches) above the surface ; the capil- 
lary power by which alone the flame is fed, is therefore more than ten times as 
great after the paraffine has been removed. This explains why it is so difficult 
to make a lamp which contains this paraffine oil burn for a long time ; the cap- 
illary power is too feeble to draw up this thick oil in sufficient quantity to sus- 
tain the flame, and the lamp goes out before half the oil is consumed. This evil 
is often increased by the form of the lamp in most general use. The lamps are 
usually globular in form, and when only a small part of the oil in the lamp is 
consumed, the distance between the surface of the oil and the flame is much 
increased, thus increasing the distance through which the oil must pass by capil- 
lary action. If the lamps were flat-topped and with a shallow well like these 
before you, the deficient capillarity of the oil would not be so evident. Another 
cause which makes these oils burn so poorly is the use of too small and hard- 
twisted wicks. If folks would use No. 2 burners, with very soft and porous wicks, 
they would find less trouble with their kerosene. More light is given with a 
No. 2 burner than with a No. 1, with the same consumption of oil. 

Another fact does not seem to be generally known, although I poiuted it out 
nearly two years ago, viz. : that kerosene rapidly deteriorates by exposure to sun- 
light. Here are two bottles of kerosene, one clear as water, and the other dark 
yellow; yet they were filled from the same can of kerosene, and have stood side 
by side for several Aveeks; one was exposed to sunlight, while the other was 
wrapped in paper impervious to light. In one bottle the sunlight has changed 
a part of the oil to a tarry substance, which remains dissolved in the oil and 
colors it yellow, while no such change has taken place in the other. If I add 
some sulphuric acid to this yellow oil quite a heavy deposit of tarry matter will 
form, but none in the other oil. Any kerosene long exposed to sunlight will 
burn less freely, and all lamps should be kept in a dark closet when not in use. 
But manage our lamps as we may, if we have poor oil we shall have poor liglit. 
The people justly complain of the quality of the oil ; it is an outrage to palm 
off such stuff for kerosene oil. The refiners who are the authors of this outrage 
coolly reply that this poor burning quality is a necessary effect of our high test, 
that we can never have a good oil with our present test, and that the way, and 
the only way, to remove this evil is to reduce our test. I readily concede that 
the light products of distillation will burn more freely than the heavy products. 
The most freely burning of all these oils is rhigolcne, but j'ou might as safely 
burn gunpowder. Gasoline and naphtha will burn better than any kerosene. 
The low-test kerosene will burn more freely, other things being equal, than the 
high-test. The question is not which will burn the most readily ; for if that 



76 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— REPOET OF SECEETAEY, 1877. 

■were the question, -we would select naphtha at once, which will burn better than 
any kerosene. The question is, can we have an oil that is safe to use, which 
will burn sufficiently well for all practical purposes? I answer, we do have such 
oil in certain grades of water-white oil (i. e. oil free from paraffine), as you 
may see by this lamp before you. Tins lamp very plainly disproves all the state- 
ments of the oil men that we cannot have a good oil with our high test. There 
is no trouble in making such oil, the only trouble is that it is not so profitable 
to make as the low grade kerosene. If naphtha and paraffine oil should ever 
become more valuable and salable than kerosene, we shall hear no more about 
the difficulty in making Michigan test oil, nor any complaints that high-test oil 
will not burn freely. Till that time comes, we must watch the refiners and 
receive their statements with due allowance, because they are interested parties. 
The people also complain because the high-test oil is more costly. Of course, 
no intelligent man will claim that the remarkable advance in the price of kero- 
sene all over the country during the last year, has any connection with our high 
test. This is the result of a combination of the principal oil refiners, who con- 
trol the market. But high-test kerosene, every where, costs more than low-test. 
Gallon for gallon it costs more, but is it therefore more expensive? I was sur- 
prised at Grand Traverse to hear that "the high-test oil not only costs more, 
but would not burn so long as low-test." Tliis statement was so opposed to 
known facts, that I determined to test it accurately. I took two exactly simi- 
lar lamps, filled one with high-test and the other with low-test oil ; weighed the 
lamps and oil ; lighted them and kept the blaze at equal intensity, and after 
allowing them to burn side by side for a certain time, I weighed the lamps to 
find how much oil each had consumed. AVhile the high-test oil had lost four 
ounces, the low-test had lost five ounces. I liave tried the experiment in many 
ways, both by measuring the amount of oil that was consumed, and by weighing 
the same, but always with the same result, viz. : the low-test oils always burned 
away faster than the high-test, when the light Avas the same. The low-test oil 
sells for 28 cents wholesale, and the best high-test for 35 cents, — an increase of 
one-fourth ; but the low-test oil burns aAvay one-fourth faster, so that measured, 
not by the gallon, but by the amount of light, the high-test oil is as cheap as 
the low-test. 

SAFE OIL. 

The most important question is, Wiat is a safe oil? I think you will all con- 
-cede that oil that will bea?' our test is safe. For nearly two years in which our 
test has been enforced, not a life has been lost or a serious accident occurred by 
the use of such oil. Will oil of a lower grade be equally safe ? Most emphatically, 
1^0 ! AVill 120° oil be safe enough for common use? Ninety-nine persons may 
use it Avithout accident, but the hundredth man may have an accident and go 
up in a chariot of fire. In estimating the degree of safety required for any oil 
■in general use, we must consider the accidents which are liable to happen ; 
chimneys will break or fall off, lamps will break by dropping and otherwise, 
and we must have an oil that will be safe when such accidents occur. The 
brass fittings of lamps become heated, and Avhen the oil is splashed against the 
heated parts, explosive vapors will form if the oil is of low test. Accidents are 
Tery liable to occur when the lamp is partially empty and is carried in the 
hands. The following case will illustrate how such accidents most frequently 
occur : 

The Dubuque Times says that a lamp explosion occurred in a house in Four- 



ILLUMINATING OILS. 77 

teeutli street in that city. A little colored girl employed in the family went to 
the kitchen in the evening to light the fire. She then took the lump from the 
table and started to return to the sitting-room, and before she got out of the 
kitchen the lamp exj)loded with the force of a gun-shot, scattering fragments 
of glass all over the room. One piece struck tlic little girl on the cheek, cut- 
ting a gash nearly two inches in length, and deep enough to bleed profusely, 
and others tore tlie skin from the fingers of the hand which carried the lamp. 
Fortunately the light was extinguished by the bursting of the lami^. — Baltimore 
Underwriter, Jan. IS, 1877. 

I have made many experiments to determine the comparative safety of 
such oil as the people are petitioning for, and the oil that our laws now 
require. I have tilled lamps with the ''Michigan-test" oil and others with 
''Headlight" oil. These lamps were left to burn in a warm room for a time, 
and then broken without extinguishing the flame. With our oil the flame was 
either extinguished, or a long time ensued before the body of the oil took fire; 
with "Headlight" oil the flame rapidly extended to the oil and burned fiercely. 
I am satisfied by these direct experiments, where the conditions of an accident 
were as accurately reproduced as possible, that our "Michigan-test"' oil is far 
safer than any oil of a lower test. 

^VHY LAMPS EXPLODE. 

Some persons seem to think that the explosion of a kerosene lamp is caused 
iu the same way as a boiler explosion, viz. : By the pressure of the vapor of the 
oil inside the lamp. In rare instances explosions may be caused in this Avay; 
for example, where the ignited oil overflows the lamp and the lamp is enveloped 
iu flame. But explosions usually occur in another way, viz. : Where the vapor 
of kerosene is mixed in proper proportions with air, and thus a trne explosive 
mixture is formed, which will explode with the force of a gun-shot, when fired 
by a flame. This explains why a lamp is in more danger of exploding when 
only partially filled with kerosene, because a larger amount of space is filled with 
the explosive mixture ; it is the same as a larger load of powder in a gun. 

Many persons suppose that there can be no danger of a lamp explosion unless 
the whole body of the oil in the lamp is heated to the flashing point; that be- 
cause the temperature of our rooms never rises to 1'20°, there can be no danger 
in using oil whose flashing point is 120°. But Dr. Baker, Secretary of the State 
Board of Health, has proved by experiment with lamps, that an explosive mix- 
ture may form and the lamp may explode while the body of oil iu the lamp is 
not above 85° F. The temperature of the body of oil in the lamp is not the 
only factor to be considered, because different parts of the lamp become very 
unequally heated. If you will touch the brass collar of a lamp which has been 
burning for some time, you will find it quite hot, and the tube supporting the 
wick is still more strongly heated. The formation of vapor will be determined 
hy the Jiottest part of the lamp which comes in contact with the oil. When the 
combustion is imperfect from any cause, the brass fittings of the lamp become 
excessively heated. Dr. Baker found in his experiments, that when the chimney 
was removed, by breaking or otherwise, and the lamp continued to burn, the 
temperature of the brass collar rose very ra})idly in every instance ; in one case, 
in 14 minutes, it rose to 1G1° F., and in another case, in ten minutes, to 155° F. 
In this last instance very rapid explosions occurred by the side of the wick, and to 
prevent the whole lamp from exploding the light was extinguished. In none of 
these experiments did the temperature of the body of the oil rise above S5° F. Many 



78 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

persons on leaving a room "turn down the lamp," to save oil, but such economy 
is very liable to cause a lamp explosion, whicli is anything but economical. I 
know of a case in Charlotte ^yhich illustrates the danger of this practice : A 
lamp in a store Avas turned down during the absence of the clerk, a person pass- 
ing saw the lamj^ explode, and by promptly breaking open the store he extin- 
guished the fire. If a light is not needed in a room, either extinguish the lamp 
or leave it burning with the usual blaze. 

METHODS OF INSPECTIOX. 

Permit me to call your attention to the methods of inspecting oil, and to 
explain why such different results are reached by Michigan and Ohio inspection. 
Many persons are puzzled to know why oil that will pass Ohio inspection at 150° 
will only bear Michigan inspection at 120° or even 115°. The discrepancy is to 
be explained by the difference in construction and use of Michigan and Ohio 
oil-testers. In all oil-testers, so far as I know, the oil to be tested is heated in 
a water-bath, and the temperature of the oil is measured by a thermometer 
whose bulb is just covered by the oil. In these respects the oil-testers of both 
States agree. In the Ohio tester — what is called "the commercial test" — the 
oil fills the containing vessel brim-full, and there is no screen or covering to 
prevent the escape of the vapor as it forms ; the least movement of the air 
tends to dissipate the vapor. Moreover the vapor of kerosene is more than 
twice as heavy as air, and when it forms it tends to fall down the sides of the 
vessel and will not accumulate in large quantity over the oil unless it forms 
quite rapidly, becoming heaped up "on its surface. If a lighted splinter be 
passed raj^idly over the oil half an inch, an inch or more above its surface, it 
may fail to ignite the vapor even when it is escaping freely from the oil. The 
distance above the oil at which ihe lighted splinter must be passed is left en- 
tirely to the judgment of the operator, and hence the results of inspection are 
largely within his control ; if he wants ib to pass a high test he has only to raise 
his lighted splinter higher above the surface of the oil, or dash it past the sur- 
face more rapidly. 

In the Michigan tester, a sample of which is before you, these sources of 
error and uncertainty are avoided by a vajmr chamhcr over the oil. This cham- 
ber is one inch deep, and is covered with a copper plate, so that the heavy 
vapors cannot escape. When a lighted match is passed into this vapor cham- 
ber, if vapor is present in sensible quantity, a flash will reveal its presence. 
Tins vapor chamher represents tlie space inside a lamp v^hicli is not filled with 
oil. An oil that will flash at a given temperature in this vapor chamber, will 
explode at the same temperature in a lamp if flame is applied, because the flash 
in the vapor chamber is an explosion. The flashing temperature of an oil in 
our tester represents the exploding temperature of the same oil in a lamp under 
favorable circumstances. To show more clearly this relation of the vapor chamber 
in our tester to the empty space iu a partially filled lamp. Dr. Baker has 
constructed a water-bath and used this lamp (which has a side opening for filling 
the lamp) for an oil tester. If the lamp is partially filled with oil, a thermometer 
placed in the oil through this opening for the wick, the whole placed in this 
water-batli to heat it, and then a lighted match passed into tlie empty space of 
the lamp through this side aperture, we have all the conditions of our Michigan 
oil tester, and the oil may be tested in this apparatus the same as in our oil 
tester. You thus see that the empty space in this lamp represents the vapor 
chamber in our oil tester. We often speak of this part of the lamp as empty. 



ILLUMIXATIXG OILS. 79 

It is DOt empty, but is tilled with ;i mixtiiro of vapor of the oil and air, and if 
these are present in the right proportions, they -will explode in the lamp the 
same as in the oil tester. 

Since the Michigan tester prevents the escape of the vapor as it forms, and 
since the lighted splinter must be plunged into the space where the vapor is, our 
tester will mark a much lower temperature of inspection than will the Ohio 
tester. Oil that will bear our test of 140° will usually pass Oliio inspection at 
175°. Our method of testing is much more accurate, the results are less within 
the control of the operator, and it bears an intimate relation to the actual 
conditions of a hamp while burning. It has reason and fitness, whatever the 
Ohio method has. Cleveland inspectors confessed that their method Avas too 
hirgely within the control of the inspector, but "the Michigan tester is the most 
accurate instrument yet invented, — you cannot make it vary more than a degree 
or two." When the oil-dealers rail at our "close tester," you must remember 
that its crying sins are that it is accurate and unvarying, and that it indicates 
the limits of safety of oil when used in a lamp I 

PETITIONS FOR A CHANGE IN OUR LAAV. 

It is stated that a large number of petitions have been presented to the 
Legislature asking for a change in our law, and a reduction of the flash test to 
130". I well know how sacred you hold the right of petition, and how anxious 
you are to know what are the real wishes of the people of this State. But I 
fear that the people who are clamoring for this change have baen misinformed 
and deceived by those who are pecuniarily interested in a change of our law. I 
am satisfied that the change demanded will not necessarily remove the evil 
complained of ; that the reduction of our flash test, without some provision 
which shall exclude the large amount of paratfiue oil which adulterates most of 
our "State oil," will still leave our people open to impositions of a most 
outrageous nature, which will lead them to demand a still greater reduction of 
our test; but if we shut out this parafRne adulteration, there will be no trouble 
about the quality of our oil. At the demand of the oil men, the test, two years 
ago, was reduced 10° ; but have we had any better oil for the change? It is 
worse than it was before the change. 

I am satisfied that the oil men are at the bottom of this movement. The 
agents of the refiners are circulating printed forms of petitions in many parts 
of our State. Here is a printed form which the agent of the Standard Oil Co. 
was circulating in Jackson. I would like the committees on public health to 
compare this form with that of the petitions now in their hands and see if I am 
not correct in my suspicion that this "uprising of the people" has its head- 
quarters in Cleveland. If the oil men have adulterated our kerosene beyond 
all endurance, have persuaded our people that such adulterated oil will not burn 
because of our high test, have printed and circulated among the people blank 
forms of petitions asking this reduction in our test, and by their misrepresenta- 
tions have induced large numbers of our people to sign such petitions, like 
David of old you nniy well ask such petitioner, "Is not the hand of Joab with 
thee in all this?" 

In the olden time a woman with sublime audacity appealed from Philip drunk 
to Philip sober. I appeal from the clamor of a people misinformed and 
misguided to the sober sense of this Legislature. Do what you feel will best 
subserve the public good, and your constituents will receive you with the 
plaudit, "Well done, good and faithful servants." 



80 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— REPOKT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 



CHANGES IK THE PRESENT LAAV."^ 

There are a few chauges wliicli seem to be desirable in our present law: 

1. Abolish the fire test, but retain our present flash test of 140". 

2. Eeject all oils which contain much paraflfine; for example, all oils that 
do not remain clear and transparent when cooled down to 20° Fahr. for ten 
minutes. 

3. Make it a misdemeanor for any person to use uninspected oil. 

4. Make it a misdemeanor for any dealer to sell empty kerosene barrels or 
casks before canceling the inspection brand. 

5. Make the dealer responsible for the acts of his clerks and employes in 
selling illuminating oil. 

G. Make it the duty of the Governor to remove from office any State inspector 
who is unfaithful in the discharge of the duties of his office, and to appoint a 
competent person in his place. 



In accordance with the recommendations in the foregoing lecture by Prof. 
Kedzie, the Committee on Public Health in the House of Representatives 
recommended the passage of a bill which was known as House bill No. 28, 
General Order No. 127. ' 

The bill was amended, or rather changed, so that naphtha, etc., may be used 
in street lamps, and became a law as follows: 

LAW RELATING TO ILLUMINATING OILS. 



Act amended. 



[ Xo. 196, Laws of Mich., 187/. ] 

AN ACT to amend act number one hundred and eighty-one of the 
session laws of eighteen hundred and seventy-five, entitled "An 
act to provide for the inspection of illuminating oils, manufac- 
tured from petroleum or coal oils." 

Section 1. The People of the State of 3Iichigan enact, That 
act number one hundred and eighty-one of the session laws of 
eighteen hundred and seventy-five, being " An act to provide for the 
inspection of illuminating oils, manufactured from coal oils," 
approved IVIay first, eighteen hundred and seventy-five, be amended 
so that the same shall be and read as follows : 

(276.) Section 1. The People of the State of Michigan enact, 
That the Governor shall appoint a suitable person, resident of the 
State, who is not interested in manufacturing, dealing or vending 
any illuminating oils manufactured from petroleum, as State in- 
spector of oils, whose term of office shall be two years from the date 
of appointment, or until his successor shall be appointed and shall 
qualify. It shall be the duty of said State inspector or his deputies 
hereinafter provided, to examine and test the quality of all such 
oils offered for sale by any manufacturer, vender, or dealer, and if, 

[*Most of these pi-oposerl clianges have since been made, as will be seen from the amended 
law, printed herewith.— H. B. B., Sec'y S. B. of H. ] 



state inspector 
of oils, appoint- 
ment of. 



Term of office. 



ILLUMINATING OILS,-MICHIGAN LAW, 81 

upon such testing or examination, the oils shall meet the require- 
ments hereinafter specified, he shall fix his brand or device, viz. : Bmnj. 
*' Approved," with the date over his official signature, upon the 
package, barrel, or cask containing the same, and it shall be 
lawful for any manufacturer, vender, or dealer to sell the same as - 
an illuminator; but if the oil so tested shall not meet said require- 
ments, he shall mark hi plain letters on said package, cask, or 
barrel over his official signature, the words, "Rejected for illumin- 
ating purposes;" and it shall be unlawful for the owner thereof to Unlawful to sen 
sell such oil for illuminating purposes ; and if any person shall sell, ""'"J"""^' '"^• 
or otfer for sale such rejected oil, he shall be deemed guilty of a 
misdemeanor, and shall be subject to a penalty in any sum not Pennity. 
exceeding three hundred dollars. 

(277.) Sec. 2. The State inspector provided for in this act is Deputy 
hereby empowered to appoint a suitable number of deputies, which ^"'^i''''^'*"'- 
deputies are hereby empowered to perform the duties of inspection, 
and shall be liable to the same penalties as the State inspector: 
Provided, That the State inspector may remove any of said depu- 
ties for reasonable cause. It shall be the duty of the inspector and inspectors to 
his deputies to provide themselves, at their own expense, with the sewes with lu- 
necessary instruments and apparatus for testing the quality of said in"pM;t"oUs^'vhen 
illuminating oils, and when called upon for that purpose, to f""*''^ "P""- 
promptly inspect all oils hereinbefore mentioned and to reject for 
illuminating purposes all oils which, by reason of being adulterated 
Avith paraffine oil or other substance, or for any other reason, will 
not remain colorless and transparent when cooled for ten minutes 
to the temperature of twenty degrees above zero of Fahrenheit's Test, 
thermometer, or which will emit a combustible vapor at the tem- 
perature of one hundred and forty degrees of Fahrenheit's ther- 
mometer: Provided, The quantity of oil used in this last test shall 
not be less than half a pint. The oil tester adopted and recom- on tester, 
mended by the Michigan State Board of Health shall be used by 
the inspector and his deputies. 

(378.) Sec. 3. Every person appointed State inspector or deputy oath of inspector 
inspector shall, before he enters upon the discharge of the duties of ""<^ ^''P"*'*^- 
his office, take an oath or affirmation, prescribed by the constitution 
and laws of this state, and shall file the same in the office of the 
Secretary of State. The State inspector shall execute a bond to the Bona of in- 
State of Michigan, in such sum and Avith such surety as shall be '^p'^'"'^'"- 
approved by the Secretary of State conditioned for the faithful 
performance of the duties imposed upon him by this act, which 
bond shall be for the use of all persons aggrieved by the acts or 
neglect of said inspector; and the same shall be filed with the 
Secretary of State. The deputy inspector shall execute a bond to Bona of aeimtj-. 
the State of Michigan in such sum, and with such surety as shall be 
approved by the judge of probate, and file the same with the county 
clerk in tlie county where the deputy inspector resides. Said Fees for inspec- 
iuspector or deputy inspector shall be entitled to demand and *'""" 
receive from the owner or party calling on him, or for whom he 
shall inspect, the sum of sixty cents for a single barrel, package, 
or cask, (and) forty cents each when not exceeding five in number ; 

11 



82 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— EEPOET OF SECRETARY, 1877, 



Kecord of oils 
inspected. 



Deputies to re- 
port annually 
to principal. 



State inspector 
to report to 
Governor. 



Inspection of oils 
manufactured in 
this State. 



Penalty for sell- 
ing, etc., before 
inspection. 



Penalty for 
branding falsely. 



Penalty for 
using oils not 
inspected. 



Penalty for sell- 
ing casks, etc., 
before removing 
brand. 



No person to 
adulterate, sell, 
or use certain 
oils or their 
products. 



thirty cents each when not exceeding ten in number, and ten cents 
for each additional barrel, package, or cask actaall}^ insjjected and 
branded by him in lots less than car loads, and for a car load of 
fifty barrels, packages or casks, ten cents for each barrel, package, 
or cask so inspected and branded by him, and in any case of 
inspection and branding, the fees shall be a lien on the oils so 
inspected, and it shall be the duty of every inspector or deputy 
inspector to keep a true and accurate record of all oils so inspected 
and branded by him, which record shall state the date of inspection 
and number of gallons or barrels, and the name of the person for 
whom inspected ; and the record shall be open to the inspection of 
any and all persons interested. And it shall be the duty of every 
deputy inspector, "witliin one month after the inspection by him of 
any oils hereinbefore mentioned, to make a true and accurate return 
thereof to his principal. In the month of January in each year 
the State inspector shall make and deliver to the Governor of 
the State an annual report of the inspections by himself and 
deputies during the preceding calendar year. All illuminating oils 
manufactured or refined in this State shall be inspected before 
removed from the manufactory or refinery. And if any person or 
persons, whether manufacturer, vender, or dealer, shall sell or 
attempt to sell to any person in this State, any illuminating oils, 
whether manufactured in this State or not, before having the same 
inspected as provided in this act, he shall be deemed guilty of a 
misdemeanor, and he shall be subject to a penalty in any sum not 
exceeding three hundred dollars; and if any manufacturer, vender, 
or dealer of either or any of said illuminating oils shall falsely 
brand the package, cask, or barrel containing the same, as jirovided 
in sections one and two of this act, or shall use packages, casks, or 
barrels having the inspector's brand thereon, without having the 
oil inspected, he shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and he 
shall be subject to a penalty in any sum not exceeding three hun- 
dred dollars, nor less than one hundred dollars, or be imprisoned 
in the county jail not exceeding six months, or both, at the discre- 
tion of the court. 

Sec. 4. Any person who shall knowingly use in any lamp any 
illuminating oil or products of petroleum for illuminating purposes 
before the same has been inspected and accepted by the State 
inspector of oils or his deputy, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, 
and, on conviction, shall pay a fine in any sum not exceeding ten 
dollars for each offense. 

Sec. 5. Any person selling or dealing in illuminating oils pro- 
duced from petroleum, who shall sell or dispose of any empty kero- 
sene barrel, cask, or package, before thoroughly conceling, remov- 
ing or effacing the inspection brand on the same, shall be guilty of 
a misdemeanor, and, on conviction, shall pay a fine of one dollar 
for each barrel, cask, or package thus sold or disposed of. 

(281.) Sec. (3. No person shall adulterate, with paraffine or other 
substance for the purpose of sale or for use, any coal or kerosene 
oils to be used for lights, in sucli a manner as to render them dan- 
gerous to use ; nor shall any person knowingly sell or offer to sell. 



ILLUMINATING OILS,— MICHIGAN LAW. 83 

or knowingly use such adulterated oil, nor shall any person know- 
ingly sell or offer for sale or knowingly use any coal or kerosene oil, 
or any of the products thereof for illuminating purposes, which, 
by reason of being adulterated, or for any other reason, will emit a 
combustible vapor at the temperature less than one hundred and 
forty degrees of Fahrenheit's thermometer: Provided, That the Proviso, 
quantity used in the test shall not be less than one-half pint : And Further proviso. 
further jirovided, That the gas or vapor from said oils may be used 
for illuminating purposes when the oils from which said gas or 
vapor is generated are contained in reservoirs under ground outside 
the building illuminated or lighted by said gas. Any person vio- Penalty for vio. 
lating the provisions of this section shall be deemed guilty of a mis- of th^ gecHonr* 
demeanor, and shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished by 
imprisonment in the county jail not more than one year, or by fine 
not exceeding four hundred dollars, or by both fine and imprison- 
ment, in the discretion of the court : Provided, That nothing in Pi-ovisc. 
this act shall be so construed as to prevent the use in street lamps 
of the lighter product of petroleum, such as gasoline, benzine, 
benzole, or naphtha. 

Sec. 7. Any person or persons who sell or keep for sale any seiier ot oils re- 
illuminating oil manufactured from petroleum, shall be held respon- ^"^^by cie°rk. 
sible for any violation of the provisions of this act by any clerk or 
person in their employ in the sale of said illuminating oil. 

(379.) Sec. 8. It shall be the duty of the inspector, or any dep- inspectors to 
uty inspector, who shall know of the violation of any of the provis- &* vto^auon^of* 
ions of sections one, three, four, five, or six of this act, to enter Pj^Pg^'j""^ °^ 
complaint before any court of competent jurisdiction against any 
persons so offending. And in case any inspector, or deputy inspect- Faiinre deemed 
or, having knowledge of the violation of the provisions of sections ™i«^«'"«*'^o''- 
one, three, four, or six of this act, and shall neglect to enter com- 
l^laint as required by and provided for in this section, he shall be 
deemed guilty of a misdemeanor. 

(280.) Sec. 9. No inspector or deputy inspector shall, while in Kot to traffic in 
office, traffic directly or indirectly in any article which he is ap- °''*' 
pointed to inspect. For the violation of any of the provisions of Penalty for vio- 
this act he shall be liable to the penalty not exceeding one thousand loMoMiliract. 
dollars. 

Sec. 10. It shall be the duty of the Governor to remove from Goyernor to re- 
office and to appoint a competent person in the place of any State "nunsp^ctow, 
inspector who is unfaithful in the duties of his office. su^c^^sora?****""^ 

(382.) Sec. 11. All acts or parts of acts contravening the pro- Acts repealed, 
visions of this act are hereby repealed. 

Approved May 23, 1877. 



THE 



Inspection of Illuminating Oils 

IN 

MICHIGAN, 

During the Year Ending July 31, 1877. 



PERRY ^VERILL, 

State Inspector of Illuminating Oils. 



INSPECTION OF ILLUMINATING OILS IN 

MICHIGAN. 



Jo the President and Memiers of the Michigan State Board of Health: 

Gentlemen : — 1 received my appointment as State Inspector of illuminating 
oils Aug. 1, 1876., and at that time commenced the work. I immediately made 
application to my predecessor for all records pertaining to the inspection, but 
did not receive any except the names of the deputies and their several places of 
address. With the assistance of your Secretary, H. B. Baker, and F. W. Averill, 
deputy inspector, I was soon in possession of the system that had been adopted, 
which in the main I have followed. I have requested the dealers throughout 
the State to report to me any violation of the law, assuring them that they will 
not be known in any way in the matter. I have received but few complaints, 
and have not been able to get sufficient evidence to warrant prosecution except 
in three cases. 

It seems to be the desire of the dealers throughout the State to comply with 
the law. I find it difficult to control some small shipments to the lumber woods 
and small places in the northern and western part of the State where parties 
purchase their oils in markets out of this State, although the same parties desire 
Michigan legal oil. I am not able to state the number of barrels used per annum, 
for reasons above given. 

During the five months, August, September, October, November, and Decem- 
ber, 1876, the whole number of baiTels reported inspected was 29,171 ; of this 
number there were rejected 32C. 

The detailed report is as follows : 



88 STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH— KEPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877, 



REPORT of Inspection of Illuminating Oils during the five months ending Dec- 
ember 31, 1876. 



WHEBE INSPEC- 
TED. 


By Whom Inspected. 


o « 


o 

>** u 
o ^ 

'A 


d 


Remaeks. 


Detroit 

Grand Rapids... 

Jackson. 

East Saginaw 


F.W.Averill 

J.T.Elliott 

P. Averill 

John Weller 


103 

12 

128 


8,734 

3,416 

3,345 

2,908 

2,650 

2,040 

1.264 

1/242 

1,030 

755 

459 

225 

160 

200 

125 

75 

54 

30 

86 

47 


8,837 

3,428 

3,473 

2,908 

2,670 

2;060 

1,278 

1,263 

1,032 

755 

459 

225 

160 

200 

125 

75 

57 

30 

80 

50 


Reports from Aug, 15,1876, 

U U .i 


Adrain. 


J. H.Blain 


20 
20 
14 
21 
2 




Kalamazoo 

Port Huron 

jLausing 


H.G.Coleman 

E.H.Valentine 

V. R. Canfield 

S. Bnrhans 

S.Taylor 


December not reported. 


Owosso 




Ionia 


December not reported. 


St. Josepli 


R. F. Stratton 




Alpena 


T. M. Luce 






Niles 


R. K. Charles 




December not reported. 


Albion 

Three Rivers 


H. W.Crittenden... 
A. B. Ranney 




December not reported. 


Hillsdale 


G. H. Jordan 




I. u i( 


Muskegon 

Ludington 


A. M. Chamberlain.. 

B. Hammond 


3 


t« (( u 

c; (t (i 


Pent water 


G. W.Innes... 




(k a i: 


Manistee 

Marquette 


D. D.Ingram 

A. Mathews.. 


3 


li 4( il 

Accepted the appointment 
as Deputy Inspector in 
November. No report. 
















326 


28,845 


29,171 





Fom this I would say that the number used in Micliigan would not vary much 
from 60,000 barrels per annum. There have been reported since August 1st 
only five fires attributed to e.xplosion of kerosene, four of which have been 
investigated and the reports found incorrect ; of the fifth, that of Morley, I have 
not yet learned the facts. 

The Legislature will be petitioned to change the law relative to the inspection 
and standard of illuminating oils, lowering that standard if possible. I anne.K 
a copy of said petition, which has been extensively circulated throughout the 
State by the agents of the Standard Oil Comj^any : 

To the Honorable^ the Legislature of the State of 3Iichirjan : 

Your petitioners of dealers in and consumers of kerosene oil, while 

approving the general features of the law of the State, in regard to illnminating oils, 
are of the opinion that the standard should be reduced to, say 120° flash test. By this 
test the safety from accidents would be preserved, and tlie illuminating power of the 
oil improved, and the expense to the consumer decreased. We therefore ask that the 
present law be so amended as to conform to the above, and your petitioners will ever 
pray, «fcc. 

I feel interested in what may be developed, as you probably are. The law as 
it stands at present is considered by those interested in the jiublic safety as a 
wise and salutary measure, and its enforcement has placed upon the market and 
in the homes of our citizens an article that is used with a feeling of satisfaction 
and security. ]f the quality of the oil has in some instances been complained 



INSPECTION OF ILLUMINATING OILS. 



89 



of as a poor illuminator, it cannot justly be laid to the law; for a high fire test 
and a good illuminator can be made at the same time, if the reliners will do it. 
I say an advancement has been made from which all thoughtful minds must be 
led to say no retrograde step must be allowed that will tend to impair the safety 
of the public of our commonwealth in this respect. 

PERRY AVERILL, 

January, 1877. State Inspector. 

To the President and Members of the State Board of Health, of Michigan: 

Gentlemen : — It is with pleasure that I comply with the request made at 
the meeting of your honorable board July 10, 1877, that I complete the state- 
ment for the entire year ending July 31, 1877. Since my report to you Janu- 
ary 1, 1877, there have been inspected 30,733 barrels, making the total number 
inspected for the year ending July 31, 1877, 59,913 barrels. Of this number 
there have been rejected and shipped out of the State GG8 barrels, some of which 
flashed as low as 7G°. This low-test oil is invariably branded by the shippers as 
inspected and approved Michigan legal test 150°, and is shipped to dealers iu 
small places remote from any inspector. 

REPORT of the Number of Barrels of Oil Inspected in Michigan during 
the Year ending Juhj 31, 1877 . 



WHEKE INSPEC- 
TED. 


Bv Whom Insi'ectkp. 


Whole No. 
of Barrels 
Inspected. 


!f umber of 
Barrels 
Rejected. 


Kkmarks. 


Jackson 

Detroit 

Grand Rapids.. 
East Saginaw.. 

Adrian. 

Kalamazoo 

Port Huron 

Lansing 

Ionia 

Owosso 

Marquette . 

Muskegon 

St. Joseph 

Hillsdale. 

Niles 


Perrv Averill 

F.W. Averill 

J. T. Elliott 

Jolin Weller 

J. H. Blain 

H. G. Colnian 

E. H. Valentine.... 

V. R. Canfield 

L. B. Avery 

S. Burhans 

A. Mathews 

A. W. Chamberlain 

R.F. Stratton 

G.H.Jordan 

R. K. Charles 

H. W. Crittenden.. 

A. B. Ranney 

T. M. Luce 

R. Pratt 


7,736 

15,900 

6.928 

5,786 

4,877 

3,913 

2,554 

2,358 

2,030 

1,813 

1,175 

682 

591 

875 

401 

500 

477 

322 

269 

199 

150 

86 

187 

104 


131 
125 
16 
161 
23 
38 
14 
76 




Reports from August 15,1876. 
" 15,1876. 












2 

113 

15 

6 




Reports from Nov. 1, 1876. 








June and July not reported. 


Albion 




Three Rivers... 
Alpena 














Grand Haven 


C. J. Pfaff 






Manistee 

Pentvvater 

Ludington 

Big Rapids 

Wliite Hall 


D. D. Ingram 

G. W. Innes.- 

B. Hammond 

A. S. Hobart 

R. F. Morse 










3 








No report. " - 


Siiuo"atuck 


R. Newnham 






(( tk 


Elk'Rapids.'.... 
South Haven 


R. liandon 






t; u 


H. E. Dewey 






u u 


Traverse City.. 


Dr. Ashton 






4i (> 










Total Inspected 




59,913 


668 









90 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

A full report -would increase the number to over GO, 000 barrels. 

There has been a great change in the quality of oil used since Professor Kodzie's 
lecture before the members of the late Legislature explaining the cause why so 
much of the oil was a poor illuminator. Two-thirds of the oil now used is 
"water-white," while before it was of a straw color (or oils adulterated with 
paraffine). It is with satisfaction that I can say not a human life has been lost 
in the use of illuminating oils. There have been two fires caused by explosion 
of oils manufactured from joetroleum ; in each case the oil was not Michigan 
legal test. The first, in March, was a barn belonging to Riley Billings, of Delta 
township. Besides the barn some fifteen head of cattle were burned. The fire 
was caused by an explosion of a kerosene lantern. The oil used by Mr. Billings 
was inspected by V. R. Canfield^ deputy inspector, and rejected, as it flashed at 
130°. The barrel was originally branded as tire test 175°, and was from Chicago. 
Mr. Canfield says that the dealer from whom the oil was purchased by Mr. 
Billings returned the unsold oil, after he rejected it, to the shipper before the 
fire occurred. The second was in July, at Wayne. Mr. E. P. Earl purchased 
naphtha, which was sold to him for mechanical purposes, and in direct violation 
of the law used it for illuminating purpose. The results were his lamp exploded, 
his dwelling was destroyed, and he seriously burnt. 

You well know what pressure was brought to bear by the oil men and refiners 
to get the test reduced in this State. The citizens of this commonwealth are to 
be congratulated that, through the untiring efforts and results shown from 
actual experiments by members of your board, the test was retained at the pres- 
ent standard, which ensures to them a safe and good illuminator. 

I remain very respectfully your obedient servant, 

PERRY AVERILL, 
State Inspector lUuminating Oils. 

Jackson, Mich., August 7, 1877. 



IIEPORT OF PROCEEDINCtS 



HEA.LTH DEI>^KTMENT 



American Social Science Association, 

At Us Anfiiial Afeet'uig at Saratoga, JV. Y., September, iSyy. 



BY 



HON. LEEOY PARKER, 



MEMBEK OF THE 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH, 
Member of the American Social Science Association, Etc. 



REPORT 

OF PKOCEEDINGS OF THE .DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH OF THE AMERI- 
CAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ASSOCIATION, AT ITS ANNUAL MEETING, 
HELD AT SARATOGA SPRINGS, SEPTEMBER, 1877. 



I 



To the President and Members of the State Board of Health : 

Gentlemen : — Through your courtesy, at the last meeting of the Board, I 
Avas invited to attend the annual meeting of the American Social Science Asso- 
ciation, -which Avas held at Saratoga Springs on the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th of 
September, 1877, and report to you the proceedings of that meeting. I pre- 
sume that it was intended tliat my report should embrace only those transac- 
tions having reference to the subject of public health and its preservation, and 
particularly the subjects treated of in the papers and discussions before the 
Health Department of the Association. 

The general meetings of the Association were quite largely attended, and the 
number of persons present and participating, who have distinguished themselves 
by their labors in the field of social science, was particularly noticeable. It is 
matter for congratulation, that so many statesmen, scientists, political econo- 
mists, thinkers and writers upon the topics of interest in our social and politi- 
cal life, should have been present, and contributed so much of their best 
thoughts to the solution of the problems which society is trying to work out. 
Prom the prominence given to questions of political economy, and those relat- 
ing to public charities, in the meetings of the Association, and from the general 
interest excited by the papers and discussions upon these topics, it is manifest 
that the public mind is more interested in matters pertaining to financial and 
social well-being than in those concerning public health. This is perhaps not 
to be wondered at, when we consider how generally mankind devotes itself to 
advancing material interests, to the neglect of, and I may say, often at the 
expense of its physical condition. 

The meetings of the Health Department, although not numerously at- 
tended, were of considerable interest to those present. 

The report of the Secretaiy, Dr. D. F. Lincoln of Boston, Mass., congratu- 
lated the members on the accomplishment of a large part of their plan in 
school hygiene. As part of the work undertaken during the year, a draft of 
a bill was presented to the Legislatui-e of Massachusetts, abolishing the office of 
coroner and coroner's juries, and remodeling the procedure, and providing for 
medical examiners to perform the duties of coroners, who shall be men learned 
in the science of medicine. The desired reform has been carried through, sub- 
stantially as indicated in this draft. Tlie interests of sciiool hygiene have been 



94 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

actively supported in Boston by representations made at a hearing, before the 
school committee, on the appointment of a medical inspector of public schools. 

The hygienic question whether young -women in schools ought to suspend their 
studies at periodical intervals, has been treated in a valuable essay by Dr. Mary 
Putnam Jacobi. The essay concludes that woman's periods of repose should 
come very frequently, rather once in the middle of each day than once a 
month. 

Work of importance has been done by Dr. Loring of New York, in reply to 
questions on the influences of bad air, etc., upon the eyes, addressed to him by 
the New York Medico-Legal Society. A commendable interest in the state of 
schools in this respect has been shown by a few persons, — Dr. Bell and others 
in Brooklyn, and Drs. Lathrop and Howe in Buffalo. Dr. Bell points out a 
very reprehensible state of things in his city. Dr. Howe has examined the 
eyes of 1,003 pupils, and has found a confirmation of the law that near sight 
accompanies scholastic labor in a given proportion of cases. 

Of the results of the International Exhibition of last year, as regards the 
principles of school hygiene, little is to be said. Dr. Lincoln made an especial 
study of the various plans for school buildings exhibited. The Belgian School 
House was by far the most valuable exhibition of this sort. A few school 
plans were striking, many were good, but none very new. The American 
school furniture was well made, on good principles. 

A paper read by Dr. E. Gr. Loring, of New York, upon the subject: '^Is 
the intellectual world becoming near-sighted?'' was a continuation of the same 
subject discussed in a paper read before the Association at the meeting last 
year. His paper was illustrated by charts showing the percentage of near- 
sighted eyes in a large number of pupils examined in the public schools in New 
York. The conclusion drawn was that studious habits were conducive to near- 
sightedness. The children of German parentage are more generally near- 
sighted than those of other nationalities. Careful observation had shown that 
near-sightedness was hereditary, and that a scholarly race of people transmit- 
ted this disease of the eye, very generally, to their offspring. 

An interesting paper on School Ventilation was read by Mr. A. C. Martin, 
of Boston, illustrated by drawings of school buildings in the city of Boston, 
ventilated by what was termed the natural system. He advocated a system of 
ventilation of school buildings by means of a vertical shaft running from the 
basement to the open air above the roof, connecting by floor registers with the 
different rooms, by means of horizontal ducts. In the discussion which fol- 
lowed this paper, Carl Pfeiffer, an architect of the city of New York, gave 
as his experience that the natural method of ventilation failed when applied 
to very large buildings, such as hospitals, alms houses, and the like, and that 
artificial means must be employed, by means of fans, to draw or force air in or 
out of the rooms. The question whether floor or ceiling ventilating openings 
were best, was discussed, and the opinion was held by several gentlemen present 
that both were desirable, as, under certain conditions, the foul air collected 
sometimes at the top of a room, and sometimes at the bottom. 

Two papers upon the same subject, one by Dr. Frederick Winsor, and the 
other by Frederick Tudor, of Boston, were read. The latter called attention 
to the influence of changes in temperature upon the regularity of the supply 
of fresh air, and the failure of ventilating apparatus is shown to be often 
owing to unexpected force exerted by liigh winds. The movement of air in 
the flues is determined by very slight forces, requiring great care in balancing 



PUBLIC HEALTH— AMERICAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ASSOCIATION. 95 

tlio various columns of air a2;iiinst each other, and in protecting them from 
the influence of the wind. Tlieoretical information in regard to the subject is 
not sufficient to insure a successful design. Discredit has been thrown upon 
the art of ventilation, by want of thorougli knowledge, practical familiarity, 
and long exj)erience. It is of great importance to have tlie fewest possible 
inlets and outlets for the air ; to reduce these to one of each where it can 
be done ; * and to provide simple means of regulating the velocity of move- 
ment, with a pressure meter, showing constantly tiie rate of supply, or 
volume of air delivered per minute. Neglect to provide an arrangement for 
adjusting the temperature is a leading fault of all schemes. It can easily be 
done, and should on no account be omitted. 

Tlie consideration of the quality of the air supplied in ventilation, intro- 
duced a discussion of the merits of the various modes of heating. As between 
furnaces of cast and wrought iron, it is held that while the latter is a better 
material, the practical difficulties in the way of constructing good furnaces of 
it cheaply, are a bar to its general adoption, at least while the attempt is made 
by manufacturers to compete with cast iron. In short, a superior furnace of 
cast iron is preferable to the inferior, cheap wrought iron furnaces now being 
rapidly adopted. To avoid the injurious quality of air which has been 
overheated, care must be taken to secure great extension of the heating sur- 
face. This can best be secured by hot water apparatus, next by steam, and 
linally by furnaces, if they are very large and the combustion of the fuel very 
slow. For all small buildings the furnace is most suitable, on the ground of 
economy and simplicity of management. A property of the atmosphere not 
sufficiently considered hitherto, is its humidity under all natural conditions. A 
full explanation was given, by the writer, of the variations of this quality effected 
by artificial heating ; and the absence of moisture at a high temperature was 
shown to be a sufficient cause for derangement of the system. The inference 
is that no system of ventilation is complete without apparatus to supply vapor 
in proportion as the temperature is raised, so that the relative humidity shall 
not fall below the limits observed in natural air, to which our organism is 
adapted. 

The paper read by Mrs. A. C. Martin, of Boston, on the subject, "The 
danger to the health of girls from imperfect early training," is briefly sum- 
marized as follows : 

Food, dress, dissipation, overwork, or excessive stimulus, have all been much 
discussed as causes for breakdown in the health of girls, yet there remain not 
a few caJtes of failure not accounted for. Eager, ambitious girls of sixteen, 
who ought to be the first scholars, frequently fail in their best endeavors; they 
become fretted and worried, and if there be not permanent injury to health, 
nerves and temper are never again quite in tune. Such girls have had no 
early training. When they have become conscious of a world of books and of 

* This may bo ti-uc so far as relates to faciUty of testing the velocity and rate of tlio supply of 
fresh air, and of the exit of foul air; l)ut l),v the memlicrs of this 15oard who have jrivcn special 
study to this subject, it is not believed to bo tlio proper principle of action. In the Kirat Annual 
Report of the Michigan State Board of Health, on page 90, Prof. Kedzie says: " The accidental 
experiment which I performed in a school in Kalamazoo, of gathering the air for analysis during 
recess, while the scholars stood around me in a dense throng to witness the operation, this air con- 
taining a large excess of carbonic acid, shows the necessity of withdrawing the air from those por- 
tions of the room where the scholars most congregate." * * * "It should be withdrawn at many 
points in the body of the room, by openings into foul-air ducts beneath the floor." In addition to 
the experimental evidence at Kalamazoo, just mentionc<l, he states as the theoretical reason for 
this, the fact that "The law of diffusion, by which every gas acts as a vacuum to every other gas, 
is a scientiric truth, but it acts slowly witli heavy gases, the rapidity of diffusion being inverselT' 
as the square root of the density of the gas." 



96 STATE BOARD OF HEAl/ni— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

thought, when the inward motive to study has been suddenly awakened, they 
find themselves with no trained powers, no attention, no reason, no memory. 
Ambitious to follow more fortunate companions, they inflict upon themselves 
lasting harm in the struggle, or drop, bitterly disappointed, by the wayside. 

This want of early training is not simply from want of opportunity; for the 
classes in society who have the amplest opportunities are the most neglectful. 
The boys are provided for by the fathers, but the girls ai'e left to the mothers, 
who are ignorant and short-sighted and who, above all, dislike to take trouble. 
Little girls are left to run wild, on the plea of health, when in reality it is 
beca\ise the mothers will not take pains with them. Mothers who object most 
to study at home, are perfectly Avilling to have it when the girl has grown so 
fond of her books that she will make no trouble. 

The cause of all this is to be found in the prevailing sentiment of society, the 
laissez aller feeling, which is induced by rapidly acquired Avealth. Not much 
improvement can be expected except in the slow renewal of society itself. The 
one session, the long vacations, the continual absences from school make the 
formation of habits of study or of thought impossible. Shorter school hours 
and longer terms, less study per day, and more days of stiidy, are what young- 
girls ought to have. 

Only the parents can do any good in this matter. The physician can seldom 
discriminate remote predetermining causes. Even if he could, it is too late. 
The teachers are powerless. Parental caprice and fickleness, and public opin- 
ion in favor of easy living, are all against the teachers. 

The fathers must assume the oversight of the education of their daughters as 
well as of their sons. Even if not liberally educated men, they are more likely 
than the mothers to be far-sighted — less ready to sacrifice the future to the 
present. 

Dr. D. F. Lincoln, of Boston, the Secretary of the Health Department, read 
a pa])er on " The half-time system in Education." He said: The expression, 
"half-time system," is employed to designate a plan for educating children of the 
laboring classes by sending them to school for three hours each day, and letting 
them work in factories, in shops, or on farms for the rest of the working 
hours. The plan is modified in a few cases by allowing them to attend school 
for the full time, and to work on full time on alternate days ; but in most cases 
the former method has been adopted. With our system of schools, and with 
our natural satisfaction in them, it is quite possible that we may have failed to 
make some necessary, even radical changes. Unperccived by us, fundamental 
changes may, at this moment, be quietly taking place. 

There is a strong tendency now to withdraw children from public schools, for 
the purpose of caring for their religious interests, and there is another tendency 
to the formation of private schools where high prices are paid ; the creation 
of private schools for factory children may constitute an influence leading in 
the same direction, namely, to the creation of distinct classes, educated by dis- 
tinct methods, and thus marked from their youth as poor or rich, as Catholic, 
Protestant, or Jewish. This is the chief and central difficulty. But the chil- 
dren of the poor must be educated at all events. If separate schools for working 
children are to be condemned, the alternative which naturally occurs to us is 
the prohibition of manual labor in workshops or factories by children under the 
age of 15 years, and compulsory attendance on ordinary schools. The present 
law of Massachusetts, in fact, does forbid such labor by children under ten3'ears 
of age, and requires twenty weeks of schooling or of half-time schooling for 



PUBLIC HEALTH,— AMERICAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ASSOCIATIOX. 97 

children at work, between the ages of ten and fourteen years. It is a remarka- 
ble fact that in a great many instances tlie half-time children working in the 
same schools with full timers, are known to accomplish as much work and 
make as much progress. The following points were submitted as deserving of 
support : 

1. Children under thirteen years cannot profitably study more than half as 
long a time as grown men and women. 

2. The most profitable arrangement of school work for sucli children will 
restrict their study in general to three hours for the younger, and four and a 
half hours for the older, daily. 

3. Compulsory laws fixing the period of attendance at not less than half of 
each year in the ordinary schools, or the whole of each year in any existing 
half-time school, are a present desideratum. 

■4. The State should enforce these laws by its own officers. 

5. Where there are masses of the poor and the streets ai*e full of corrupting 
influences, it is desirable to furnish occupation to the children both forenoon 
and afternoon. This may be done either by giving two short sessions of school, 
or by a full session in the forenoon and industrial teaching in the afternoon, or 
by a half-time system when feasible. 

The foregoing comprise abstracts of the papers read before the liealth section 
of the Association. 

I append an abstract of a paper read before the general session of the Associ- 
ation by Dr. Elisha Harris, on ''The Kegistration of Vital Statistics in the 
United States." As this subject is one intimately connected with the work of 
Boards of Health, it will undoubtedly be of interest : 

The census enumerations of the popuhition oiii^ht to be absohiteh' accurate and 
complete; but the method of enumeration is so essentially faulty that as respects the 
poll of the living inhabitants, even the total columns are equivocal, while all the dis- 
tributive i^Touping is untrustworthy. The essential viciousness of each successive 
census will remain unremedied until the methods of enumeration are made exact; 
until all the facts relating to births, marriages, and doatlis, and the causes of death, 
are curi-ently registered as public records in every county and State. Vital statistics 
comprise the account current of the State with the lives of the inhabitants. The 
registration of these statistics is a duty rendered to the State, and Is to be main- 
tained by ways and means which the States alone can provide. r>ut wherever a State 
has so provided the methods and means for the performance of the duties of vital 
registration, the people nuist comply with alacrity to the requirements of the 
registrj' laws. Birth records sliould be so complete as to establish and perpetuate 
the identity of individuals, and such other facts should be secured In respect to 
both tlie child and its parents as the law may require. Vital statisticians are already 
fully agreed on the elements, of good birth records. The claim, both of the State 
and the infant, as to the record ot its birth, is imperative, and allows no optional 
delay beyond the reasonable time necessary for certifying and filing the record for 
public registration. Claiming such a right, the State cannot do less than define the 
duties and obligations it imposes on tlie several persons interested, who cannot 
justifiably postpone the certification of a complete and detailed record. In cases of 
illigitimate children, as nmch information as possible should be obtained, particu- 
larly as to the occupation and nationality of each parent. Such records, made with 
faithfulness, will subserve the interests of statistical and biographical science. Faith- 
ful registration of stilll)irtlis should be secured by judicious laws, regulating ollicial 
returiis and the suitable interment of remains. The interests of morality, as well as 
of science, demand this record. All records of marriages should be registered as soon 
as verified. The law submitted is in harmony with the statutes of Massachusetts, 
Connecticut, Ehode Islaiul, and Illinois. AmendnuMits of existing statutes nuiy be 
readily effected in the States which need merely to give harmony and efficiency to 
existing laws, wliile in States which have only cumbrous and inelhcicnt statutes 
relating to marriage registration, the adoption of an entirely new system under new 

]3 



98 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— EEPOKT OF SECRETARY, 1S77. 

laws will be more practicable than amendments. The epitomized anthropological 
history of a life, a faithful certificate concerning time, place, and social conditions of 
each death scene, and medical facts in regard to canses of death, will ever impart to 
records all the real importance wliich family. State, and officers of health will 
justly claim. All events and causes of mortality are to be followed back until the 
question maj' be answered, "How may human life lienceforth be more completely 
guarded Mgainst the causes of sickness, injury, and premature deatii?"' 

As it is the chief object of this report to suggest the arguments and the plan by 
which uniformity and completeness shall be given to the registration of vital statis- 
tics, we shall proceed directly to this purpose in all we submit in regard to records 
and registration. Certain essential conditions should be kept in view in devising 
the plan of the greatest practical utilitj' and completeness in the records. These 
may be enumerated as a complete registration of births in everj' comnumity : com- 
plete registration of marriage, the records of which shall be comprehensive. This 
branch of registry provides a basis of correct information concerning the foundation 
of families. Tlie statute should provide for thorough and scientific verification of 
violent and unknown causes and circumstances of death, and effectual provision for 
speciallj" verifying the fact, and the attendant circumstances of deaths. The entire 
matter of records and registration of mortality should be placed under the su- 
pervision of expert sanitary officers or boards of health. 

At the conclusion of tlie reading of this paper, a committee consisting of 
Dr. Harris and Dr. H. B. Baker, the Secretary of our Board of Health, was 
appointed to confer with others with a view to devise a more perfect and gen- 
eral S3'steni of collecting vital statistics. I cannot close this report without 
referring to the many complimentary allusions made during the discussions 
before the Association, and by gentlemen to me privately, to' the excellent 
work done by the Michigan State Board of Health, and particularly by the 
Secretary of the Board in his capacity as Superintendent of Vital Statistics. 



REMAUKS ON 



INFAl^T DIET 



ARTHUR HAZLEWOOD, M. D., 



Grrand. Rapids, Mlicliigan, 



LATELY A MEMBER OP THE 



STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH. 



REMARKS ON INFANT DIET. 



'"'A sound iniiid " can exist only in ''a sound body." A sound body can 
exist only when the conditions of soundness (or health) are easily obtainable. 
The diet of infancy then, is important, 1st, because food is a necessity of 
existence ; and, 2d, because the proper conditions of an infant's diet are 
among the chief causes which make or mar a healthful state of existence in the 
future. 

Nature has admirably provided a supply of the best form of food for in- 
fancy, when the mother is in a condition of health. Civilization, however, has 
by its many interferences with naturalness in the life of man, so altered the 
manner of his living, that not infrequently health is more or less interfered 
with ; and as a consequence, the sustenance of a child by its mother is jeopar- 
dized, or prevented, or requires some caution to avoid ill results following. 

We assume, then, at the outset, that every mother should, unless some cause 
incompatible with the health of the child prevent, suckle her own offspring. 
The exceptions to this rule should be well considered and not hastily acted 
upon ; the counsel of a trusty family physician is, under such circumstances, 
invaluable. The most common fault with nursing mothers is a too frequent 
feeding of the infant. An infant, if uncomfortable from any cause, — too hot 
or too cold, clothing too tight, or pricked by pins, — will cry out, and take the 
breast if offered, just as it will when suffering from some ailment which gives 
it pain. A child that is fretful and desires to be nursed very frequently, 
should be examined for causes that may make it uncomfortable. 

But to have an understanding of the whys and wherefores of baby's food, it 
is essential to understand what food is, and what baby is. 

And first, what is baby? Although we may consider our special baby the 
sweetest and most lovable creature in existence, physically, he or she is merely 
an animal, requiring a large amount of care, and a special food for its wants. 
At first it is toothless and without saliva, — it cannot then use any food but 
what is already prepared for the stomach, — and as the stomach is in early life 
small, and compared to that of adult life, tilted up on end, the quantity of 
food at one time must be small, and of such a character that the juices of the 
stomach can readily act upon it and prepare it for absorption by the proper 
glands of the intestines. Human babies, too, are longer than most other an- 
imals in growing to an age of capability for caring for themselves, or for elab- 
orating from crude materials a supply of nourishment ; after teeth do begin to 
show themselves, the first are merely incisors unable to attack any hard sub- 
stance, — the molars or grinders are much later in putting in an appearance. 



102 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

and altogether the first teeth are evidently intended not for a capable animal, 
but one for Avhom the food is somewhat prepared. 

The act of digestion may be considered in three parts : 1st, that performed 
in the mouth by the teeth and saliva ; 2d, that in the stomach by the secretions 
and motion in that viscus; and 3d, the finishing process in the intestine, aided 
by the secretions from the liver and pancreas, or sweetbread, as it is called in 
edible animals. 

In the mouth, the infant differs from the adult by the absence of teeth, and, 
in the first few months, of saliva ; consequently, the changes which are made 
in starcliy food by these agencies, viz. : the trituration of grains, and the 
elaboration of starch into sugar by the action of ptyaline (having the same 
chemical action as diastase) in the saliva, are not possible ; and therefore starchy 
food is inadmissible until teeth and saliva are ready in the mouth to care for 
them. 

The stomacli of an adult is large, lying across the abdomen, and with its one 
end pouch-like in shape, so as to be capable of holding a considerable quantity, 
and with a large flow of gastric juice containing a substance called pepsine, 
whereby the albuminous portions of the food are gradually formed into an 
emulsion, ready for the final action of the intestinal juices. 

The infant's stomach is small, almost as large at one end as the other, and 
placed nearly upright in the body, rendering it unable to hold a large quantity 
or to work upon the albuminous portion of the food, if mixed with much of 
other substances not readily assimilable. 

The intestinal juices and the bile serve to finish the processes so far elabo- 
rated, to select such portions of food as are useful, and to preserve the other 
portions for a time from decomposition until they can be eliminated. The 
pancreatic juice finishes the action begun by the saliva on starchy food, and 
the fluid elaborated by all these processes is absorbed into vessels which convey 
it to the blood. In the infantile intestines the pancreatic juice is absent or in 
small quantity compared to the others; therefore starchy food meets with but 
little favor in the earlier portion of our existence. 

Foods are classified into flesh-formers and heat-producers, or nitrogenous 
and carbonaceous. Both are essential to our well being. No action of our 
muscles, or thought of our minds can be performed without using up the con- 
stituents of our bodies, which must be replaced through the food we consume; 
and as the atmosphere within which we live and move and have our being, is 
usually colder than the natural heat of our bodies, a fuel must be supplied to 
make up for the constant radiation of heat. This is supplied by our food ; the 
quantity required varies witli the changes of season, but is at all times a 
necessity. 

The flesh-forming foods we find readily in those derived from tlie animal 
creation, as the flesh of animals, egg, cheese, and milk; also in the cereals in 
the gluten of wlieat and other grains, and the leguminose of peas and beans. 
The heat-producing foods we find in fats, either animal or vegetable, in sugar 
and starch. This latter article is alwaj's, in the animal economy, converted into 
sugar before it is rendered available for the purposes of our nutrition. 

In addition to these substances, several minerals are required to build up and 
maintain the bony fabric, and to enable the necessary changes to take place in 
the other portions of our bodies. The mineral substances are available, for the 
most part, in complex combinations, known in chemical language as salts, 
among which are compounds of lime, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, etc., etc. 

Having, in a few words, stated the requirements of the food, and the imma- 



DIET FOR INFANTS. 103 

ture condition of baby's digestive apparatus, we cannot fail to appreciate at 
once, when we study into the make-up of milk, its beautiful adaptation to the 
wants of the infantile animal. 

COMPOSITION OF AVOMAN'S MILK AXD MILK OF DIFFERENT ANIMALS. 

Ass's Woitiftn's Cow's Goat's Kwe's 

Milk. Milk. Milk. Milk. Milk. 

Caseine 1.82 1,52 4.48 4.02 4.50 

Butter 1.11 3.55 3.13 3.32 4.20 

Sugar of Milk 6.08 6.50 4.77 5,28 5,00 

Various Salts 0,34 0,45 0,60 0,58 0,68 

Total solids 9.35 12.02 12.98 13.20 14,38 

Water 90.65 87.98 87,02 86.80 85.62 

Total 100,00 100,00 100,00 100,00 100,00 

This complex substance really consists of an emulsion, containing all that is 
necessary for the sustenance, growth, and repair of the animal for which it is 
provided ; and in such a readily adaptable form as to require but a minimum of 
digestive effort before being absorbed, and converted into good blood, which is 
but the purveyor of all essentials to the minute subdivisions of our bodies ; or, 
in other words, is the common carrier of good towards the parts that need reno- 
vation, and removes the effete or non-usable portions away from parts when 
this duty is required. 

Its caseine is the flesh-former, its butter and sugar the heat-producer, and 
the salts the attendants upon other changes, and supporters of the bony fabric. 

Upon the proper relation, too, of these different component parts depends its 
adaptability to the needs of the infant. An excess of caseine, as in cow's milk, 
causes a loading of the stomach with curds, which the peculiar position of the 
stomach renders it easy to eject, after a reasonable time has shown the impossi- 
bility of its digestion. An excess of butter beyond the ability of the juices to 
digest, and form into an emulsion, soon becomes rancid, developing fatty acids, 
which in return solidify the albuminous portions, rendering them so compact 
as to be indigestible. The health of the mother must be such as to render her 
capable of elaborating a sufficient quantity and quality of milk, or else her 
infant becomes a sufferer. 

This result can best be accomplished by regularity of meals, sleep, and exer- 
cise, and with a diet varied to the taste, and not interfered with by occasional 
excesses ; fruits and vegetables in their season, used in moderation, will not 
jeopardize the infant's health as much as a constrained dietary, with only a 
relief at intervals from its monotony. 

To sketch in brief the proper management of an infant, as regards food, we 
should require the mother to nurse it herself, giving it for the first six months 
no other food whatever ; for the first month or two, nursing it every two hours, 
and gradually extending the time until at six months the interval would be five 
hours : this is necessary to give the stomach a rest after each meal, whereby 
it can elaborate energy sufficient for the next meal to be promptly disposed of. 
After baby is six months old, it may be and often is necessary to supplement 
the mother's milk with some additional food, and as baby is yet toothless, we 
must provide a sustenance as near as possible in its digestibility to milk, as we 
have seen that compounds containing starch are inadmissible. Good cow's 
milk diluted with a little barley water, and to wiiich some white sugar is added, 
answers a good purpose ; should baby be constipated, oat meal should be 
used in preference to barley; occasionally the juice of flesh may be given. 



104 STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH— KEPOET OF SECEETARY, 1877. 

or the flesh of fresh fish well cooked, or raw oysters. As tlio child grows 
ill age and strength, these may be supplemented with gluten and milk ; 
this may be prepared by boiling some good wheat flour in plenty of water, 
the flour tied tightly in a cloth or bag; after it becomes hard it should be 
grated and made into a pap with water, and fed with sugar and milk added ; or 
a crust of bread may be allowed for the child to suck. After the child is a 
year old and, as frequently happens, has to be weaned, reliance must be placed 
on cow's milk, bread, and flesh simply cooked ; a little fruit such as the pulp of 
apples, pears, and peaches, may be added; but the small fruits are objectionable 
from the irritation produced by their seeds. After two years of age tlie child 
should continue the same kind of diet, but may be allowed vegetables and light 
puddings in moderation. 

Whenever, however, necessity compels a resort to hand-feeding for the nour- 
ishment of infants, without any assistance troin the mother's milk, more cau- 
tion is required to assure a food capable of being digested by the infant's 
stomach. Keliance must still be placed on the same class of foods as above 
mentioned; but in the first few months of an infant's life the food must very 
nearly resemble mother's milk, to meet with entire satisfaction as a nourisher 
of the infant, and yet not to cause disturbance in the digestive organs. 

With this object in view. Dr. Jjiebig has recommended a food which in many 
cases fulfills the indications, and probably would do so more frequently, pro- 
vided, more efficient carefulness be expended in its preparation. His formula 
is as follows : 

Mix one ounce of wheaten flour with 10 ounces of milk, boil for 3 or 4 
minutes, remove from the fire and allow to cool to 90° temperature. One 
ounce of malt powder mixed with 15 grains of bicarbonate of j^otash and 2 
ounces of water are then to be stirred into it; the vessel must then be covered 
and allowed to stand for an hour and a half at a temperature of about 100 
degrees. It is then put once more on the fire and gently boiled for a few 
minutes. Lastly it must be carefully strained to remove any particle of husk — 
then it is fit for the child's food. The effect of the malt is to transform the 
starch of the flour into glucose (sugar), thus the mixture gets thinner and 
sweeter as it stands. The potash is added to facilitate the changes and to neu- 
tralize acid in the flour and malt. 

No artificial food, however, fulfils the office of mother's milk so entirely as 
not to become distasteful after a while. The monotony of its use becomes 
necessary to be interrupted by something else. Witii this in view, good cow's 
milk may be diluted with water in varying proportions, — commencing for the 
new born babe with equal parts of milk and water, to which add lime water in 
the proportion of one tablespoonf ul to a gill of prepared food, and gradually 
lessening the quantity of water added as the child grows older ; a sufficient quan- 
tity of pure white sugar should be added to give it a perceptibly sweet taste but 
not syrupy. The occasional use of gum water, barley or oatmeal gruel, made 
very thin and without sugar and afterwards strained, is to be commended. 

Nursing bottles are very much to be preferred to spoons or cups ; the act of 
sucking is in itself an exciter of the digestive fluids, causing the saliva to exude 
into the mouth to be mixed with the food, and prevents a too hasty manner of 
feeding as well as prevents any lumps or insufficiently prepared food from 
being taken into the stomach. 

The nursing bottle when not in use should be kept in water, after Iiaving 
been thoroughly cleansed in water to which a little soda or borax has been 
added. 



Small-Pox ii the City of Detroit. 



A COMMUNICATION 



2Sea.3. to tlie State Eoard. of ZXealtla. ~^Aly lO, 1Q77, 



HENRY F. LYSTEE, M. D., 



MEMBEK OF THE 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



SMALL-POX IN THE CITY OF DETROIT, 

AND THE RESTRICTIOX AND PREVENTION OF THE DISEASE. 



To the Secretary of the State Board of Health : 

Dear Sir, — I respectfully report that the small-pox has been present in the 
city of Detroit daring the whole of the past twelve mouths. 

Though it has at no time prevailed as an epidemic, yet it has constantly 
appeared in a larger number of patients than should have been permitted had 
the proper authorities attended to its removal. T herewith submit a record of 
the actual number of cases and deaths occurring from this preventable disease : 

July 5. The president of the Board of Health reported that none existed. 

No. of cases 

reported. Deaths. 

1876. July 5 G 

" Angnst 2 3 

'' September 4 3 

" October 2 3 

" November.. 12 4 

" December 23 17 

1877. January 43 28 

" February 29 14 

" March. 46 10 

" April _ 45 10 

'' May. 41 19 

" June 26 16 

278 133 

The facts herewith presented to you reflect strongly upon the want of 
efficiency of the authorities of the city, and sliow that a disease which, as here 
presented, records a mortality of over 40 per cent, has been allowed to continue 
in the community for a period of at least one year. The attention of the 
authorities has at last been directed so strongly to its prevention that an appro- 
priation of $3,000 has been made for the purpose of furnishing vaccination to 
all who cannot pay for it; and tlie six city physicians, witli a sufficient number 
of medical practitioners as assistants, have been directed to visit each and every 
family in their several districts, and vaccinate such persons as may not have 
been protected by recent vaccination. 

There is no doubt but that if this ordinance of the council is properly and 
efficiently carried out, as, from the reports of those engaged in tlie work of vac- 
cination, we have reason to believe it will be, this disease will very speedily disap- 
pear from within the city limits for the time being, excepting the few cases 



108 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— EEPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

imported from other places, -wliicli nothing short of the general vaccination of 
the race will prevent appearing in any of the larger cities, particularly in those 
situated upon the lines of through travel. 

[The above report was presented to the State Board of Health at the meeting 
July 10, 1877. 

At the present date, January 8, 1878, I am enabled to give some of the re- 
sults of the very efficient general vaccination afforded by the Common Council. 
The table of cases and deaths has been continued, from that given above, 
through the last six months of the year : 

Cases. Deaths. 

1877. July 17 6 

" August - 3 2 

*• bjepteraber 1 

" October 1 

" November 

*• December -. 

21 9 

During July and August 16,061 persons were vaccinated by the city, at an. 
•expense of $4,015.25. * There has been but one case reported during the past 
four months. To any one familiar with the history of this disease, the sudden 
abatement of its prevalence during August, immediately subsequent to the 
general vaccination, will not be regarded as a mere coincidence, or as due to 
the elevation of the temperature. Any theory accounting for the complete 
disappearance of small-pox in this instance, other than as a consequence of vac- 
cination, would hardly be tenable. — H. F. L.] 

The lesson taught by the presence of this very serious form of disease in our 
midst has been an expensive one to the material interests of the city, not only on 
account of the expense to which the corporation has been in caring for those 
who came upon it for assistance, who were by far the larger number; in 
paying for the infected clothing ordered burned, and for the interment of 
those who died, but also in the loss of trade resulting from the exaggerated 
reports of the prevalence of the disease, preventing customers from coming 
into the city and diverting them to other markets. 

The question naturally comes up at this time as to the best methods to be 
adopted to prevent the small-pox, and to avoid the agitation of this subject, by 
the people, every now and then, when a case is rejDorted. 

We have found by experience that compulsory laws are not generally car- 
ried into effect in this country ; and while our legislators are capable of fram- 
ing most excellent laws, in keeping with the scientific knowledge of the age, 
and sufficiently armored to withstand the judicial shafts of the Supreme 
Court, yet the theory of popular sovereignty is powerful to prevent their exe- 
cution, and in consequence they are not enforced, except in rare instances 
and then at great expense. Although the people are not easily driven, they 
may be convinced by enlightened observation and reasoning ; and if the sub- 
ject of general vaccination is brought to their attention in a manner which 
appeals to their intelligent understanding, they will be disposed to adopt it. 

By a process of exclusion, we have full power and authority to prevent the 
admission of children not vaccinated to the public schools in the State. 
This authority has been rigidly enforced in this city, and the consequence is 

* It is supposed that fuUy as mauy more persons were vaccinated by their physicians during this 
period. 



SMALL -POX IX DETROIT. 109 

that not one of our 12,000 school children has had this disease during the past 
year. The force of this example lias been generally felt, and a very large 
proportion of the children who are not attending the schools have been vac- 
cinated, for the reason that their brothers and sisters who go to the schools 
have been obliged to be vaccinated. But this system of exclusion, which now 
alone applies to the public schools, and the army and navy, should, to be effec- 
tive, be very generally applied to workshops, manufactories, railroad compa- 
nies, merchant marine, etc., etc. ; though here it would only apply to adults, 
who are naturally much less liable than children to this disease. 

It is quite apparent to those who have given the subject attention, that the 
only feasible way in this country to keep the people protected, is to have vacci- 
nation regularly and systematically offered to the community. A physician 
may, with perfect propriety, offer to vaccinate any infant whose mother he had 
attended during accouchement, and may, Avith equal propriety, advise the vacci- 
nation of any of the children of the family not already protected. In fact, 
this attention on the part of the medical adviser is expected by the large ma- 
jority of parents, though it has unfortunately fallen somewhat into disuse, 
from a natural disinclination on the part of the medical j)rofession to proffer ser- 
vices, the motive for which might be liable to misconstruction. It would be, as I 
understand it, the duty of the health officer of the township, and the health 
physician or liealth physicians of cities in this State, to offer vaccination to each 
and every family in their respective districts, at least biennially, the town or 
city to pay, at rates fixed upon from time to time, for those unable to pay the 
customary fee. For the purpose of bringing the subject properly before the 
several health boards, the following preamble and resolutions are hereby of- 
fered : 

Whereas, By vaccination, the people have complete immunity from small- 
pox; 

Resolved, That the local boards of health in this State are advised and re- 
quested to authorize and instruct their respective health officers to offer vacci- 
nation biennially to all persons not protected by it. 

HENRY F. LYSTEH, M. D. 



[The preamble and resolution were slightly amended and adopted by the 
State Board of Health, as follows : 

Whereas, By means of vaccination and revaccination, the people may 
secure complete immunity from small-pox, 

liesolved, That all local boards of health be advised and requested to direct 
their health physicians to offer, every year, vaccination with bovine vaccine virus 
to every child not previously vaccinated, and to all other persons not vaccinated 
within five years, without cost to the vaccinated, but at the general expense of 
the locality, as provided for townships in section 173G, Compiled Laws, 1871. 

H. B. B., Sec'y.l 



BATHS AND BATHING. 



HENRY F. LYSTER, A. M., M. D., 



OF IDIETROIT, 



MEMBER OF THE 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH 



I 



BATHS AND BATHING. 



The iisG of the bath is a subject which possesses interest to iis as individuals 
and as a community, for the reason that it is so general in its application. 
Whether considered in its sanitary influence upon the human being, its health- 
preserving properties upon those who are well, or its therapeutical qualities to 
those who are ill, or even as a luxury to those who seek a salutary enjoyment, 
it becomes of personal interest to us individually and to the State at large. 

From the very earliest times we have frequent mention of the bath. Ho- 
mer, transferred within the year from a mythical poet to an historical authority, 
refers to the polished marble of the bath, as well as to the enervating and 
effeminating properties of the warm bath npon those who indulged too fre- 
quently in its use. 

We tind throughout the whole biblical history in the old and the new testaments, 
frequent reference to the bath, indicating a custom in earlier times as general 
among eastern nations as it is at present. The modes of life, determined by 
the peculiar condition of the climate and the country, necessitated its use 
and have tended to maintain its importance as well as its popularity among the 
residents of the East. 

The Greeks never constructed, so generally as the llomans, the i)ublic baths 
but used the rivers and the sea for bathing ; yet there is every reason to believe 
from their letters that they fully appreciated the value of the batli and con- 
structed a number of magnificent public baths. 

The Romans used the bath twice each day, and in every village and city was 
found the public bath. 

From beneath the ashes of Pompeii there was uncovered, more than fifty 
years ago, an enclosure of 10,000 square feet containing two distinct bathing 
establishments, and these do not compare with the larger ones of the capital. 
That of Caracalla, among others of great magnificence, was 1250 by 1500 
feet; and in it thousands could bathe at the same time. 

The religious teachings among the Asiatics inculcate bathing. The !Moham- 
medan is required to say prayers five times daily, and to perform an ablution of 
the hands and feet before each prayer. 

A public bath can be found in every village in Egypt and throughout India. 

Through the whole of the extensive dominions of "the Czar of Russia, 
from the lord to the peasant, frequent bathing is the custom and not the excep- 
tion. The steam bath is as universal among the Moscovites as is the hot-air 
bath among the Turks. 

Among the nomadic tribes the bath is the nearest lake or river ; but east or 
15 



114 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1S77. 

west wherever pennaneut structures have been erected, we find the bath. In 
Mexico, we have the steam bath ; in Japan, the swimming bath ; in the north of 
Europe and throughout Eussian Asia, the steam bath ; in Turkey and the East, 
the hot-air bath ; in Europe and America generally, the water bath of various 
temperatures. 

The batli, though appreciated by many, and used very generally for purposes 
of cleanliness by a large majority of the better class of onr citizens at stated 
intervals, is, we are confident, not resorted to so generally or so frequently as 
it should be by the masses of the people. 

Those engaged in mechanical and other laborious employments are but 
little given to the use of the general bath, even for the apparently necessary 
purposes of cleanliness. 

Dr. Rees, of England, wrote, some years ago, with reference to this deca- 
dence : *'It must be owned that in spite of all the advantages derived from the 
habitual use of baths, with respect to both health and cleanliness, the moderns 
have until lately very much neglected to employ them ; though from this censure 
we must except the Orientals and Turks, among whom the practice of the bath 
has been more easily preserved on account of its connection with religious 
worship. Among modern Europeans the practice of bathing has returned to 
the same condition it was when Homer described it in the earlier ages of 
Greece." 

The limits of this paper will not allow of a discussion of the relative values, 
or even of a description, of all the varieties of the bath ; and it will suffice here 
to assert that they may all be classified according to temperature, as cold, warm, 
and hot. Several varieties under these heads will bo described. 

It may be well before proceeding further to here arrange a table, taken from 
reliable sources, of the recognized temperatures of the bath : 

Cold bath .- 32° to 60° F. 

Cool " 60° to 75°F. 

Temperate bath 75° to 85° F. 

Tepid " -. - 85° to 96° F. 

Warm " 96° to 102° F. 

Hot " . . 102° to 114" F. 

Hot vapor (Russian) 120° to 140° F. 

Occasionally raised to _ 180° to 190° F. 

Hot air (Turkish) 130° to 175° F. 

Occasionally raised to 250' to 280° F. 

The Cold Bath, 32° to G0° E. — The immediate effects of the cold bath is to 
elevate the temperature of the blood in the inner portions of the body 1.8' to 
3.G° F. But this is only temporary and it soon becomes lowered beneath the 
usual temperature of 98.5° F.,and does not recover its temperature until some 
time after removal from the bath. The temperature of the skin is lowered at 
once by the abstraction of the heat by the water of the bath. Six to nine de- 
grees F. is endurable, but a lower depression of the temperature cannot be 
borne for any length of time. In extreme and fatal cases the temperature of 
the skin has been found to have fallen as many as 18° F. 

The primary elevation of the temperature of the blood in the inner organs 
is caused by the contraction of the skin because of the cold impression upon it, 
which sends the blood to V\q vital organs in increased quantities, stimulates them 
to greater activity, leads to a more rapid oxidation, and lessens tlie ordinary 
radiation of heat from the surface. By prolonging the bath the temperature 



BATHS AND BATHING. 115 

of the blood iu the iatenial organs falls more nearly to tlie temperature of the 
skin ; and after the skin may, by reaction, have regained its temperature, these 
internal organs will be found below normal temperature for a few minutes, 
or it may be several hours before tliey regain their normal temperature, de- 
pending upon the constitutional condition of the individual. 

The pulse is at first quickened, and subsequently becomes slower than before 
the bath ; the respiration is similarly affected. 

Authorities agree that with the elevation of the blood and the increased tissue- 
change, the carbonic acid is eliminated in extraordinary degree; one authority 
states that the carbonic acid is eliminated often 300 to 500 per cent. Dr. 
Braun, in speaking of this subject, says that the greatly increased change of 
non-azotized substances, as iu all the various forms of the bath, shows a very 
different result from the changes which occur by the elevation of the tempe- 
rature of the blood by acute fever ; as in these latter cases the carbonic acid is 
only in exact proportion to the fever, and the azotized (nitrogenized) matter is 
consumed. In tlie cold, salt bath or the mineral bath, the same rule holds 
good ; and by the imbibition of the water at the same time, changes may be 
increased in the azotized (nitrogenized) matter of the system. 

This form of bath should be used for hygenic purposes only by persons in 
health, and Avhen prompt reaction is obtained. Where there is heart disease or 
organic degenerations of any of the vital organs, the cold bath is not advisable as 
a general, or plunge bath. Profuse perspiration is induced by all forms of bath, 
the action of the skin is increased, the general circulation equalized, the mus- 
cular tone increased, and a sense of elasticity and strength is experienced in the 
mind and body. A brisk rubbing of the whole surface of the body with a 
coarse towel should follow all forms of the bath, but it is particularly required 
after the cold bath. 

The Warm Bath, 9G° to 103° F. — A general preference for the warm bath 
is maintainedfor the reason that the sensation of warmth is in itself more agree- 
able than that of cold. There are other considerations which deservedly keep it 
in popular favor. It cleanses the skin more effectively, and removes more read- 
ily than the cold bath the sense of weariness when the muscles have been 
overtaxed by excessive exorcise. It is a safer bath for those not in robust health. 
The cold bath, which contracts suddenly the superficial vessels and depresses 
the nervous system and lowers the general temperature and congests temporarily 
the vital organs, cannot be recommended to those in very delicate health, where 
there is not sufficient reactionary power; nor in cases of degeneration or organic 
change of the heart, lungs, liver, or kidneys. The general hot bath is only less 
liable tiian the cold bath to produce injury in a similar class of cases, over-stimu- 
lating the nervous and circulatory systems and unduly elevating the temperature 
of the blood, if prolonged. 

To the warm bath none of these objections obtains, and it illustrates the old 
maxim, in medio tutissimus ibis, "avoid extremes." 

The healthy, vigorous person, or one with only moderate strength and 
tonicity, finds in the cold bath the proper strengthening and stimulating agent, 
increases his strength by its use, and is inclined to take more exercise. 

The weary traveler or laborer will find in tlie warm bath the desired relief 
and restoration, more in fact than could be obtained by hours of rest and 
sleep. 

Dr. Braun (Baths & WaCers, Lond,, 1875), illustrates the physiological effect 
as follows : 



116 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH—EEPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

"There is no better remedy for painful weariness of tlie muscles after violent 
effort than a warm bath. The weariness of the muscles is due to immoderate 
accumulation of the products of their functions, for the further oxidation and 
secretion of which an amount of change of substance is required such as the 
over-wearied muscular fibre can no longer afford ; in this case the increased 
physical heat appears as a momentary means of facilitating oxidation, and a 
warm bath has often in a moment the effect which, without it, could only have 
been obtained by hours and days of physical repose. Cold refreshes by stimu- 
lating the functions; heat, by pliysically facilitating them." 

The warm bath should be followed by sponging the surface with cool or cold 
water and by brisk rubbing with a coarse towel. 

The Hot Bath, 103° to 114° F.— This bath is a powerful stimulant to the 
entire system, and is used only in exceptional cases and is rarely required for 
hygienic effect. It is chiefly employed therapeutically, and belongs to conditions 
the discussion of which is beyond the province of this paper. 

The Hot Air Bath, (Turkish) 130° to 200° F.— The Turkish bath, or the 
use of hot air for the production of profuse perspiration, followed immediately 
by shampooing and rubbing the whole body, and subsequently by laving the 
body with warm and cold water, and lastly by the cold douche or plunge bath, 
is at the same time one of the most valuable and the most luxurious of all 
the baths. 

This bath could easily, and we hope will at not a very distant day, be sup- 
plied to every city and large village to meet the wants and necessities of the 
community. When the education of the people in sanitary matters is some- 
what in advance of the present, the demand will be for its general and 
constant use. 

The committee cannot well improve upon the description of the bath here- 
with submitted by the proprietors of the Turkish bath house, in Detroit : 

*'The Turkish Bath is the application of hot air to produce profuse perspira- 
tion, equalize the circulation, and assist nature to eliminate the waste or any 
poisonous element that ought to pass off by the skin. The perspiration is fol- 
lowed by a thorough manipulation of the whole body, which not only invigo- 
rates the muscular fibre, but helps to dislodge and set in motion foreign 
elements that have become localized ; then follows a percussion of the surface 
with the open hand, concaved, the blows being given in rapid succession, draw- 
ing the blood into the minute capillaries and toning up the action of the 
skin. liext a thorough rubbing with brush and soap is followed by a forcible 
fine spray of water, beginning with a pleasant temperature of warm water, 
which is gradually cooled until the individual is sufficiently cooled to take the 
plunge (about 70° Fahr.), or the shower, or is in a proper condition to be 
wiped, after which he returns to the dressing and cooling room, where he lies 
or sits until the skin is dry, and he can dress without perspiring. The bath 
requires about one hour's time, and with invalids is modified to meet the tem- 
perament and condition of the individual. 

"We have two forms, the Improved Turkish Bath, consisting of a box about 
three feet square and four feet high, with an opening in the cover, through 
which the head protrudes, enabling the bather to breathe the natural air, while 
the body is surrounded with air from 120° to 1G0° Fahr., as the case may need. 

"Tiie Turkish Bath proper consists of a series of hot rooms, ordinarily rang- 
ing in temperature from 120° to 180° Fahr. We have two rooms about 10x14 
feet each. The method of heatin" and ventilation is so arranged as to secure 



BATHS AND BATHING. 117 

II different tempei'atiu'c in different parts of the same room : the first room 
from 1530° to 130° or lo5° Fahr., and the second ^0° to '2b° higher, indicated by 
our thermometers as located in the fir.st room, about 150° and in the second 
170" Fahr. 

"The time occupied in any part of the bath depends upon the condition of 
the individual; conditions are more arbitrary than time. 

"In a cold, moist, inactive condition of the skin, we give a saline bath in 
connection with the Turkish, by shampooing witli salt water prepared from 
Ditman's Sea Salt, which invigorates the skin, securing a dry, warm circu- 
lation upon the surface. Our method of giving the sitz-batli : We use water 
about 70° Fahr., for the sitz, and as warm water for the feet as can be borne 
comfortably, accompanied with thorough rubbing of the back and abdomen, 
from fifteen to thirty minutes ; then take the feet out of the warm water and 
immerse them in cold water for a few moments, then dry the patient thor- 
oughly and let him rest in a recumbent position. 

" In the use of water in connection Avith the baths we have a fine spray, deliv- 
ered from a hose under the water-works pressure, with a temperature varying 
from hot to cold, so that local application can be made to any part of the 
body, with gradually modified temperature or sudden changes, as the case may 
require. 

" We have also the IS'"eedle bath, a fine spray that strikes the Avhole body at 
the same time with force ; and a Shower bath, both with a varying tempera- 
ture under the control of the operator. Also an ascending douche for the 
perineal region. 

'•'In the management of any bath or treatment for invalids, the success is not 
in the time or routine, but in a wise selection and manipulation of the means 
best adapted to the case in hand." 

For the purpose of simplifying the establishment required to give the com- 
plete Turkish bath, so that it may be introduced into any household as a 
portion of the domestic economy, we incorporate in this paper the following 
letter from a distinguished member of the legal profession, formerly a citizen 
of this State and now a resident of Ontario, originally published in the Chatham 
Planet newspaper. This account is not from a theoretical view, but after a 
practical experience of the home-made Turkish bath. The therapeutical value 
of this bath is well known, and it is hoped that this description may be of value 
to tlie medical profession as well as to the general public : 

THE HOME-MADE TURKISH BATH. 

As is well known, the sudatorium^ or hot bath, has in all a<?es been used alike in Asia, 
Europe, and America. The Komans rejoiced in its use. The people of the East and 
especially the Turks use it no less as a luxur}^ of the toilet than as a medical agent. 
Their daily bath is the hot one, and all who know of the habits of our native Indians 
know that their hot bath, while verj^ primitive, is most elficacious as a cure for difler- 
ent diseases. The Turk rebukes western civilization by saying that the cold bath of 
the European is only rubbing the dirt in. But in a good sioeat—'it is a mistake to 
talk of perspiration— there is not only essential cleanliness, but a most; active 
hygienic agent. A vigorous sweating carries ofl' impurities of the system, and if no 
oilier good were brought about than the great activity in the circulation of the blood 
and its attendant advantages, much good would be done. \\.\ a man of ordinary size 
there are twenty-eight miles of sewerage through the pores of the body, and on a 
square inch of the piihn of the hand there are 3,500 i)ores. Now consider the eftect of 
having all these pipes either stopped or working imperfectly. So peculiar is the 
human system that it will not sweat, except in a very partial way, even under a very 
high temperature; and indeed with a heat of 150 degrees only one-third or one-half 
the body will sweat at first, and it may take a half-dozen of baths to make the body 



118 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPOKT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

work fully. While cleanliness and comfort are the immediate results of this hath, it 
is surprising how effectual it is in the relief of certain forms of disease. 

To enjoy the benefits of this bath it is not necessary that there should be hot cliam- 
bers, couches, shampooing, &c., as found in the public establishments of this kind. 
The essence of the bath lies in a full and complete sweating under a temperature of 
130 or 150 degrees, and then having cold water applied to you. The ease with which 
this bath may be provided should insure for it very general adoption. Here it is: 
Take a spirit lamp with four wicks, about the size of an oyster can, using alcohol 
instead of oil, the cost of which would be about six cents each batli; place this 
beneath an ordinary wooden chair, on the bottom of which tack a piece of zinc, put 
on a crinoline which ties around the neck and covers the chair, and sit there for say 
half an hour. The crinoline is made of three hoops covered with a calico or oil skin. 
The bottom hoop should be about twelve feet in circumference, the second about 
seven, and the third about four feet. The Germans in using this bath always use a 
foot bath of hot water at the same time. The cold water is used, as you take the 
usual cold bath, with sponge. It is a mistake to suppose that the cold water causes 
any shock — it is only most agreeable. And it is another mistake to suppose that it 
leads to colds in the head, chills, or anj' unpleasant effect. On the contrary, the almost 
immediate effect of this bath is to make the bodj^ quite indifferent to any change of 
temperature. After five or six baths one could roll in the snow sans culotte and not 
take cold. 

Hot Vapok Bath (Eussiau) 120° to 158° F. — This bath, which is given in 
graduated temperatures, all higher than the blood, produces a stimulation of 
the general circulation and profuse sweating, or diaphoresis. The vapor com- 
ing in contact with the cooler skin is condensed and protects it from the extreme 
Iieat. This also takes place on the bronchial mucous membrane and enables 
the vapor to be breathed. 

This bath ranks second only to the Turkish bath as a luxury and cleanser 
to the skin. It is followed by the same laving and ablutions as is the latter, 
and may be recommended to the general public. 

Mineral Baths. — For ages, certain mineral waters have had a world-wide 
reputation as baths, and it has usually been an accepted faith that the system 
took up through absorption these medicated waters, and that on this account 
the frequenters of the baths improved, in many instances, wonderfully. Oc- 
cular proof is not wanting, that wan and worn out pilgrims to celebrated 
baths and watering places at the sea shore come back, each year, restored to 
perfect health and strength. 

This is proof positive to the multitude that there is great and specific virtue 
in mineral baths. It has, however, been impossible to determine how 
much of the cure has been due to change of air and scene and diet, and free- 
dom from care and labor, as well as to the internal use of the mineral Avaters. 
Great doubt is now expressed as to whether there is really any virtue in min- 
eral baths over those of simple v/atcr, if we except the salt and the sulphur 
baths. 

Many observers in different countries, after series of experiments, are of the 
opinion that but little, if any, elfect is produced upon tlie bather by the mineral 
bath, if Ave except the two baths just mentioned. Dr. Braun {op. cit.) says: 
"It is enough that for the present the absorption of gases is an established 
fact, and that, as will be subsequently shown in discussing the waters that con- 
tain common salt, the effect of this cannot be mechanically explained. In 
general, however, a very cogent reason speaks against the absorption of consid- 
erable quantities of salts; if this did occur, what deleterious effects upon the 
blood must inevitably appear !" * * * * "We have to put out of 
account, in the effect of baths, the absorption of saline elements, and we have 
only to take into consideration the absorption of gases, such as sulphuretted 



BATHS AND BATHING. 119 

hydrogen and carbonic acid. In the estimate of haUn^, tliereforc, ^\Q may set 
aside the amount they contain of iron, lime, the sulphates of soda and of 
magnesia, soda, iodine, bromine, and arsenic; and as special baths -we have 
only to consider those containing carbonic acid, the sulphur baths, and besides 
these, the sool-baths the clinical effect of which is established and to be ex- 
plained in a mechanically chemical manner ; the moor-baths, in "whicli special 
chemical agents are added to the general thermic effect, and sea-baths. The 
amount contained of other salts is only of importance in courses of drinking, 
and even the gases, sulphuretted hydrogen and carbonic acid, taken internally, 
produce a thoroughly different effect from that caused by their outward appl- 
cation to the skin." 

The sool, or salt baths produce a greater stimulating effect than simple 
water, but do not materially differ from tlie sea bathing in this respect, except 
that they may both be given at a lower temperature tliat the simple bath for 
the same effect. 

The sulphur bath, which is supposed to depend upon the sulphuretted hydro- 
gen gas for its effects, is still suh judice, so far as any positive indication exists 
that it excels the indifferent thermal or ordinary baths. There certainly can 
be no great amount of this gas absorbed, or it would prove immediately disas- 
trous. The fact that there exists no magnetic quality in the mineral waters has 
been determined by all accurate observers on this point. Among others we 
may mention the President of this board {vide Trans. Mich. State Med. Soc, 
1871), and Prof. Hilgarde of Washington, and Dr. AValton of Cincinnati, 
(Mineral Springs U. S. and Canada, 1873). 

It may be mentioned in this connection, that, though the use of the mineral 
baths may not be, with the exception of the sool-baths and sulphur-baths, in 
any respect inferior to the ordinary baths, this is not to be understood as under- 
rating the internal use of mineral Avaters. While on the one hand the baths are 
used, at the same time the mineral waters are drank, and in many cases with 
very great advantage to the general health. The mineral waters or springs 
should be selected rather on account of the anticipated effects from the inter- 
nal use of the waters than on account of any effect from su])posed absorp- 
tion from bathing ; and especially should this be recognized when any thera- 
peutical effect is to be sought. 

Sea Baths. — The sea baths do not differ materially in their effects from 
the sool-baths, except that the salt air and the bracing atmosphere of the coast 
ensure more positive effects. It is impossible to separate the effects of the 
changes due to the coast and to the influence of the surroundings, from those 
produced by the baths. It is well known that the change, without the sea 
bathing, is in itself a great one and productive of the very best results. As the 
baths are usually taken by those going to the watering places on the coast, we 
can only give the result of the combination. There is usually a greatly 
increased tissue-change and a corresponding increase of appetite and weight, 
unless the visitors are the subjects of chronic disease advanced sufficiently to 
prevent a corresponding repair and assimilation of food. The value of these 
baths, particularly to those going from inland and malarious countries, is 
inestimable and is abundantly manifested to those who observe persons going 
and returning each season. 

With the intention of arriving at a more definite knowledge of the extent to 
which the bath is in use among the people of this State, as well as to determine 
the value placed upon it by the medical profession, the committee addressed to 
a number of the correspondents the following circular : 



120 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH-KEPOKT OF SECRETARY, 1S77. 

Detroit, August, 1817. 
Dear Sir :— In the preparation of a paper upon Baths and Bathing, for the State 
Board of Health, I desire to avail myself of statements of facts and opinions by the 
regular correspondents of the Board, and will feel under obligations to those corres- 
pondents who will have the kindness to send me replies to the following questions. 
Please use the stamped envelope enclosed herewith, and leave all additional postage 
to be paid by me: 

1. In your neighborhood, what is the custom of the people in the use of the bath? 

2. What kind of baths are used? 

3. How frequently are they used for cleanliness? 

4. How generally are they employed for hygienic purposes? 

5. How many public bathing establishments are there in your vicinity? 

G. Please describe any such establishments, and state what form of bath is given. 

7. What are your views concerning the use of the bath as a sanitary measure? 

8. What form of bath do you recommend as preferable for its hygienic effect? 

9. Do you suggest any variation in the form of the bath to meet the conditions 
at different seasons of the year? 

To this, forty-six replies ]iave been received. These will be introduced 
alphabetically according to the town, and will be found to represent geograph- 
ically the whole State. The number of the answer will corres2:)oud to that of 
the question in the circular. 

J.cZria?l.— REPORTED BY ROBERT STEPUENSOK, M. D. 

1. A bath once a weelv by better class who have bath rooms. The majority of peo- 
ple sponge-bath two or three times a year. There is a certain class wlio probably 
are never wet from head to foot except, may be, by a rain storm. 

2. Pluuge-batli; a very few use the shower-bath. 

4. Not generally. 

5. One, at present time. 

G. Mineral spring hotel has about twenty bath-tubs. 

7. I look upon the bath as a necessary adjunct for the maintenance of the body in a 
state of health. 

8. Plunge-bath with temperature a little below that of the body. 

9. Temperature of bath should var}'^ with seasons; colder in wintei*, warmer in sum- 
mer. 

Albion. — REPORTED BY JOHX P. STODDARD, M. D. 

1. Chiefly sponge-bath; a few, perhaps two per cent have bath-tubs in their houses. 

3. Once a w'eek. 

4. About the same. 

5. None. 

7. I think it to be a useful and necessary measure, 

8. Usually the plunge or sponge-bath. 

9. Summer, cool plunge-bath; winter, lukewarm sponge-bath. 

Ann .4r6or.— REPORTED by GEO. E. frothingiiam, m. d., and wm. f. breakey, m. d. 

1. I can say but little from observation, on this subject. 

2. Warm full baths, but more frequently sponge-baths. 

3. Perhaps once or twice a Aveek. 

4. Very seldom. 

5. One. 

6. This establishment has a dozen batli-rooms, and facilities for giving the usual 
variety of baths. 

7. 1 believe it can be made very effective. 

8. For ordinary use the full, tepid or warm bath. 

9. Atmosphere at uniform and moderately high temperature usually. 



EATIIS AND BATHING!. 121 

IJaltle CVeeA;.— KKrouTicD nr j, ii. kellogg, m. i). 

1. No prevalent custom. 

2. Full bath and spouire-Latli. 

3. 1 am satisfied that there is great neglect. 1 have met with several persons who 
seemed very much surprised when I recommended a warm bath, although such ap- 
plication was eminently proper for cleanliness. In one case a patient wlio had been a 
laboring man the most of his life, declared that not a drop of water had touched his 
back for forty years. Another man, upwards of fifty j^ears of age, stated that he had 
never taken a bath in his life. It is a general custom with quite a portion of 
this community to take a bath regularly at least once a week; many bathe more fre- 
quently during the warm weather. 

4. Although the use of the bath in this locality is far less frequent and thorough 
than should be, probably there are very few communities in which correct habits in 
this respect are so nearly approximated as here, considerable pains having been 
taken to instruct the people of the vicinity in this and other hygienic measures. 

ix. One. All usual kinds of baths administered under direction of physician. The 
full bath at 85° to 93° F., most frequently employed. 

7. One ©f tl>e most important sanitary measures, and its neglect predisposes to dis- 
ease malady. 

8. Full bath at 85° F. to 92° F. For daily bath I prefer the sponge-bath. 

9. Warm bath for winter; summer, tepid, sponge, or shower. 

I?/-Oo/rf?/)l.— REPORTED BY E. N. PALMER, M. D. 

1. Bathing pretty generally neglected. 

3. Verj"- seldom. 

4. Never unless ordered by physician. 

7. Great benefit as a sanitary measure. 

8. Any form. 

9. The most convenient to give. 

Charlotte. — reported by g. b. allex, si. d. 

1. Frequent. 

2. Sponge-bath. A few homes have bath-tubs. 

3. About once a weelc, average. 

4. Not very generally. 

5. One. 

6. In basement connected with barber shop. Dark, and poorly ventilated. 

7. When properly used, valuable. 

8. Sponge and plnnge, preferable. 

Coldwater. — REPORTED BY J. II. BEECH, M. D., AKD LOUIS H. "NVURTZ, M. D. 

1. Customary to use some kind of bath; about same as in other parts of State. 

2. A majority of best houses have bath-room; but few in the middle classes have 
more than a tub. The working men and boys bathe in the river In the summer. 
Sponge-bath is used. 

3. No general custom; individual taste regulates the use of the bath: once a week 
on average; some every 2 or 3 daj's; a few daily. 

4. Not generally used for liygiene; those who use the bath daily do so as a hy- 
gienic measure. 

5. None at present; several have been started, but the people have a prejudice 
against them on account of small size and limited accommodations. 

7. That unmedicated baths are of great sanitary value. Not more than one in 
twenty-four hours. Shocks should be avoided and bath not prolonged; weary i)ersons 
cannot bathe every day; in others it prolongs life and prevents disease. 

S. That wliich is most agreeable at the time. The plunge or douche is objection- 
able. 

9. Sponge-bath best for continued use, and temperature of room not too low, 

Carson C%.— REPORTED by William riciiardsox, m. d. 

1, Our neighborhood deplorably deficient in the use of the bath; only a few fami- 
lies use it for cleanliness. The old lady's habit is nearly the universal one, who, 
in speaking about her daughter-in-law, said, "La, me! what nonsense; ^laria takes a 
bath every week or two. 1 can't remember when I took one." 

G. The mill company built a small house over a deep hole in the race, for public use; 
;and a few persons avail themselves of that opportunity. 



12-2 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— REPOKT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

De Witt. — REPORTED liY GEO. \V. TOPPING, H. D. 

1. About two-tifths of the people bathe once a week during the entire year, and 
during the hot weather often twice or more per week. About two-fifths bathe irreg- 
ularly duiing tlie warm weather, and once in 2 to 4 weeks h\ cold; oue-tifth, 3 or 4 
times during warm weathei', and not at all during the cold. 

2. Mostly sponge-baths. In warm weather many men and boj'S bathe in river and 
lakes, 

7. Important sanitarj^ measure, and too much neglected. A very few persons use 
it too much. 

8. Prefer the tepid bath with a little alkali added. 

9. Warm Aveather, prefer cool bath; and at other seasons, tepid. 

Z>eaj-&0?Vl,— REPORTED liV E. S. SNOW, M. D. 

1. The custom is various; some, every daj^; and others, very seldom. 

2. Sponge-bath usually adopted, and swimming bath in summer. 

3. Once a week. 

4. About one in twenty. 

5. One. 

6. Bath-tubs filled with mineral water from a well 350 feet in depth. The saline 
ingredients are chiefly sulphate of soda and chloride of sodium. 

7. Highly approve of the bath. 

8. Swimming-bath. 

9. Cool sponge-bath, particularly in winter. 

Z>(?<rOi7.— REPORTED BY "SV. H. ROUSE, M. D., AND II. V. LYSTER, M. D. 

1. Custom varies with the different individuals and classes. 

2. Sponge-bath most common; warm or cold medicated baths but little used. The 
sulphur springs are visited by some. 

3. Some, daily; others, once a week. 

4. But few use them for liygienic purposes. 

5 & 6. There are several establishments where a variety of baths may be had un- 
der private control. There is a large number of places connected Avith barber shops 
and hotels where hot and cold general baths may be qbtained. There is a lai-ge 
establishment where medicated baths are furnished, and there the complete Turkish 
bath is given. In tlie upper extremity of the city two large swimming-baths 
have been built, one for males and the other for females, to be used during the sum- 
Qier. Below the city are two bath-houses, one for each sex, supplied, from an arte- 
sian spring, with sulpliur water. The amount of sulphuretted hydrogen gas is 
unusually large. Hot and cold baths can be given throughout the year. No public 
bath-houses have as yet been built by tlie city on the river front, though greatly 
needed. 

7. When properly given, they are of great service. 

8. The plunge-bath one of the best; sponge-bath most available; swimming-bath, 
being attended by exercise, is valuable. 

East Saginaw. — reported by nelson ii, claflin, m. d. 

1. Many do not bathe. 

2. Warm or cold, general bath. 

3. About once a week, 

4. Very seldom. 

5. Two. 

6. Bath connected with hotel barber shops. One has live tubs; the other, three; 
used by men only. Average number of baths given in both, 160 per month. 

7. Frequent batlis necessary for cleanliness and hygienic purposes. 

8. (^Id enough for reaction to be required. 

9. The room should be warm and no draft allowed. 

J^foie.— REPORTED BY E, V. CHASE, M. D. 

1. The custom is to abstain as long as iiossible, and then use the river or pond, in 
warm A\'eather. 

2. Sitz-bath, with general ablution. 

3. Not more than half often enough. 

4. When ordered by a physician. " 

5. None. 



BATHS AND BATHING. 125 

7. Increased use advisable. 

8. Prefer a saline bath. 

9. Change temperature according to weather. 

i^Zmi.— REPORTED BY II. C. FAIRBANKS, M. D., AND LEROY PARKER, ESQ. 

1. Each family bathes, or not, according to their opinion of the benefits. 

2. Tepid and cold soft water. 

3. Varies with the family opinion. 

4. Kesorted to pretty generally by somtj; but not so, taking the whole population.. 

5. One. 

G. Soft and mineral baths of any temperature, or a vapor bath ; used by each sex. 

7. I believe them to be essential to good health. 

S. Tepid, general bath. 

9. Vary, somewhat, with atmospheric temperature. 

Fyfe I,«Z;c.— REPORTED by ll. T. calkins, M. D. 

1. I know of but two or three houses with bath-tubs. During summer, a portion of 
the male population bathe in the lakes. 

2. The majority do not bathe often enough for personal cleanliness, very few taking 
a full bath once a week; some, perhaps, not once a year. 

7. I do not regard the bath very favorably as a lij^gienic measure. In my opinion 
it renders the skin too active and at a low temperature. The bath in many cases is- 
hurtful. 

9. Not too hot or too cold, or too often. 

Greenville. — reported by o. e. iierrick, m. d. 

1. Perhaps one-half bathe once a week. 

2. Sponge-bath, soft water. 

3. Perhaps once a week. 

4. I fear they are used very little, though advised by all of our physicians. 

7. Very essential; should be used as often as three times a week in warm weather,, 
and once a week in cold. 

9. Temperature should be near that of the body if bather is well. Bad effects fre- 
quently produced by too cold bathing. 

Huhhardston. — reported by h. w. browne, m. d. 

1. In warm weather, once a week or so ; but not generally used. 

(A prejudice against general baths prevails, on the ground that a person takes cold. 
One old lady told me that not a drop of water had touched her skin for twenty j'ears^ 
as her sister had been bathed to death while under medical advice. If public baths- 
could be maintained in each township, many diseases could be prevented.) 

2. Warm and cold general baths. 

3. Some, once a week; some, daily; others, two or three times a week. 

5. One; a magnetic well, so called. 

6. Arranged for hot and cold Avater and shower-baths. 

7. Once a week, at least, would be preventive of disease. 

8. Turkish bath; next in order, the hot bath. 

9. Cool in warm weatlier, and warm in cold. 

Howell. — reported by c. v. beebe, m. d. 

1. Doubtless more or less bathing is performed. 

2. Sponge-bath, usually. 

3. The bathing is used entirely for this purpose. 

4. Not regarded by the people at large. 

7. Highly useful as a sanitary measure. 

8. Very near temperature of bod}'. 

9. More friction after bath in cold weather. 

lfil7?ScZaZ(?.— REPORTED BY J. W. EA1,I-EY, Al. D. 

1. Manj'' i^eople have bath-rooms. 

2. General baths, and sponge-baths. 

3. Many, every other day. 

4. One female in twentj'; one male in fifty. 

5. One. 



124 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH-REPOKT OF SECRETAET, 1S77. 

6. Hot and cold. 

7. Valuable, but may be used too frequentl3'. 

9. Temperature should be carefully adapted to individuals. 

Hudson.— REPORTED BY A. K. SMART, M, D. 

1. Majority use some form once a week; more frequently in summer. 

2. Sponge-baths, shower, plunge, and swimming in river. 

3. During warm weather, and with children, daily; once or twice per week, the av- 
erage, 

4. Not often for hygiene, purely. 

5. A bath-tub at depot, supplied by artesian well. 

6. Sponge, hot and cold, and shower baths. 

7. Great value, in majority of cases. 

8. Sponge-bath in general. 

9. Temperature according to season. 

Homer. — KEPORTED BY O. S. PHELPS, JI. D. 

1. Only used for cleanliness, unless prescribed. 

2. Sponge-bath. 

3. Probablj'' not ofcener than once a week. 

4. Not very generally. 
7. Very useful. 

9. As near temperature of weather as can be borne safelj\ 

Hastings. — reported by a. p. drake, m. d. 

1. No uniformity ; not generally used. 

2. Sponge. 

3. Once a week. 

^aZama^oo.— REPORTED by n. o. niTCncoCK, m. d., axd w. b. southard, m. d. 

1. Comparatively few use baths besides the sponge-bath. 

2. Warm bath, all ordinary kinds sometimes used. 
'3. Perhaps once or twice a week. 

4. Seldom. 

.5. Four or five. 

■6. Warm or cold, generally both: two medicated and electrical. 
7. Regular and not too frequent use is a most important sanitary measure. 
^8. Depends upon what effect is desired. 

Lansing. — reported by ira h. Bartholomew, m. d. 

6. A plunge-bath, 4 to 6 feet deep and 40 to 60 feet square, is used to some extent by 
males. There is a bath-house with 12 baths for either warm or cold water. 

7. 1 do not think that frequent bathing is desirable, as a rule. Daily bathing is not 
■ only unnecessary but in many cases highly injurious. Many who practice it are in 

feeble health and need tonics. Tlie warm or tepid bath is preferable as a rule in all 
.■seasons. 

iffli^ecr.— reported by Alfred nash, m. d. 

1. Much neglected. 

2. Sponge. 

3. Weekly. 

4. Not generally. 

7. Should be used generally. 

8. General bath. 

Mendon. — reported by h. c. Clapp, m. d. 

1. No systematic habit. In summer, young people bathe in the river and lakes 
• and older people improvise an occasional bath at liome. 

2. Hot, tepid, and cold. 

3. Hot very often. 

4. Not except when advised by physician. 

7. More frequent use advisable, and too much ignored by physicians, and callable 
. of much mischief in hands of empirics. 

8. Sponge-bath. 

9. Temperature to suit individual taste. 



BATHS AND BATHING. 12a 

Marquette.— iiy.vom:EJi by geo. j. nortiiuop, m. d. 

1. In warm season some use made of lake and river. 

2. About 30 homes have bath-rooms. 
5. One; reasonably well patronized. 

iV^0?-</iyt7Ze.— REPORTED BY JOHN M. SWIFT, M. D. 

2. Sponge and swimming baths. 

3. One to six times a week: average, twice. 

4. Not f^•equentlJ^ 

7. May be used too much; usually once in three or four days. 

8. Sponge, soft water, alkaline, comfortable tubs. 

9. Not to cool in summer or too warm in winter. 

N^orth Lansing.— RKFOTiTKD by o. Marshall, m. d. 

1. Once or twice weekly. Infants every other day at least. 

2. Very few bath-rooms; sponge-bath more common. 

Otsego. — REPORTED BY MILTON CHASE, M. D. 

1. Not frequent or general custom. 

2. A few have tubs. Rivers and lakes used in summer. 

3. Will not average one per month. 

4. Not much employed except at the public bath. 

5. One. 

6. Bath-tubs; water at temperature to suit; closed in cold weather. 
8. Tepid bath once a week. 

Ovid. — REPORTED BY O. B. CAMPBELL, M. D. 

1. Better class attend to bathing, but poorer class neglect it almost entirely. 

2. Warm bath. 

3. Once a week. 

7. Great importance to health. 



O^toica.— REPORTED BY 



1. In warm weather young males bathe often, and at the summer resorts the bath 
is used frequently. 

2. Sponge-bath. 

3. Once a week, average. 

5. One. 

6. Tubs for general bathing, hot and cold water. 

7. Once a week is sufficient and is valuable; too indiscriminate use is dangerous. 

8. Temperature to suit individuals; hot vapor from under blanket, patient on chair, 
and a heated stone placed in pail of water. 

9. Usually about 80° F. 

Otisville. — REPORTED BY A. "NV. NICHOLSON, M. D. 

1. No general custom. 

2. Warm or cold. 

7. I consider daily baths tend to prevent spreading of infectious diseases. Negli- 
gence must add to list of causes of sjjoradic and endemic disease. 

8. Tepid. 

9. Moderate temperature, nearly that of the air of the room. 

Port /S'aru'Zac— REPORTED BY J. M. loop, m. d. 

1. Very little used by people generall}^ 

2. Tepid. 

3. Twice a week. 

7. I believe it to be a healthful practice. 

8. Tepid salt water or alkaline bath, with brisk rubbing. 

9. The temperature to correspond relatively to the season; cooler in winter than 
in summer. 

iJoct/bn?.— REPORTED BY D. W. C. BURCH, M. D. 

1. People bathe pretty generally, particularly in warm weather. 

2, Warm and cold general baths. 



12G STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

•3. Large majority uot oftener than once a week. 
4. Occasionally only. 

7. Sponge-bath, at "least once a weelc. Twice a week may not be objectionable. 

8. Sponge-bath, tepid water. 

St. J^0SeJ5/^.— REPORTED BY R. F. STRATTON, M. D. 

1. As a matter of cleanliness. 

2. Tepid. 

3. Children daily to 2 years, then twice per week; adults once a week, 

4. Only in a few cases. 

7. I believe it developes the strength; well bathed children are better grown and 
are less likely to contract colds and contagious diseases. 

8. Sponge-baths for invalids; and general baths at temperature to suit, for well per- 
sons. 

Three liivers. — reported by c. W. backus, m. d., and l. s. stevexs, m. d. 

1. Custom same as through the villages in the State. 

2. Sponge-baths. 

3. Once a week. 

4. Two or three times a week, or as ordered by physicians. 

5. One. 

G. Six or eight bath-tubs; mineral water containing iron. Warm, hot and cold 
baths given. Hot baths 90° to 106° F., well patronized. 

7. Necessary for health. 

8. Warm baths. 

9. Temperature to meet season. 

Tlwrneville. — reported by john s. caulkiks, m. d. 

1. Quite limited, especially in cold weather. Lakes and rivers used by men and 
boj'S, in summer. 

2. Sponge-bath. 

7. Bathing is condusive to mental and physical health, and enables one to accom 
plish greater intellectual and physical work. 

8. Tepid general bath. 

State Prison, JacJcsoji.— -retorted by gen. wm. Humphrey, warden. 

The Warden reports under date of September 28, 1877: 

"Our bathing facilities are so limited and inconvenient that we can say but little 
of the matter at present. Bathing is, however, considered of so much importance by 
us that we are preparing an admirable bathing room for use of convicts, which we shall 
get in operation in October." 

Way7ie County Poor-house, 

"Bathing has not been practiced here with any system," the Superintendent 
writes, '-We have had no conveniences for it until now. The superintendents of the 
poor have just arranged a room, tub, and all the necessary apparatus, but have not as 
yet made any rule, but will probably require all inmates to bathe at stated times." 

Detroit House of Correction. 

The Superintendent reports as follows: " We use the bath for cleansing the body. 
All prisoners are required to bathe when received into the institution, and regularly 
once each week thereafter, while they remain." 

State Public School, Coldwater. 

"I have great faith in the hj^gienic value of bathing and cleanliness generally," 
writes the Superintendent. " Our children take a full bath each week, using abund- 
ance of water and good soap, and our health at most seasons of the year is almost 
perfect. At one time last winter and spring, for five mouths we did not have a single 
case of serious sickness. Morally, I do not think that a pure mind can for a long time 
dwell in a dirty body, and vice versa. I think cleanliness is reformatory in its tend- 
encies." 

In tho. Lapeer Count'j Poor House, the inmates reeieve a bath upon admission, and 
once each week, as I am informed by our correspondent in Lapeer city; a custom 
which, if followed by all the county asylums for tlie poor, would be followed by incal- 
■culable good to a class we are entirely unable to reach in any other way. 



I 



BATHS AND BATIIIXC;. 127 

;^^ICHIOA^ asylum I'OK THE Insane, ) 
Kalamazoo, Oct. 8, 1877. ) 

Du. IIkxuy F. Lysteu, Member State Board of Health: 

Deau Sir: — In repl}^ to your request, I would say briefly that the tepid bath is of 
general use in this Institution as a liygienic, rather than a therapeutic agency, ex- 
cept in a few rare Instances which will be hereafter specified. It is employed regu- 
larly with patients of all ages and in varying physical conditions, and together with 
proper ventilation and warming, good sewerage, drainage, etc., is a A'ahiable addi- 
tion to remedial measures, as well as a means of preventing disease. Those patients 
who have had access to bathing facilities at home are comparatively few, and among 
these, of course, we would not look for special results from regular S}'stematic bath- 
ing. The majority, however, have been unable, through lack of facilities, to pay 
much attention to this or other hygienic measures. Some have never bathed regu- 
larly, and scarcely at all during the winter season. Even among those who have 
attempted regular bathing, there has often been a lack of proper conveniences, so 
that the bath has of necessity been a hurried one, and no ettbrt lias been made to 
secure any modification of the temperature of the water beyond what would natur- 
ally occur from atmospheric influences. 

Among the insane, more than almost any other class of hospital patients, there is 
almost invariably found upon admission, a harsh, dry skin, a sallow complexion, a 
peculiar tallowy odor from the surface, and a general appearance of cutaneous innu- 
trition. Associated with this is constipation, scanty urinary secretion, little insensi- 
ble perspiration, inequality of the circulation, and headache, or more frequently a 
sense of weight and constriction at the vertex. The whole system sympatliises with 
the mental derangement, and scarcely a single function of the body is efficiently and 
properly performed. This condition is present, to some extent, in all forms of mental 
disease, but is more uniformly found in cases of melancholia, subacute mania, second- 
ary dementia, and the forms of paralysis; and in these the greatest benefit is found 
to result from systematic bathing. 

At the Asylum, all baths are given as far as practicable at the normal temperature 
of the body, with such deviations as the individual preference of the patient may 
dictate, some patients (the majority), desiring tlie bath very hot, and others asking 
mei'ely " to have the chill taken oft" the water." The period during which the body 
is immersed in the water is also left to the preference of the individual, care being 
taken that he is not exhausted by it. The whole surface of the body is covered with 
soap and scrxtbbed with a moderately stift' brush in the hands of an attendant, and 
absolute cleanliness is insisted upon. Under the systematic use of a bath of this 
character, very gratifying clianges occur. The harsh, dry skin disappears, the capil- 
lary circulation becomes active, the complexion clears uj), and the body is better 
nourished. The train of disturbances in the pliysical functions disappears, and the 
whole system is in a condition to appropriate and to assimilate food and medicine. 
The moral tone of the patient is also elevated, and he becomes self-respecting and 
observant of the proprieties of life. 

Among the indirect benefits resulting from bathing, may be mentioned a comjiara- 
tive freedom from bronchitis and pneumonia. This is due to tlie fact that the skin 
is kept constantly acting and the sj'Stem is not imduly sensitive to cold. It is also 
probable that digestive derangements are less severe from a similar cause. 
Although tlie matter, from tlie nature of the case, is not capable of demonstration, 
there is reason to suppose that the comparative immunity from tubercular disease 
among our patients is remotely connected with the fact that the process of elimina- 
tion by the skin is actively carried on. 

A few words upon our use of the bath as a therapeutic measure may not be out of 
place. In certain forms of acute maniacal excitement, characterized bj' a hot, dry 
skin, a flushed face and cold extremities, the prolonged administration of a hot bath 
frequently produces several hours of refreshing sleep. It simpij' acts by stimulating 
the action of the capillaries and equalizing the circulation. The same result is some- 
times obtained by applying cold to the head while the bodj- is immersed in a warm 
bath, but this is only admissible when a strong tendency to cerebral congestion 
exists. In feeble, exhausted persons much benefit is often obtained from sponging 
the bodj' with tepid water and afterwards using spirits witii friction until the 
cutaneous surface is thoroughly stimulated. 

The Turkish bath, which has been much praised in asylums in England and upon 
the Continent, has never been emplo3'ed here ; partly because the patients who seek 
the aid of the Asylum are uniformly feeble and broken down and seem unfitted for Its 
Jise, and partly because the experience of a similar asylum in an adjoining State 



128 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1S77 

showed that it was capable of doing great hanu. and of doubtful utilitj' even to the 
strong and comparatively healthy, 

I regret that I have so little leisure for writing, as there are several points in con- 
nection witli tbis subject upon which much more might be written. 1 have merely 
attempted to give you some account of our method of using baths. You will perceive 
tliat it has not even the merit of novelty; still, old as it is, Ave would not willingly 
discard it. ■ Very truly yours, 

GEO. C. PALMER, 

Ass't MecVl Sitpt. 

The following letter from the present Superintendent of the Wisconsin State 
Hospital for the Insane, the institution referred to in the foregoing communi- 
cation, does not condemn the Turkish bath as a remedial agent, but intimates 
that it has fallen into disuse rather from the fact that it was not applicable 
without considerable addition to the current expense. 

WiscoNSix State Hospital for the Insane, } 
Mendota, Octobeu 18, 1877. f 
Henry F. Lyster, M. D., Detroit: 

Dear Doctor: — A Turkish bath was fitted up here some years ago, and was used 
during one winter. No record was kept of the baths or results, that would be of any 
use to any one wanting reliable information. It was before mj' time here, I have, 
however, been told that some good was supposed to result from it. It was found, 
however, that to serve so large a number of patients as seemed to require it, would 
involve a number of extra employes to work the bath, making it in the end rather 
an expensive curative means, considering the result apparently secured. At all 
events, it lapsed into total disuse after a few months' trial, and has been dismantled 
and rendered difficult to refit, I have doubt of the successful use of Turkish baths, 
except in private hospitals where the}' have few patients and much money. I am not 
informed as to the use made of them in other hospitals. I know of none using them. 

Yours, 

D, F, BOUGHTOX. 

From the very interesting account, by the Ass't Superintendent of the 
Michigan Asylum, of the physical condition of the insane, and from our own 
extensive practical knowledge of the use of the Turkish bath among well and 
sick persons, we would be glad to see its more general introduction into the 
hospitals for the insane, as well as into all other hospitals. This view may be 
somewhat at variance with the present management of nearly all of our 
eleemosynary institutions ; but it is, Ave are confident, founded upon a just 
appreciation of the value of the hot-air bath. We Avill not pursue this mat- 
ter further, lest Ave enter upon a discussion of its extensive therapy, which 
Avould be out of place in this report. 

We annex a list of the more celebrated mineral springs of Michigan, the 
waters of Avhich are used internally by those frecpienting them. Some of them 
are very valuable as baths, notably the salt and sulphur spring.-, Avhile all are 
serviceable in certain forms of disease : 

Adrian. — Carb, lime, magnesia and iron, and sulphate of soda, {Mildbj chahjbeate.') 

Ann Arbor. — 1, Bi, carb. iron, lime, magnesia, free carbonic acid. {Mildhj chahjbeate.) 
2, Sulph. magnesia, lime, soda, potassa, 3, Chloride of sodium, magnesium, and 
sulphate of soda and potassa. 

Grand llapids. — Chloride of magnesium, potassium and sodium, and sulphate of lime. 
{Calcic, resembles Bath v:aters, Emj.) 

Eaton Eapids. — Carbonate of lime and sulphate of lime, and free carbonic acid, 

Leslie.— Csxi'h. lime and iron. {Mildbj chalybeate.) 

Htibbardston.—Cavb. lime. 

Fruilpnrt. — Chlor. sodium and calcium, and sulph. soda. {Ttesenibles Kreuznach, 
Pi'ussia.) 



BATHS AND BATHING. l29 

La7isin<j.— Chloride of sodium ; bicarbonates of lime, soda, magnesia, and iron; sul- 
phates of potash and soda. {Alkaline.) 

Mount Clemens. — Chloride sodium, mag., and calcium ; sulph. soda and magnesia, free 
sulphuretted hydrogen. {Salt sulphur bath.') 

Remarkable ibr strength of saline water, requires dilution in bath and for internal 
use. Sulphuretted hydrogen is in large quantity. 

Oivosso. — Carb. magnesia, sul. iron and lime. {Strongly Chalybeate.) 

St. Louis. — Carb. soda, mag., calc. and sulph. calc., and free carbonic acid. {Calcic.) 

Detroit Mineral Springs {Springwells). — Carb. calc, sulph. calc, sulph. mag., chloride 
sodium, sulphuretted hydrogen, carbonic acid. {Sulphur bath.) 

Ecmarkable for large amomit of sulphuretted hydrogen gas,G,999 grains, =19.02 
cubic inches, to gallon. 

A salt bath is also given at this spring, combined with the sulphur water. 

The workings of this board are strictly within the limits of preventive medi- 
cine, and it would be out of place in this connection to enter upon the very 
interesting province of the therapeutical value of baths or their adaptability to 
the cure of disease. Suffice it to say here that they are made use of at present 
among the people and by the medical profession more generally than they are 
as a hygienic measure by persons in health ; and we are happy to state that they 
are more and more appreciated each year in every respect. The general impres- 
sion derived from a review of this subject and from the replies received from 
the correspondents of this committee is that the regular and systematic use of the 
bath has not come into general appreciation, particulai'ly among the mechanics 
and farming people; that while tiie better educated and professional classes use 
the bath in moderation and for the purposes of cleanliness, but very few of 
these use it as a liygienic measure, to restore and invigorate the system. The 
masses of the people are, to say the least, very little accustomed to the general 
ablution of the body, — in other words, are not clean. 

The hard working man, by the persiDiration he induces, opens the pores of 
the skin and gives the body a general bath, and, provided he changed his linen 
frequently and rubbed the skin with a towel, would need the bath less than any 
one else upon physiological grounds, because he keeps the skin in an active 
and healthful condition by exercise ; yet there is no doubt but that he would be 
invigorated by a proper bath, would feel less tired after his work, would need 
less sleep, and could more easily accomplish his task. 

"As the twig is bent the tree is inclined." This bending process in the 
direction of the frequent and general use of the bath must come in Michigan 
from the proper education of the children in hygiene at the schools, inasmuch 
as Ave believe that they do not have the force of the example of their parents 
in these matters, at all as generally as the subject deserves. 

The beautiful form and figure of man, fashioned in the image of his 
Maker, should not be permitted to be defiled by uncleanliness, but it should be 
kept pure and polished by constant ablutions. The old Koman axiom " sana 
mens in corpore sano,'' "a sound mind in a sound body," is a true one; to 
endeavor to preserve it is one of our chief duties ; and to do this there is nothing 
more necessary than the proper and constant use of the bath in some form. 

That there is undoubtedly a moral aspect to this subject, no one will doubt 
who has thought deeply upon the great questions of how to elevate tlie lower 
classes up to the plane of appreciating the advantages opened up to them by 
the present general amelioration of the condition of those compelled to work 
with their hands for their daily bread. The State sets the example, in her 
public institutions, in her prisons, asylums, and schools, and in some of her 
county poorhouses. The bath comes immediately after the certificate of admis- 
17 



130 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

sion, and is repeated, according to the rules of the institution, with greater or 
less frequency. 

It is not so much in the nature of our government to provide for the people, 
as it is to enlighten them by general education so as to enable them to provide 
for themselves. The demand must exist and the supply will be forthcoming. 
We can hardly expect the State to provide and maintain public bath-houses; 
but the State sets the example of bathing those who are her immediate wards, 
and in doing this points out the way to the lesser corporations in her bounds. 
Where the number of people living together, as in cities, will warrant it, a tax 
could be very properly levied to erect a sufficient number of public baths, at 
which the small admittance fee charged would accommodate the laboring 
classes. In foreign countries, this is adopted with success. 

Trusting that this beginning of investigations upon the bath by this board 
will serve to call public attention to its importance, the committee respectfully 
submits this report. 



PERSISTENCE 



IN EFFORTS TO 



RESUSCITATE THE DROWNED. 



HOBERT O. KEDZIE, M:. T),, 



PRESIDENT OF THE 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH, 



And its Committee on Accidents and Special Sources of Danger to Lite and Hcaltli, 



PERSISTENCE IN EFFORTS TO RESUSCITATE 
THE DROWNED. 



BY R. C. KEDZIE, COMMITTEE ON ACCIDENTS AND SPECIAL SOURCES OF DANGER 

TO LIFE AND HEALTH. 



Three years ago this Board issued a bulletin for the treatment of the 
drowned. This bulletin has been widely distributed by this Board, and it has 
been republished by many papers in our State. It has been adopted by other 
State Boards of Health and by city Boards of Health. It has thus secured a 
wide dissemination in our country. How much good has thereby been secured, 
it is impossible for me to state ; but I have good reason to fear that life is often 
sacrificed lecause energetic efforts at resuscitation are ahancloned too soon. I 
desire once more to urge upon the public the duty of persistent efforts to resus- 
citate the droioned, and to repeat with emphasis one direction of the bulletin, 
"Do NOT GIVE UP TOO SOON; you are working for life. Any time within tico 
hours you may le on the very threshold of success without there being any sign 
of it." 

I know of no better way to impress upon the public the desirability of such 
persistent efforts and the criminality of neglecting them, than to give well 
authenticated cases which exhibit the benefit and success of such persistent 
efforts, even when many persons would say that all efforts are useless. The 
efforts which arc successful in restoring a human being to life certainly are not 
useless, and it is wicked to refuse or neglect to make such efforts unless the 
absolute certainty of death is established. It is not enough to say that the 
person a^ypears to be dead. Persons who gave no sigus of life for a long time 
after being taken out of the water have yet been brought to life by appropriate 
efforts. I most earnestly protest against treating the drowned as dead merely 
because they appear lifeless. I am fully persuaded that many such persons die 
because no adequate efforts are made for their recovery. Persons may swoon 
and for the time appear to be dead, but we do not assume that they are dead 
and leave them to their fate, but make energetic efforts to restore consciousness. 
No more should we assume the fact of death in the drowned, but should 
make like efforts to restore them to life. 



134 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1S77. 
CASES ILLUSTRATIXG THE BENEFIT OF PKOLO^sGED EFFORTS AT EESUSCITATIOX. 

I. Eev. A. Ten Brook, librarian of the State University, communicates the 
follo-\ving remarkable case in a letter to Dr. Baker, Sec. of this Board. "The 
■wife and daughter of Dr. Knfus W. Griswold were on the K. K. train which 
ran into the river at Norwalk, Ct., May C, 1853. Fifty-one persons were 
killed, and large numbers variously injured, so tliat the medical gentlemen 
Avere fully employed. Among the apparently hopeless cases was the young 
daughter (about 13 years old) of Dr. Griswold. Besides being apparently 
drowned, she had received severe bruises in the fall, and in the estimation of 
the physicians, showed no signs of life whatever. A stage-driver who desired 
to make himself useful, attempted her resuscitation, and persevered in the 
attempt without apparent success until the physicians laughed at him, asking 
him what he intended to do with 'that dead body.' The disaster occurred at 
a little before 11 o'clock a. m. It was late in the afternoon before any deci- 
sive signs of life appeared, — I think about 5 p. m., — and for several days she 
was in a comatose sleep, but she entirely recovered after a time." 

In this remarkable case the person showed no decisive signs of life for some 
six hours after being taken from the water, and yet Avas finally restored to life. 
Many persons will dismiss this case with the simple remark that "it is a very 
unusual case." It is unusual, mainly in the persistence of the stage-driver 
which even i^rovoked the laughter of the doctors. " Let him laugh that 
wins !" If a like persistence were exhibited in other cases of drowning, would 
not such "unusual cases," become more common? 

II. The following cases of resuscitation in cases of suspended animation are 
from the pen of a well known and highly respected sanitarian. Dr. Beech. 
The resuscitation of the person who liung himself, belongs to the same class as 
those strangled by water. It is a good example of successful treatment in a 
case usually regarded as hopeless. 

COLDWATER, MiCH., Sept. 16, 1877. 
R. C. Kedzie, M, D. : 

Dear Doctor, — Your communication, in which you ask for particulars of " cases of 
suspended animation in wliich resuscitation occurred after an unusually long period 
had elapsed, or after efforts had been abandoned," came to hand in due course of mail; 
but I have not been able to refresh my mind in regard to a very interesting case in 
point until this morning, — my informant, Mr. Ezra Card, having been absent when 
your letter was received. 

On the 4th of July, 1860, bj" the upsetting or sinking of a pleasure boat upon "Clear 
Lake," in Steuben Co., Ind., a number of persons were precipitated into the water about 
one-half a mile from the shore, and several were drowned. Among the apparently 
lifeless bodies taken from the lake was th:\t of ISIiss Mary Bryan, aged about 18 years, 
the daughter of a farmer of Scott township in said county. The usual efforts then 
known to the people were used to resuscitate, and. as my informant believes, as 
thoroughly as in other cases, successful and unsuccessful. The family residence was 
about five miles distant, and when hopes of her recover}^ were abandoned, the body 
Avas as quickly as possible put into the wagon (a common farm wagon without 
springs), and covered with blankets or shawls, and the friends started for home. The 
road Avas pretty rough, and the driver made as much haste as Avas decent Avith his 
mournful freight. They had proceeded about tAvo and one-quarter miles, Avhen signs of 
life Avere observed, and the young lady ultimatelj' recovered. The motion of the 
Avagon Avas believed to be the sole agent of resuscitation. 

The tenor of your theme induces me to send you a statement of a case of long sus- 
pended animation Avhich has never heretofore been recorded except in my account 
books, to wit: The. M., male, aged about 20 years, weighing about 160 lbs., an epilep- 
tic from childhood, in a fit of despondency hung liimself in his father's barn, in the 
tOAvn of Gaines, Orleans Co., N. Y., in 1847. He Avas discovered by his mother, sus- 






KESUSCITATION OF THE DROWNED. 135 

pendcd b.v tlie neck with the feet near the floor, or, perhaps, with the toes resting 
upon tlie floor, but bearing none of the weight of the body. The body was perfectly 
limp and face turgid. Her screams brought the father i'roui the house, which was 
10 or 12 rods distant, who, as he ran. got his pocket knife open, and severed the rope 
at a stroke. Some of the family screamed something about "the doctor," and a niau 
ploughing near the barn, threw the harness oft" one of his plough-horses, and as he 
passed the barn learned the essential fact, and rode to my house as fast as possible. 
The distance between the houses was a few feet over one mile. 1 was, at the moment, 
entirely disrobed, taking a bath, but heard the man tell to some of mv family that 
" The. M. had just hung himself." I called out, "Tell him to leave his horse for me, 
and get mine," and dressing as quickly as possible — mounted the farm-beast and raa 
her home.— having to rise a small hill. On arriving at the barn I could discover no 
signs of life. 

1 satisfied myself that the neck was not "broken," and throwing a silk handker- 
chief over the face proceeded to inflate the lungs from my own, alternately depress- 
ing the "chest." 

This having been continued until it seemed extravagant to hope for success, recall- 
ing to mind his hypercKmic diathesis, I ligated an arm, and opened a vein with a liberal 
sZrts/i of the tissues covering it. Only a drop or two of very dark and tliick blood 
followed. Setting the assistants to rubbing and squeezing the fore-arm, I returned 
to the work of artificial respiration. 

I think that I should not have tried to inflate the lungs again, when a person at 
work at the arm remarked "we can milk the blood out faster," and I saw that the 
forced jets were lighter colored. I then renewed the intlations two or three times, 
getting a "big chested" farmer to furnish the breath, whilst I manipulated the 
larynx. Having waited, after a strong inflation, what seemed to me a pretty long 
time before compressing the thorax. I was cheered by a slight inspiratory catch, and 
the exclamation from our Ilccmagogiie, "see how it runs." 

A gradual but perfect recovery followed. The epileptic seizures returned, and the 
suicidal mania, after several other failures, became triumphant two or three years 
after. 

The data from which time may be estimated must convince anj' one that the recov- 
ery was remarkable, and it excited no little wonder in the vicinity at the time. 

Besume.—A heavy man suspended by the neck by 'a rope in slip-noose, motionless 
and limp when discovered. At the alarm given, an old man runs 10 or 12 rods and 
cuts tlie rope; after this the harness stripped from a plough-horse, and the animal 
led 30 rods or more, a pair of bars and an unhandy large gate to open, — the animal 
run a full mile,— the doctor to dress, and ride the jaded beast the mile, up some sharp 
rising ground, dismount at the gate and run nearly 20 rods before the work of resus- 
citation was commenced. Already the bystanders were confident of entire death. 
The protracted and varied eflbrts seeming so futile and finally triumphing. 

After receiving the foregoing letter, I wrote to Dr. Beech for the particulars 
of anotlier case of resuscitation after the body had been a long time in the 
water, and received the following letter in reply : 

R. C. Kedzie, M. D,, etc., Lansing, Mich. : 

Dear Doctor, — 1 cannot just now And the exact date of the case of protracted 
drowning and resuscitation of the child alluded to in your last letter, but the circum- 
stances are so perfectl.y distinct in my memory that I do not hesitate to vouch for 
the facts, upon which any i)erson can make an approximate estimate of the 
asphyxiated condition. 

On an afternoon in summer (of, I think, 1845), Mrs. Nahum Anderson, of Gaines, 
Orleans Co., N. Y., gave to each of two children (a nephew about 4 years old, and her 
little daughter, about 3), a "fried-cake" which they commenced to eat. and ran out 
of the door, across a wide platform — as she supposed, into the garden. She tlien took 
her babe from another person,— sat down and nursed it until it went to sleep,— and 
laid it in the cradle. 

When the babe was put down, a sister of Mrs. A., who was there for an afternoon 
visit, said that her husband would be home from work by the time that she "could 
get home and get his tea," and asked that her little boy, aforementioned, be called. 
Mrs. Anderson went to the door and called to tlie children. Whilst waiting for tliem 
to come, she stepped out upon the platform, near the middle of wliich was the open- 
ing to a large cistern. Seeing the cistern lid balancing upon two corners, she re- 



136 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1S77. 

mai-ked. "How careless this cistern is left." Just then the little boy came near, and 
when asked '-Where is Phebe-Ann ?" answered, "She didn't come out." Mrs. A. 
touched the lid alluded to, with her toe, and as it poised downward, saw some pink 
calico in the water, and saying, "Here is Phebe-Ann's bonnet, now," coolly took up 
the long wooden hook used'for drawing -water and reached for the supposed bonnet, 
thinking that the girl had gone into the woodhouse, where there were other per- 
sons. Catching into the calico, she found it to be the apron, which was like the 
bonnet. Upon raising it, the sad fact appeared, and the hold of the hook slipped as 
the body came to the\surface of the water. The discovery— the slip of the hook — and 
a scream from the mother were simultaneous. The grandfather of the child, who 
was in the chamber nearly over the platform, heard the scream, — had to pass through 
rooms and down a long flight of stairs to the front of the house, then back through 
the hall and dining room to the platform, where the mother was ineffectually trying 
to raise tlie body with the hook. 

The old g'Mitleman jumped into the cistern and handed the body up. As it was 
lifted out, uie women called to a slow-witted and slow-motioned fellow who was at 
work in the wood-house, to "run for the doctor," and he set out for mj^ house, a half 
mile distant, with the apathetic pace of an imbecile. 

A neighbor across the road, who was ploughing full fort.v rods from the house, heard 
the outcries, and listened until he heard the word " doctor," and saw the man start, 
when he pulled the harness from one of his horses, and with the halter rode to my 
house. The footman had arrived before my open door, and had panted out, " Doc-t-o-r 
Be-e-c-h, Mister An-d-e-r-s-o-n-'s f-o-l-k-s" — when the neighbor rode up exclaiming, 
" For God's sake. Doctor, go to Mr. Anderson's quick as you can! Something dreadful 
has happened, and this fellow never can tell it.'' I — " Let me have that horse," and 
the doctor, in slippers, was soon astride. — with saddle-bags in front, — plying the 
halter's tail right and left, as far as the animal's home, whence, knowing the improb- 
ability of guiding farther with the halter, I slipped off" and had to run about 30 rods, 
crossing a brook-bridge, which was about six feet lower than Where I dismounted, and 
from which there was 10 or 12 feet rise to Mr. ^V.'s house. 

I found the grandfather holding the inanimate child, turning it alternately upon 
its face and its side. I immediately inflated the lungs from my own, and continued 
efforts at artificial respiration,— warm blankets, etc., to the body and limbs, — and bot- 
tles of hot water wherever thej' could be applied. The messengers had both returned 
on foot some time before we were rewarded by signs of life. But the tardy reward 
came: A quiver, a gasp, and finally independent respiration, but consciousness had 
not returned, when the breathing became slower, moaning, then stertorous. 

Whilst I, — then a young doctor, — was trying to collect my ideas to meet the new 
d.anger, the grandfather said, " Doctor, she is going to die noio of apoplexy." (To 
which the familj^ was predisposed.) The remark gave me a thought,— an anccmic 
brain and a conjested brain may produce similar s\auptonis. We had not warmed the 
head. AV'rapping it instant!}^ with a very hot flannel cloth, I continued to change for 
hotter as fast as they cooled until tlie stertor ceased and consciousness returned. 

My patient was feeble for a long time, but is married and has children, now "in 
their teens.*' The cake aforementioned was found in the cistern with only one bite 
taken out of it. 

The mother and friends tried repeatedly to compute the time, and became con- 
vinced that there was complete asphyxia more than 45 minutes, and that it was proba- 
bly nearer 55 minutes. The depth of the water in the cistern was equal to the full 
length of the child, and the distance fallen before striking its surface was about six 
feet. 

If tlic cases wiiich I have detailed interest yourself sufficiently to repay you for 
perusal, or contribute to the objects of your paper, I shall be gratified; and wishing 
the " State Board of Health," a full appreciation of its labors, 

I remain, very respectfully. 

Yours etc. 

Coldwater, Mich., October 6, 1877. ' J. H. BEECH, M. D. 

III. The following case of what may be called accidental recovery is fur- 
nished by J. W. King, of the Lansing Republican. In this case, as in the case 
of Miss Bryan, given by Dr. Beech, apparent deatli would have become real 
death but for the rough handling which promoted recovery : 

In the year 1855, in the town of Richland, Kalamazoo county, a son of a 
blacksmith named Blanchard, was drowned in a pond about 30 rods from his 



KESUSCITATION OF THE DKOWNED. 137 

father's house. The parents were away from home at the time. A younger 
brother saw him sink, ran to the house and alarmed Jiis sisters. The oldest 
girl, about 16 years of age, hastened to the pond, waded to the spot where her 
brother went down, recovered the body and carried it ashore. The drowned 
boy was about 12 years old, and she could not carry him to the house. The 
family had been in the habit of doing their weekly washing at this pond. A 
pounding-barrel was near at hand and she conceived the idea of putting the 
body in the barrel and rolling it to the house. With the aid of the other 
t3hildren she put the body in the barrel and rolled it to the house. When they 
reached the house they were surprised to find their supposed dead brother vom- 
iting, and he soon recovered his usual activity. 

IV. Mr. Andrew Bertch, of Lansing, gives the following illustration of the 
benefit of rough handling in recovering the drowned. The case came under 
his personal observation in Germany. A boy some 12 or 13 years old was 
skating on a pond when the ice broke, and the boy passed under the ice and 
sank to the bottom. Much time was consumed in ascertaining the position of 
the body, and when it was found a long time elapsed before the body was 
recovered, on account of the ice breaking under those who attempted the rescue. 
When taken out of the water the boy appeared to be entirely dead, — the long 
submersion in ice-cold water appeared to have blotted out the young life. The 
boy Avas so evidently dead that no efforts at resuscitation were made, but the 
peasant boy's companions proceeded to carry him home, a distance of more 
than two miles. In carrying him that distance the body very naturally received 
some rough handling, being hustled along as far as one set could carry him, 
then dropped by this set to be picked up and carried by another set of boys. 
As the result of this rough handling, by the time the boy reached home he 
began to vomit water very freely, and speedily recovered. He is still alive. 

Mr. Bertch gives another instance which occurred in the same neighbor- 
hood : 

A lad, the only son of wealthy parents, fell into a stream and was sub- 
merged for only a few minutes. The body was tenderly carried home and 
-carefully placed on a soft bed ; medical aid was speedily obtained, and the boy 
was gently and politely urged to return to life, but without success. Mr. 
'Bertch thinks that if the rich boy had received some such rough handling as 
the peasant boy received, the result might have been different. 

Numerous instances show that energetic treatment, what miglit be called 
Tough handling, is best adapted to recover a person in case of apparent drown- 
ing. Hood's touching sentiment — 

Take her up tenderly^ 
Lift, her xoith care — 

is very appropriate as a manifestation of the reverence due the human body, 
but this treatment is not well adapted to recover the drowned. It is better to 
postpone sentiment and poetry and betake ourselves in rough earnest to the task 
of restoring life ! 

V. Mr. Albert Gould, of Lansing, has furnished me the following suggestive 
statement of cases of resuscitation of persons apparently drowned. In Erie 
Co., N. Y., in June, 1863, a party of school boys went to a small pond ''to 
go in swimming." Tiie pond was usually so shallow that boys who could not 

-swim could safely play in the water, but a recent rain had increased the 
18 



188 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— KEPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877 

arnouut of water till it was about five feet deep. The boys did not observe 
this dan<^erous increase in the depth of tlie water, and two small boys who could 
not swim, undressed and plunged into the water and began to drown at once. 
A third boy, who could swim, plunged into the water to rescue the drowning 
boys, but he was at once seized by them and dragged beneath the surface, 
and the danger was imminent that all three would be drowned togetiier. The 
other school-boys raised a cry of alarm which was heard by Mr. Gould, as he 
was driving in the road some forty rods from the pond. He left his horse and 
ran to the pond where he found one boy still struggling in the water, one float- 
ing in the Avater, and one lying at the bottom, — these two apparently dead, 
Mr. Gould plunged into the water, threw out on the ground the boy that was 
struggling in the water, drew the floating body to the land, and then dove to 
the bottom and brought up the third boy. He threw the body of this appa- 
rently dead boy on his shoulder, the abdomen resting on his shoulder while the 
head and limbs hung down limp and lifeless. Gould then started on ilie 
rim for a house some forty rods away; the movements in violent running 
served to produce a kind of artificial respiration; also, to expel water from 
the lungs, and as he laid the body across the fence which he had to climb to 
reach the house, he saw the first sign of life in a feeble gasp for breatli. The 
boy was taken into the house and every appliance used for his restoration, but 
it was four hours before he was restored to consciousness. 

As soon as Mr. Gould had got this boy to the house, he ran back to the pond 
for the other boys. The boy first taken out had so far recovered that he 
required ]io other care and assistance than what the other boys could give; but 
the second boy taken out of the water still lay on the ground apparently life- 
less. Mr. Gould shouldered him in the same way and again started on a run 
for the house. When about half way to the house, water very freely gushed 
from the boy's mouth, he vomited freely, and speedily recovered. 

Any person who studies these cases will not fail to see that the rough jolting 
which the boys received while being carried on the shoulder of a man running 
violently, greatly promoted the recovery. If this accident had occurred near the 
house, and the bodies had been carefully lifted upon the bed, and the usual 
chafing and rubbing, the application of hot cloths to the feet, and the other 
customary exhibitions of aimless helplessness had been brought into play, these 
boys would probably have died ; while a little undesigned but most fortunate 
rough usage saved their lives. ''The kingdom of heaven suffereth violence." 
So far as the recovery of the drowned is concerned, " tlie violent take it hj 
forced' 

In 1874, Mr. Gould, with a gang of hands, was booming pine logs in Maple 
River. Some boys came to the river to play on the saw-logs. One of the boys 
Blipped into the river, was carried under the logs and soon sank to the bottom. 
Mr. Gould dove under the logs, seized the boy, brought him to the surface, 
climbed upon the logs, threw the boy across his left arm, the abdomen of the 
boy resting in the hollow of Gould's elbow, and then he jumped from log to 
log till he reached the shore. The concussion produced by these leaps caused 
a free escape of water from the lungs and restored respiration, so that the boy 
began to breathe before he reached the shore. 

I bring these cases before the public to show how dreadful and even fatal is 
the assumption, because a body i-emoved from the water appears dead, that death 
has really taken place. I fear that many in our State have died because 
energetic efforts at resuscitation were neglected because the body appeared dead. 



RESUSCITATIOX OF THE DROWNED. 139' 

Statements like the following too often meet my eye in the public prints : 
" Wlicu the body was taken from the water it showed no signs of life whatever, 
and the mourning friends tenderly conveyed the body to their stricken home."' 
Perhaps too tenderly ! 

It is not enough to assume because the patient does not kick or scream, 
or even gasp, that therefore he is dead. But from what I occasionally see iii 
the newspapers it would seem that even visible signs of life are not always suf- 
ficient to arouse the stupid bystanders to make effort to save the drowned. I 
insert without note, comment, or exclamation point, the following extract 
from the Detroit Free Press of July 19, 1877: 

**It seems strange that noted and crowded watering places are not better pro- 
vided Avith life-saving apparatus and proper medical aid, where hundreds are 
bathing every day — especially as nearly all those who seek the sea waves are- 
from inland cities, or at least have little experience with water. At Atlantic 
City two lives were lost recently, and from all accounts both might have been 
saved if proper appliances had been at hand, as tliey floated for nearly half 
an hour only a few rods from the shore; and even after being brougiit out of 
the water the astonishing statement is made that they showed signs of life for- 
an hour. But proper medical aid not being on hand, both perished." 

now XOT TO DEOWN. 

How to drown is an art that seems to be well understood and frequently prac- 
ticed the world over. How not to drown is an art not so well understood, 
and requires some notice at the hands of this Board. 

Drowning could be prevented if Ave could secure either of the following con- 
ditions : 1st, tliat everybody should know how to swim ; 2d, that nobody 
should ever go into the water. But as we cannot secure either of these condi- 
tions in the present order of things, we turn our attention to some means of 
reducing these accidents to their minimum of danger. 

Much good advice is often thrown away upon persons who find themselves 
suddenly thrown into the water: "keep cool;" "do not lose your presence of 
mind," etc. The conditions are very favorable to follow the first advice in 
a literal sense, for the water itself will assist one to get cool and to keeji so 
indefinitely ; but when a person is suddenly compelled to face death in an un- 
expected form, the advice to "preserve your presence of mind" is usually 
driven out of the mind by overwlielming terror, and the person too often be- 
comes absent minded in an awfully literal sense of the word. 

The solids and liquids of the body are all heavier than water, but the living- 
body, on account of the air in lungs, stomach, and bowels, is slightly lighter 
than water; and so long as these cavities remain filled with air, the body will 
float in Avater and a small part of the body can be kept above the water. While 
it is true that so long as the lungs, etc., are filled Avith air, the body is lighter 
than Avater, the difference in specific gravity is small, and only a small part of 
the body Avill float above water. What part Avill be above water depends upon 
the relative position of other parts of the body ; if the legs are flexed and the 
arms throAvn in front of the body, the centre of gravity is in the anterior por- 
tion of the body, and the top of the shoulders and back of the head only Avill 
be above Avatcr; the face being under the Avater, respiration Avill be impossible 
under such circumstances. But if the legs are straightened out and the arms 
thrown behind the body, the face Avill be brought above the water. In the 



140 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— EEPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

attempt to float, therefore, tlie legs should he straightened out, the head thrown 
hack, and the arms held behind the hody; the face -will then float above the 
■water so long as this position is maintained. If one part of the body is thrown 
out of the water, a corresponding amount of the body will be submerged ; if 
the arms are held out of the water, the head will go under. I remember the 
ease of a boy who thought he would greatly increase his power to swim by 
tying an inflated bladder to each foot, but when he entered the water he came 
near drowning, because his feet were kept out of the water but his head under 
water ; and he soon became practically convinced that it was important that his 
head rather than his heels should be in air. 

If the mouth and nose are kept above water, respiration may go on without 
interruption, and life may be sustained indefinitely under such circumstances. 
This may be secured in still water by merely floating with the face upward, 
everv other part of the body being kept constantly under water. But with 
verylittle exertion a person may do more than keep his nose above water, even 
if he is ignorant of the art of swimming. I have seen persons "tread water" 
by making the same movements with the legs as in walking up stairs, and thus 
keep the entire head out of water for a long time. If a person will add to this 
certain corresponding movements of the hands — in fact, maJce the same move- 
ments of loth arms and legs that he would in climbing a vertical ladder, but 
without lifting his arms out of the water and without closing his hands in the 
downward movement of the arm, he may keep his head out of the water even 
'when the waves are running high, and may keep from drowning for hours. 
Whenever a person finds himself in the water and in danger of drowning, let 
him assume as speedily as possible a vertical position and at once begin the 
:same movements as in climbing a vertical ladder — let him climb for life — and 
he will be surprised to find with what slight exertion he can keep his head 
above water ; let him be satisfied with this, for he may exhaust himself in 
vainly attempting more. 

The following communication by Dr. MacCormac of Belfast, to the Sanitary 
Record of July 13, 1877, on "Paddling the water as a means of avert- 
ing DROWNING," is inserted as imparting valuable information on this import- 
ant subject : 

"Already the fine season has been ushered in by a number of deaths, some 
•of them occurring in our very midst, from drowning. The means of safety, or 
i-elative safety, which I have to point out, are so very simple, and as I believe, 
so effective, that I am lost in wonder that no one has thought proper to insist 
upon them, as in the following remarks it is my intention to do. Swimming, 
•as ordinarily practised, is not the most sufficing means for escaping the dangers 
of the water. It needs some instruction to be able to swim, and practice to be 
able to swim well. No doubt it is desirable to swim and to swim well. But 
the great majority of persons of both sexes do not know how to swim at all. 
Yet unless people can swim, and swim Avell, — and even then they are not always 
successful, when the emergency comes, in preserving life, — swimming is, I am 
persuaded, not so effective a preservative as is conjoint paddling and treading 
water. As a rule, subject to few exceptions, persons precipitated into the water 
do not swim without previously learning. But paddling with the hands and 
treading with tiie feet require no prior instruction, and in the great majority 
of cases would save life. In swimming, the mouth is on a level with the water 
in the intervals of the strokes ; in paddling, the head is well elevated ; the 
'individual is able to look about; he can deliberate as to what is best to be done. 



KESUSCITATION OF THE DROWNED. 141 

and he is much less liable to take water into the larynx or glottis, a casualty wliich, 
I am persuaded, causes the destruction of many. Without prejudice to the art of 
swimming, I would have children exercise in household tanks from the tenderest 
age, in the act of paddling and treading water, so as to impart the confidence 
which unreasoning dread tends to lessen or take away when one is suddenly 
immersed, in an unusual medium. The animal, the quadruped, begins to pad- 
dle at once when cast into water, but as man does not habitually employ the 
anterior limbs as organs of locomotion, reason must tell him that he may, if 
he pleases, employ them as organs of locomotion in the water. Just as readily 
as any fourfooted animal. To be sure a man has not the habit of using his 
hands and arms for locomotion, as the brute has, but otherwise how much 
more available is the paddle-shaped hand than a lioof or a paw. Again, the 
man with little or no instruction, by throwing his head well back, can float and 
rest at pleasure, a thing of which the brute has no conception Avhatever.'' 

"Of course, a little preliminary habitude is desirable, but without any pre- 
liminary habitude or instruction whatever, there is nothing to hinder man, 
woman, and child, were they unable, in common parlance, to swim a stroke, 
from beating water with the hands and feet, just as the lower animals do, and 
so keep themselves afloat for a protracted period, a period that in a multitude 
of instances would be found sufficient to invite rescue and preserve life. The 
action of the feet down will sustain the body. The action of the hands down 
will do so ; ii fortiori, the action of both will prove yet more efi:ective. I have 
tried myself; one alone, or both together, — nay, with a single hand only, — in 
bygone years, I am sure, hundreds of times. There is no occasion for fuss or 
bustle. The body, taken as a whole, is actually lighter than water, bulk for 
bulk, and a very moderate amount of paddling with feet and hands, will be 
found perfectly adequate to sustain and guide its movements. In fact, so long 
as the individual paddles, as I here direct, he cannot sink. A horse, or dog, 
or cow, or cat, or swine, when immersed in water, begins instantly to paddle, 
and that without any prior instruction or exercise whatever. Now, a man, or 
woman, or child has only to do as the inferior animal does, and he, she, or it 
will float necessarily and inevitably. The place being otherwise safe and boats 
at hand, boats' and ships' crews, a regiment of soldiers, schools, and the like 
might jump into deep water and paddle themselves into security without risk 
or failure. In this, as in many other things, man is too often unaware of his 
own immense capacities." 

"Animals not habituated to the water, will often take to it spontaneously, 
or, if cast into it, sustain themselves for indefinite periods. A horse, during- 
disembarkation in Portugal, fell into the sea and paddled about the harbor for 
a matter of six hours before it was secured. Washed or thrown overboard, the 
lower animals have been known to float for a long time. 1 knew of a mule, 
which, having been washed overboard in the Bay of Bl'^cay, paddled itself 
itself ashore, and then crossed country a couple of hundred miles to its pre- 
vious quarters. The staff-surgeon in charge told me that, after leaving the 
Peninsula, the horses of the troop had to be thrown overboard in order to 
lighten the ship in a gale. The poor things, when they found themselves 
abandoned, faced around, and, so long as the ship commanded a view, were 
seen to battle with the wrack and wash for miles. A man on the coast of Lin- 
colnshire, mounted on a gray mare or other horse, used to swim seaward to 
vessels in distress, and thus rescued many lives. Recently, nigh Brooklyn, U. 
S., a dog took the water and paddled, it is said, forty niiles in search of his 



142 STATE BOARD OF HEALTPI— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

master. Dogs often gain the shore when ships and their cre^ys have been lost. 
Some years ago a dog landed at the Cape of Grood Hope, with a letter in iiis 
mouth. The vessel to which he belonged had gone down with all hands; but 
if the men had paddled as the dog paddled, all their lives might have been 
preserved. Indeed, I know for certain that formerly it was the i:»ractice at the 
■(Jape for men to paddle out, it was termed "treading water," and bear com- 
munications to and from vessels in the offing, where no boat could live. It 
was, and I believe is still, the case at Madras, similarly. Natives at the island 
of loanna, in the Mozambique Channel, treading water, come out, bearing 
fruit on their heads to the vessels, miles distant. The young people in the 
islands of the Pacific, breast the gigantic breakers out of mere sport. The 
Indians of the Upper Missouri traverse the impetuous current, invariably 
paddling and treading water." 

'^Sliort instructions for paddling and treading water ought to be posted up 
in all schools, barracks, and bathing places; wherever, in short, people have 
to do with the sea or with masses of water. It should be shown how easy it is, 
with a little well-directed effort, to preserve life, and how the yearly and calani- 
tious destruction which besets our shores might, now, and happily for all time 
to come, be effectively stayed." 

One precaution is necessary for a person who is paddling and treading water, 
to avoid strangling; when cold water is suddenly dashed in the face, an auto- 
matic or involuntary inspiratory effort or ** catching the breath" is caused, and 
if the face at the instant is covered with water, strangulation from drawing 
water into the lungs is the result. When waves are dashing in his face, the 
person must guard himself against this spasmodic inspiration by holding his 
breath at such times, or he may even grasp his nose and close his mouth with, 
one hand and thus prevent the possibility of strangulation. 

State Agricultural College, October 8, 1877 



THE WATER SUPPLY 

Of Ijocalities in M!ich.igan, 

AND ITS 

EELATIONS TO HEALTH AND DISEASE, 

IN SOME OP THE 

Townships, Cities, akd Villages throughout the State; 

BEING RErLIES BY 

KE:aULA.R COHHESFONDENTS 

OF THE 

STATE BOARD OF HEALTH, 

TO ITS 

CIRCULAR No. 7. 



Arranged for publication by the Secretary of the Board- 



THE WATER-SUPPLY OF LOCALITIES 
IN MICHIGAN. 



Ill tlie Sanitary Survey of a State, the collection of facts relating to the 
Water-Supply in different parts of the State, is now recognized as of importance. 
The collection of such facts respecting the W'ater-Supply in this State, begun 
in 1875, has been continued. The circular which in October, 1875, was issued 
by this Board was replied to by quite a number of the regular correspondents ; 
and such replies, received np to November, 1S7G, have been published in the 
Annual Reports of this Board for the years 1875 and 1876. Since the publica- 
tion of the last Report, the Board has secured quite a number of new corres- 
pondents ; and many of them have kindly sent in replies to the circular which 
asked for facts relating to the Water-Supply. This makes it possible for the 
Board to continue to place on record information on this subject. It is hoped 
that in this way the statements may eventually be so complete as to give a very 
satisfactory view of the State as a whole, and also enable one to form a useful 
idea of the special conditions in any part of the State. 

No compilation has 3'et been attempted, but it is thought that there are now, 
or soon will be, sufficient data collected to enable one, by carefully compiling 
the answers to the several questions in the circular, to make quite a nimiber of 
useful general statements. 

In this Report, as heretofore, tlie replies by correspondents are published in 
the order in which they were received and liled. The circular is also printed, 
because the questions are not repeated in the replies, but are only referred to by 
number. II. B. B., Sec. 



[7.] CIRCULAR TO CORRESPONDENTS RELATIVE TO WATER-SUPPLY. 



Office op the State Boaud of Health, / 
Lansing, Michigan. j" 

To the Correspondents of the State Board of Health : 

Gentlemen: — Dr. Arthur Hazlewood of Grand Rapids, a committee of this Board 

ou " Food, drinks, aiul water-supply," desires to collect information relative to the 

19 



14G STATE BOARD OF HEALTH-REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1S77. 

water-supply throughout this State. Will you have the kindness to send, as soon as 
convenient, to the central office of this Board at Lansing, your responses to the fol- 
lowing questions? In your reply it will not be necessary to repeat the questions, 
but simply to refer to them by number. 

1. Are you located in a city, village, or in the country? 

2. From what source is the chief water-supply of your cit}"-, village, or locality? 

3. What relation does the Mater-supply sustain to the drainage and to the sewerage 

of your own or of some neighboring city, village, or locality? 

4. If there is close relation Avith sewerage, of what does the sewage consist? 

5. If the water is taken from a stream, what is the rapidity and direction of the 

current; is it constant in direction; if not, what affects it, and what are the 
usual conditions? 
G. From what distance is the Mater brought ? 

7. In what kind of conduit? 

8. To what extent is it accumulated in settling or other reservoirs? 

9. Is any process for filtering or purifying used, besides reservoir settling? 

10. What is the average amount of water flowing into receiving reservoirs each day? 

11. What is the average amount of water consumed each day? 

12. How many gallons daily to each inhabitant ? 

13. To what extent is water from artesian wells used? 

14. To what extent is cistern water used? 

15. Is it filtered before storing? 

16. Is it filtered before use ? 

17. Of what material are the cisterns constructed? 

18. To what extent is spring or well water used? 

19. In that part of your citj', or in localities where well-water is used, what is the 

character of the soil? 

20. What is the usual depth of the wells ? 

21. What strata of earth are passed through? 

22. State, if you can, in what direction the strata dip? 

23. State, if you can, the nature of the stratum which underlies and maintains the 

water in the wells? 

24. What is the usual distance betAveen the well and the nearest privy? 

25. What is the usual distance between the Avell and the nearest cesspool? 

26. Please give details of any cases of marked exception within the distance named 
• in answer to last two questions? 

27. Are the water-works, cisterns, springs, or wells so located and constructed that 

there is no danger that the water therefrom may be subject to sewage, cess- 
pool, or other contamination? 

28. Has the water supplied bj^ Avater-works, cisterns, si^rings, or wells been ofiensive 

in taste or odor at any time? If so, at what time, and what Avas the cause? 

29. Have any analyses of water in your locality been lately made? Please send 

results of all analyses. 



WATER- SITPLY OF LOCALITIES IN MICHIGAN. 147 

30. Except wliere results of analyses are sent, please state j'our opinion of the qual- 

ity of the water from the water-works, wells, cisterns, artesian wells, etc. Ls 
it clear or turbid; does it probabl}' contain organic matter in dangerous fornri 
or amount ; is it hard or soft ? 

31. Wliat have you observed as to the contamination of water 1)}' decomposition of 

wood, pipes, pumps, curbing, etc., at or near the surface? 

32. What, as to lead or other metal derived from pipes or vessels with which the 

water has been in contact? 

33. What have you observed as to the influence of rainfall, freshets, or drought upon 

the purity or healthfulness of the water-supply? 

34. What relation between the water-supply of any of the inhabitants, and the grave- 

yards of your locality? 

35. Please give details of any cases of sickness which have occurred which could be 

fairly attributed to drinking impure water, or to its use for other purposes? 
3G. Please give a statement of any apparent influence, due to quality of water used, 
upon cases of epidemic or other diseases originating froui other causes? 
After sending in your response, please preserve this circular, as a memorandum of 
some of the points connected with this subject upon which this Board desires to hear 
from you hereafter, whenever yon have anything of interest on the subject to com- 
municate. 

By direction of the State Board of Health. 

Very respectfully, 

HENRY B. BAKER, 

Secretary. 

KEPLIES liY J. W. FAI.LEY, M. I)., OF HILl.SDALE, MICH. 

Secretary of the State Board of Health : 

Dear Sik: — I send replies to the questions in your circular, as nearly as 1 am able 
to do.* 

1. City,— Hillsdale. 

2. For culinar}'' purposes and drink, from wells. The St. Joseph River runs through 
the city, — originally a marsh some 25 rods wide, now nearly flUed and built on. 
The land ou eitlier side rises to 40 or 50 feet. 

3. The St. Joseph River rises in, or is the outlet of Baubeese Lake, about one 
mile east of the cit3'. All drainage is into the river. 

4. Stone gutters at sides of streets. 

5. Flows steadily north-west. 

G. We have one flowing fount. The water is brought three-quarters of a mile from 
a spring on a hill, in iron pipes. Good. 

7. As above. 

8. No settling reservoirs. Have some 10 cisterns, at difterent points, holding from 
one to two thousand bbls. each. 

0. Know of none. 

10. Have a windmill well on highest ground, and pipes from one cistern to several 
of the others. Some are filled from public buildings, or from the river with engines. 

11, 12. Do not know. 

13. We drilled two, 1.000 feet each, and got stuck in each one. We use one, :\. public 
pump, and the otlier for the windmill. 

* The flfrures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 7, printed on pages 146-7 of 
tliis Report. 



148 STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH— KEPOKT OF SECIIETARY, 1877. 

14. Everywhere for Avashing, etc. 

15, 16. Not much, I think. 

17. Common cement; either walled with brick or plastered on to the dirt. 

18. For culinary and drinking purposes, except by those who use from the fountain. 

19. South-west of the St. Joseph Kiver the soil is gravel with some clay. Five or 
six feet [below surface ?] we find shale sandstone. That increases, so that some of the 
cellars have rock bottoms. From that down it is sandstone for, 1 think, about 40 
feet. Tliere is a break in the geological formation at the river. On the north- 
east side the soil is gravel. Wells usually 40 or 45 feet in gravel. I had one that 
depth (45 feet), for 22 years. Then a man 30 rods away and far below me (30 feet) 
tapped my vein, and dried my well, in April four years ago. I bored 15 feet through 
blue clay and struck a streak of gravel, put in an iron pump with filter on end, and 
have had plenty of water (60 feet). Two wells have been driven (iron pipe) in the 
center of marsh near the river; at 30 and 32 feet they struck gravel, and got cold, 
pure water. 

20. On the flat, either side the marsh, 15 and 20 feet gives water not cold or good, 
surface water; 30 to 40 feet gives good water. Other places vary from 40 to 80 feet. 

21. On the south-west side, where the holes were bored, the first, about 40 feet, was 
sandstone. Then for 1400 feet we had a kind of soft slate, with an occasional stratum 
of a few feet of much harder rock. The concerns stopped in a slate as soft as clay. 
"VVe did not know enough to tube, and so lost our holes. 

22. North-east. 

23. Gravel on north-east side. Found in the seams of the rock on the south-west side. 

24. I think it will average five rods; in some cases, less. 

25. We don't keep the article. 

26. One, in the rear of Underwood's block; privies for four stores and tenants above, 
well about four rods and down hill from the privies. The water maybe good, but 
I will not drink from it. When the rock lies in broken strata, as it does here, where 
a stream may go rods without passing through scarcely any earth, I am suspicious of 
wells anywhere near privies. My oftice is on the same side of the river, and I seldom 
drink until I get home, except at our public well, which is ten rods from any privy. 
At our county house, where we average at least 70 persons the year around, we have 
three privies. A few years ago 1 had them built without vaults, open on back side, 
and every week or two have the contents drawn away and buried. Of all stinks, an 
old privy is the least refreshing. 

27. It is— or they are. 

28. I am not aware that it has; 

29. Not any. 

30. Clear and good— hard. Lime, so as slightly to coat kettles. 

31. Very little ; all -vvells stoned or bricked. Mostly iron pumps. 

32. Little lead piping used, except in cisterns. Iron pumps. Though I consider 
the water from them healthful, often medicinal — on account of the iron held in the 
water — yet I think it well to pump a pailful first and throw it away, if the pump is 
not quite often used. 

33. In our place it has little effect. 

34. The cemeteries are sulhciently away, and harmless at present. 

35. I can recall only one case, where there were five cases of typhoid fever in one 
family, extending over five months of time. The well was shallow and near the barn. 
That was six miles in the country. 

36. Some years ago the condition of the flat along the St. Joseph, and a milldam 
were supposed to have a vast deal to do with sickness (malarial); but that has 
passed awaj' — I mean the nuisance — and the sickness is not. 

Tlius 1 have imperfectly answered the interrogatories. 

Most respectfully yours. 
Hillsdale, Nov. 2, 1S76. J. W. FALLEY. 

KEPLIES SENT liY DWIGIIT NIMS, M. D., OP JACKSON, MICH. 

Answers to questions in circular of October, 1875, so far as the}'' relate to water- 
works : * 

2. From artesian wells; 30 feet drift, 170 feet sandstone. 

10. Two six-inch wells are available for from 1,000,000 to 1,250,000 gallons per day. 

11. 600,000 gallons. 

* The flaturcs beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 7, printed on pages llG-7 of 
this Report. 



WATER-SUPPLY OF LOCALITIES IX MICIIIGAX. 149 

12. Popul.ation, 15,000. 

27. Contamination impossible. 

29. Chloride of sodium, 4.GS52 grs.; sulphate soda, 1.2370; carb. lime, 8.2503; carb. 
mao^nesia, 3.2499; alumina and oxide of iron, .129G; silica, .8417; free carbonic acid, 
3.G659; traces of nitric and phosphoric acid, ammonia and potassa. 

33. Free carbonic acid acts so readily upon iron that now no new service pijies are 
permitted to be laid except of lead,* or coated iron pipe. 

CYRUS H. FOUXTAIX, 

Jackson, Mich., Xov. 1, 2577. Superintendent of Public Works. 

REPLIES BY JOHN S. CAULKINS, M. D., OF TIIOUNVILLE, MICH. 

Secretary State Board of Health : 

Dear Sir:— Circular 7 was received to-day, and below please find my replies to 
its queries.t 

1. In a small village. 

2. The drinking-water is mostly supplied by wells. There are some running 
springs, and a few cisterns. The Summers for five years past have been dry, and some 
families, in consequence of the failure of their wells, have been compelled to use river- 
water. 

3. 4. The surface of the country is rolling, and there is no drainage but surface 
drainage. With that, the water supply has no necessary relation. In many cases, 
M'ells not properly cared for are polluted by surface water. 

5 to 13. . 

14. Cistern water is used by only a few families for drinking and culinary purposes. 
It is used by those that have cisterns, for washing. The countrj' is not very well 
supplied with cisterns, and the large troughs that serve as substitutes for them, are 
excellent places to breed mosquitoes in. 

15, 16. No filters. 

17. Of water-lime mortar, plastered on the bank of earth. 

18. Almost entirely. 

19. Sand and gravel mostly; clay in some places. 

20. From 20 to 40 feet. There are a few very deep wells in one locality, 90 to 100 
feet or more. 

21. After passing the surface soil, — 10 to 15 feet of hardpan, a gravelly claj', that 
needs no curbing, — then sand and gravel that will not stand without curbing. 

22. Tliere is no dip. 

23. The water is reached in the sand, either quicksand, or in what the well-diggers 
call water-sand. There is no clay or other stratum of hard nature that underlies and 
maintains the water in the wells. It seems to stand at a certain depth or level in 
the earth. 

24. 25, 26. Not often very near. Perhaps five rods or even more, but there are 
some marked exceptions. In one case a well has been dug about 18 or 20 feet from 
the spot where an old privy stood for years, and where its accumulations still lie 
covered. 

27. In such cases as the above, tliere must be danger of contamination. 

28. It is often the case that the water in the wells is oftensive to smell and taste. 
This is especially the case with the deep Avells referred to in answer '"20," and with 
all wells where water is found in clay, as it is a little to tlie eastward on the timbered 
land. This, in the case of the deep wells, may be owing to their neglected condition. 
All open wells, especially curbed ones, need frequent cleaning out. Deep wells seldom 
get it, on account of greater expense and risk to life. 

It sometimes happens that angleworms get entrance into a well, and by death and 
decaj'- in it, make the water oft"ensive, if the well is not frequently cleaned. 

In some other cases in which tlie water remains oflensive after repeated cleanings, 
it is probable that there is some small animal dead among the stoning. Rats, mice, 
snakes, lizards, toads, or frogs are liable to fall into a well from the top, if it be not 
properly secured, and (if not killed by the fall or drowned, in which case they will 
be drawn up in the bucket) clamber among the stones and die there; or it may be, in 
the case of very shallow wells, that they have runways through the loose stones 
down to the water to get drink, and happening to die near the water's edge, infect it 
for a long time. 

* [Lead pipe sliouUl never be used for this purpose, because of danger from lead poisoninsr. 

IL B. B., Sec. S. B. of H.] 
t The flgiu-es beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 7, printed on pages 146-7 of 
this Report. 



150 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH -REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

The safeguard against these clangers is to so construct the well that nothing can 
get into it. Lay the top of the wall below the depth that angleworms work, in mor- 
tar, and build the platform in such a way that no snakes, frogs, or mice can get under 
it. Let the frame be of sound oak timber 4x8, well bedded in gravel; cover with two 
layers of pine boards running the same way, breaking joints and securely nailed, and 
with a good inclination to shed off the spilled water. A well so constructed, and 
sufhciently raised above the general surface to ward off the Spring freshets, is as safe 
against the intrusion of organic matter as an open well can be. 

The danger of poisoning the water by fungi growing on the curbing is one that 
we are obliged to run, as long as we use open wells. Such a -svell can be built, in this 
vicinity, only with curbing, and the tub that gives the depth of water, must be in 
part above the surface of the water, or otherwise the quicksand will run into it, and 
the well will go dry. This has been abundantly proved by experience. Our only 
course is to keep all organic matter out of the well-water, except what arises from 
the decay of the curbing, and hope that no fungi will grow.* 

29. No analysis has been made. 

30. The water is clear, hard, and generally good. 

31. I have observed that tlie tubing of pumps (which is generally of basswood or 
whitewood), after standing in the well a few years, becomes covered with a black, 
filthy slime, which, one would think, must be quite the reverse of wholesome. 

32. Have observed nothing. Lead pipes are used with iron pumps, and their effects 
on the health of families using them is a subject worthy of studJ^ I will in the 
future give it attention. 

33. Properly secured wells on the "openings" are not aflected by the freshets; on the 
timbered lands they frequently fill up with muddy water. Observations are wanting 
concerning the salubrity of muddy water. No observations concerning the influence 
of drought on the healthfulness of the water-supply. 

34. None. 

35. Have no details; but two families living on the place referred to in answer "26'- 
have had an unusual amount of sickness, consisting of obstinate intermittents and 
reniittents, diphtheria, aiul one case of tj'phoid fever. 

36. No observations. 

Thornville, 3Iich., Nov. 11, 1S7G. JOHN S. CAULKINS. 

REPLIES BY A. W. AI.VOUL), M, D,, OF CLINTON, MICH. 

Replies to Circular 7, t 

1. Village. 

2. Wells and cisterns. 

3. None. 

4. . 

5,6,7,13. None. 

14. A few families. 

15. Yes. 

16. Yes. 

17. Brick and water-lime. 

18. Universallj\ 

19. Gravel — loam. 

20. 18 to 25 feet. 

21. First, gravel for 4 or 6 feet; next, coarse sand 3 to S feet, the lower part a 
quicksand; then a blue clay stratum 2 to 6 feet thick. 

22. To the south-east, 

23. Blue clav, 

24. 20 to 60 feet. 

25. About the same, sometimes nearer, 

26. One German family living in Bridgewater, a few miles iiorth, had a cow-pen 
and pig-sty 13 feet, bv actual mesaurement. from the well from which the family used 
constantly. On the 6th day of June, 1876, I was called to visit a boy of eleven, 
who had been sick two weeks already, I carried him tlirough four weeks of typhoid 
fever. In the midst of this sickness an older sister, 18 years of age, was attacked, and 
then another, and another, until father, mother, and every one of their eight children 

* [ Would it not be safer to curb the wells with earthen pipe, or make tube wells? 

H. B. 15., Sec. S. B. of IT.] 
t The fijTures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 7, printed on pages 116-7 of 
this He port. 



WATER-SUPPLY OF LOCALITIES IN MICHIGAN. 101 

succiuiibed to :i malignant type of this fearful disease. All ten of them had true 
typhoid fever. Three of them died, the mother, one girl 18, and another girl of 7. 
For two mouths every member of the family was sick abed.* 

27. Not always. 

28. Some have, at times, from lack of use. 

29. No. 

30. Very clear of organic material; clear and not very hard or soft— medium. 
31,.*}2. Nothing. 

33. Kaiufall has less to do with the supply here than elsewhere. 

34. None. 

35. I might give details of other cases aflected by impure water; the above is the 
most marked under my observation. 

36. Cannot. 

Respectfull}', 
Clinton, Mich., Nov. 13, 1876. A. W. ALVORD. 

REPLIES BY E. N. DUNDASS, M. D., OF LUI)IX(JTOX. .MICH. 

State Board of Health: 

Gentlemen: — I will proceed to answer your questions as follows: t 

1. Reside in a small city. 

2. Well-water. 

3. No relation. 

4. 5. No. 

6. Eighteen feet below sui-face. 

7. Galvanized iron. 

8. No. 

9. Filter pumps. 

10. 11. No. 

12. No way of estimating. 

13. 14. No. 
15,10,17. . 

18. To the fullest extent. 

19. Principally sand; occasionally gravel. 

20. From IS to 40 feet. 

21. 22, 23. . 

24. In parts of the city that are crowded, 30 to 40 feet. 

25. No cesspools. 

26. . > 

27. No chance for contamination. 

28. Water inodorous and tasteless. 

29. No analysis. 

30. Water clear and soft. 

31. Water offensive to taste and smell. 

32. No lead pipes u%ed. Galvanized iron, after long use, contaminates the water 
witli iron. 

33. Not subject to any effect by freshets or drought, in this vicinity. 

34. 35. No. 

3G. Never observed any influence on diseases by the use of water. 
By preserving this circular, something of importance may come up in the future 
that may afford more light on the subject under consideration. 

Your ob"t servant, 
LudiiKjton, Mich., Nov. 15, 1S7G. E. N. DUNDASS. 

replies by C. v. BEEBE, M. D., of OVID, MICH. 

Dear Sir: — In compliance with your request, I herewith enclose answers to the 
questions regarding water-supply, t 

1. Village. 

2. Wells, mostly; two or three springs. 
18. Wholly. 

* [For further arcount of this family and its unsanitary surroundinjis, see in index, '-rainier, 
D. W., Clerk of Bridgewater township," Washtenaw Co.," for reference to page in lirst part of this 
Vol.1 

t The ligures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 7, printed on pages 146-7 of 
this Report. 



152 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

19. Coarse gravel. Sand and gravel. 

20. Fourteen feet. 

21. Sand and gravel, and coai'se gravel. 

22. I think towards the east. 

23. Coarse gravel. 

24. Two to three rods. 

25. Ten to fifteen feet. 

26. Some (a few) are particular to carry slops and the like two or three rods from 
the well. 

27. More or less danger. 

28. Yes, during summer; rats and fi-ogs the cause. 

29. The water from two or three wells upon the farms of H. B. and Wallace Glea- 
son was sent to Lansing in the fore part of the season for analysis. Did not learn 
the result. Doubtless you know already. Several of the two families were taken 
suddenly i!l,audthe cause was attributed to the well-water. Thought to look the 
matter up soon. These parties live about 2^^ or 3 miles north of Ovid. 

30. Water clear; does not contain organic matter in large quantities. Our wells 
are all curbed, as the gravel is so loose that the M'ells will cave before they can be 
stoned. 

31. Nothing wortli mentioning. 

32. Nothing. 

33. Xo difterenee here. 

34. Some families live within 10 or 15 rods of the cemetery. 

35. Nothing, except cases already referred to. 

36. Have not observed any. 

You will find these answers approximately' correct. Did not have time to canvass 
the whole town. 

Verv respectfully yours, 
Otid, Mich., Nov. 14, 1876. " C. V. BEEBE, M. D. 

REPLIES BY W. WOUSFOLD, M. D., OF AUGUSTA, MICH. 

Secretar[i State Board of Health: 

Dear Sir: — In answer to circular 7, relative to water-supply, 1 would say that 
the water supply of this village is drawn exckisively from wells; that the character 
of the water is in every way good. 

Answers to interrogations of circular; * 

1. In a village. 

2. From wells, exclusively. 

3. Xone. 

13. Xo artesian well here. 

14. Xo instance of cistern-water being used. 

19. Soil is sandy and gravelly. 

20. L^sual depth of wells, 20 to 25 feet; some, in higher part of the village, run as 
deep as from 35 to 48 feet ; on the fiat, some are, on the contrary, only 15 or 16 feet. 

21. The strata are composed of sand and gravel. 

22. Strata dip in a direction south and south-east, toward the Kalamazoo river. 

23. The stratum underlying the well-bottom is of gravel, 

24. Distance of privies from wells, from 30 to 70 feet ; do not think there is anj"- well 
supplying house more than 70 feet from privy, nor less than 30 feet. 

27. There are one or two instances only where contamination would appear likely 
to occur from the relative positions of out-houses and wells. These I have noted 
for future observation. 

29. Xo analysis of water has been made. 

30. The water is good, clear, and I think, from its action upon iron tubing, contains 
some free carbonic acid. 

Yours very respectfully, 
Augusta, Mich., Xov. 20, 1876. W, WORSFOLD. 

* The figures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 7, printed on pages 146-7 of 
this Report. 



WATER-SUPPLY OF LOCALITIES IX MICHIGAX. 153 

REPLIES OF A. P. DRAKE, M, D., OF HASTINGS, MICH. 

Secretary of State Board of JleaUh : 

Dear Sir: — Below you will find answers made to the best of my information, to 
circular 7:* 

1. Citv. 

2. Weils. 

3. 4. Surface drainage, but good. 

5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, IG, 17. No. 

15. Universally. 

19. Clay and sandy loam. 

20. From 15 to 50 feet, according to heiglit above river-bed. 

21. Clay and sand. 

22. Towards the river, generally north-east. 

23. Fine and coarse gravel. 

24. From 30 to 100 feet. 

25. Can't sav. 

26. 27, 28, 29. No. 

30. Clear. No. Hard. 

31, 32, 33. Nothing deleterious. 

34. Thirty rods or moi-e. 

35. At the jail, a few years ago, there was evident drainage from the cesspool to the 
well, and several cases of sickness in the family were attributed to using the water 
from the well. A new well was dug at a considerable distance away from the old well, 
the cesspool was filled up, and a new one formed farther away,since which time tliere 
has been no unusual sickness at that place. The soil was of light sand. 

3G. No. 

Respectfully Amours, 
Hastings, Ilich., Dec. 4, 1S76. ' A. P. DRAKE. 

REPLIES BY E. N. PALMER, M. D., OP BROOKLYX, MICH. 

Water-supply of the village of Brooklyn and vicinitv. * 

1. Village. 

2. AVells. 

3. A close relation to drainage ; with but few exceptions, no relation to sewerage. 

14. But two or three families use cistern water. 

16. Is filtered before use. 

17. Brick or stone. 

15. Almost entirely. 

19. Sandy loam from 8 to 22 feet: then claj% yellow or blue, with thin strata of 
gravel occasionally. 

20. From ten to sixty feet. 

21. Sandy or gravelly loam, 8 to 22 feet ; then clay with a six-inch stratum of gravel 
•about midwaj^ for the next 30 feet ; then sand rock. 

22. North, north-east. 

23. Rock (sandstone). 

24. From forty feet to ten rods. 

25. From forty feet to ten rods, with one exception known, in which the distance is 
ivithin 15 feet. 

26. Sink within one foot of the outer edge of well, with 16 feet of wooden pipe, 
-with no cavity for conduit; slop soaking into the ground about 3 feet from surface. 

27. They are not. 

28. Yes: generally after spring freshets. 

29. No. 

30. The quality is good, except as per answer "28." A majority of the wells are not 
dug below the clay stratum, consequently they are filled only by surface drainage or 
leakage; but owing to soaking tlirough sanchj soil the water in a great measure is 
purified, altliough after spring rains the water in most of the wells will be within 
six feet of the top of the ground. There is probably not much organic matter con- 
tained therein. The water is always hard. 

31. 32. Nothing. 

33. The water is purer in dry times. 

* Tlie figures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 7, printed on pages 116-7 of 
this Report. 

20 



154 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— ItEPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

.'}4. Ill the Oiise mentioned in answer " 26" two of the family have died of tubercu- 
lous disease before tlie a<je of "20, and they have ni ore or less sickness in tlie family 
most of the time. The family look more like the dwellers of underground rooms in 
cities than like the robust dwellers in a healthy village. 

35. In one familj', cerebro-spinal meningitis and diphtheria were caused by drink- 
ing water from a well in the barnyard, where the water was nearly of the color of 
wine. At least the family have been free from all diseases since discontinuing the 
use of this water (two years and over). Previously to that time sickness was prevalent 
in the family most of the year, 

3G. My experience has been that impure water has a depressing or devitalizing 
effect in all diseases either epidemic or otherwise; that those persons in the habit 
of drinking impure water are in a condition to take on disease more readily, have the 
disease with greater intensity, and recover more slowly; and that fatal results more 
frequently follow. 

I wish to say in conclusion that, thinking it my duty to prevent as well as to 
treat disease, I have endeavored to educate the families in my charge as much as pos- 
sible in hygienic measures, and will mention the case of one family who had been 
afflicted -with typhoid fever and diphtheria yearlj' from the time thej' moved into 
the house until three years ago, since which time none of the family has required 
any niedical treatment worth mentioning. From February each year to June or 
July there would be, and is now, from six inches to three feet of water in the cellar. 
Their well is about eight feet from a neighbor's cesspool. They now put in the cel- 
lar, monthly, 1 lb. of sulphate of iron and J^ lb. of chlorinated lime; in the well, 
monthly, one ounce of sulphate of iron. * 

I find upon inquiry that families living tliere before were generally sickly, typhoid 
fever being quite frequent. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Brooklyn, Jackson Co.. Mich. E. N. PALMER, M. D. 

RKPI.IES 15Y K. 1'. STRATTOX, M. I)., OF ST. JOSEPH, MICH. 

Secretary Slate Board of Health : 

Dear Sir: — Please find below my statement in regard to tiie water-supply of this 
town, t 

1. Village. 

2. "Wells and cisterns. 

3. Wells and cisterns contaminated by the sewage and drainage of the town. 

4. Drains to sinks and cellars passing near wells. 

14. Largelj'. 

15, 16. No. 

17. Brick and cement. 

IS. Altogether for cooking and drinking. 

10. Sandy loam. 

20. Fifteen feet. 

21. F'irst,sand: then clav. 

22. North. 

23. Ohij. Some six deep wells (80 feet) go to the level of the lake, into beach 
sand. 

24. Fifty-five to seventy-five feet. 

25. Twentj^ to forty feet. 

26. Privy 15 feet from well; privj'. a vault, and never emptied; many such eases. 

27. No. 

28. Yes. In the Spring, by high water and general surface drainage. In the Sum- 
mer the water is warm from" the little depth. 

29. No. 

30. Except these deep wells, which give excellent water, they all contain organic 
matter (in my opinion) dangerous in form and amount. 

33. Answered in "•2S."' 

35, 36. The water is generally believed to contribute largely to the bilious and 
malarial fevers so prevalent in this locality. 

Respectfully vours, etc., 
St. Joseph, Mich.. Dec. IG, 1876. ' R. F. STRATTON, M. D. 

* [Would it not be better to drain or fll[ the cellar, and also secure pure water, or move from 
such an unhealthy location? H. B. B., Sec'i/.] 

t The figures bcsinuinjj paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 7, printed on pages U6-7 of 
this Report. 



AVATEH-SrPPLY OF LOCALITIES IN iMlCIIIGAX. 155 

REPLIKS nV W. V. MASON,* HEALTH OFFICKU OK BEUIilliK ir^I'iaNGS, MICH. 
Secretary State Board of ITealth : 

Sir: — I have the honor to give a.nswei"S to questions in circuhir No. 7, from your 
office : t 

1. Incorporated village of Berrien Springs, Berrien Co., Michigan. 

2. Wells. 

14. Not at all for drinking purposes. 

18. Wholly. 

19. Generally black loam. 

20. Twenty feet, average. 

21. Black loam, two to three feet; clay hardpan about two feet; gravel ten to 
eighteen feet; yellow clay two to three feet; blue clay four to eight feet; afterwards, 
sand. 

22. Easterly, toward St. Joseph river. 

24. None less than 40 feet; generally further. 

25. No cesspools. 

27. No danger. 

28. No. 

30. Clear and hard— otherwise pure. 
34. Cemetery 1}^ miles distant. 

Eemarks.— Have no trouble with reference to supply or quality of water, and in 
my opinion, no diseases result from its use in this village. 

Very respectfully yours, 
Berrien Springs, Mich., Nov. 20, 1S76. W. F. MASON, M. D. 

REPLIES BY GEO. J. NORTHROP, M. IX, OF MARQUETTE. 

To the Secretary of the State Board of Health: 
Dear Sir :— In reply to Circular No. 7, relating to our water-supplj-, I have to say :t 

1. City. 

2. Lake Superior. 

3. No complete system of sewerage, but what sewage we have and all the surface 
water enter the lake. 

G. Supposed to be taken from deep water in the open lake. 

7. Wooden. 

8. No reservoirs. 

9. No. 

11. Said to be 200,000 gallons. 

12. Don't know. 

13. None. 

14. I think some. 

15. KJ. I think not. 

17. I suppose, of wood. 
IS. About one-third. 

19. Sand everywhere. 

20. Varies from 40 to 90 feet. 

21. Sand. 

22. I think none. 

23. Sand and gravel. 

24. 25. 2G. I cannot tell. 

27. I think not. 

28. Lake water, good. I tton't know as to the cisterns or wells. 

29. The analysis made in July, ]S74 is the latest— that approximate only: "me- 
chanical and floating matter, 1-14 gr. to a gall.; matter in solution. 4.28 grs. to a 
gall." 

31, 32. The water pipes are of iron. The wells arc curbed with wood. 
33, 34, 35, 3G. None known. 

Yours respectfully, 
Marquette, Mich., Jan. S, 1577, GEO. J. NORTHROP. 

* Not a regular corresponilcnt, but kiudlv contributes these replies. 

t The flgrures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 7, printed on pages UG-7 of 
this Report. 



156 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— KEPOKT OF SECEETAEY, 1S77. 

UEPLIES BY C. L. CHAMBERLIX, M. D., OF CANOXSBURG, MICH. 

Secretary of the State Board of Health: 

Sir :— 

1. I am located iu the village of Cannonsburg, Mich, * 

2. Entirely from wells and natural springs. 

3. Not any. 

11. Don't know. 

12. Don't know. It is free, and we use it as much as we please. 

14. Only for washing and cleansing purposes. 

15, 16. No. 

17. A few are made of brick or stones and plastered with water-lime, but generally 
the cement is put on the earth. 

IS. Almost exclusively, except for washing. 

19. Generally a gravelly loam with clay subsoil. 

20. From 16 to 25 feet. 

21. Usually sand or gravel. 

22. Can't say. 

23. Usually gravel. 

24. Seventy-five feet. 

27. Yes. 

28, 29. Xo. 

30. Very clear; hard; think it does not contain organic matter in dangerous quan- 
tities. 

31, 32, Nothing. 

33. Our land is so rolling that freshets do not affect our wells. 

34. Graveyard 80 rods from nearest well. 

Eespectfully yours, 
Cannonshimj, Mich., Jan. 26, 1S77. C. L. CHAMBEELIN, M. D. 

REPLIES BY yy. B. SOUTHARD, M. D., OP KALAMAZOO, MICH. 

Dear Sir:— Eeply to Circular No. 7.* 

1. Village of Kalamazoo. 

2. From wells, principally. About three-tenths of the families use water supplied 
by the Holly Avater-works, taken from a well having cement wall and water in the 
well 25 feet deep. "Water said to be very pure, having been analyzed ([ think by 
Prof. Kedzie). The larger part of the wells are bricked up and from 18 to 22 feet in 
depth. 

3. No system of sewerage. Within the last five years much has been done in sur- 
face-drainage by grading the streets. 

14. Not at all 

18, There are a number of springs along the border of the marsh skirting the south 
and eastern parts of the village, 

19, Alluvium surface with hardpan subsoil and gravel beneath. 

20. 18 to 22 feet. 

24, 25, Wells are often found within fifteen to twenty feet of privies, but gener- 
ally are from 30 to 40 feet distant. 

26. Would refer to report of cases heretofore reported to State Board of Health.t 

27. I believe that many of our wells are affected more or less by contamination 
from vaults. 

28. Water supplied by water-works is excellent. In some instances, well-water does 
not seem good, 

30. Clear and hard. 

31. In one instance, M'here I had two cases of typhoid fever, I was looking after the 
water and found a spring about six feet below the surface, curbed, with platform and 
pump. Upon removing the platform, I found a large quantity of decaying fungi on 
the curbing. Attributed the illness to the impure water. 

32. Iron pipes only are used by water-works, and have no appreciable effect upon the 
water. 

* The figures beginning paragrajjhs refer to questions in Circular 7, printed on pages 14&-7 of 
this Report. 

t [For cases referred to, see the Third Annual Report of this Board, pages 68-69; also, in index 
of this volume, "Replies to Circular lo, Relative to Prevailing Diseases of 1876, bv W. B. Southard, 
M. D., Kalamazoo." H. B. B., Hec'i/.] 



WATER-SUPPLY OF LOCALITIES IN MICTIIGAX. 157 

33, Does not affect the wells directlj', only as the soil becomes saturated or Lhy: 
have observed no particular difference. 

35. Would refer to cases heretofore reported.* 

Very respectfully, 
Kalamazoo, llich., Feb. 5, 1S77. W. B. SOUTHAED, M. D. 

REPLIES BY D. W. C. BURCH, M. D., OP ROCKFORD, MICH. 

Secretary State Board of Health : 
Dear Sir: — Answers to questions in Circular 7: t 

1. Village. 

2. Springs and wells (principally drive-wells). 

3. None. 

14. Only occasionally. 

15, 16. No. 

17. Water-lime. 

18. Almost entirely. 

19. Gravel, quicksand, and clay; mostly gravel. 

20. Twenty feet, average. 

21. Sand, clay, and loam. 

23. Clay, I think. 

24. Twenty feet. 

25. Ten feet. 

27. Yes; wells in many instances are liable to contamination from privies. 
30. Generally clear. 

34. None; we are all right there. 

35, None, except what has been reported in a communication relative to diphtheria. + 

36. Same as 35, 

We have no sewerage; our village is situated on a gentle slope of ground on Eogue 
River, giving us a splendid surface-drainage, and a gravel soil for under-drainage. 

Respectfully yours, 

Eockfonl, Mich., Feb. 17, 1877. D. W. C. BURCH. 

REPLIES BY A. W. NICHOLSOX, M. D., OF OTISVILLE, MICH. 

To the Secretary of the ^lichiyan State Board of Health : 
I respectfully submit the following replies to Circular 7, water-supply : t 

1. Village. 

2. Mostly wells. 

3. Sustain little relation. 
4-13. Do not apply. 

13. Not at all for domestic purposes. 

14. To no extent. 
15-18. Do not applJ^ 

18. Well-water for all culinary purposes. 

19. Loam, resting on a stratum of blue clay. 

20. From 15 to 80 feet. 

21. Sand or loam, blue clay, gravel. 

22. West. 

23. Blue clay to the depth of about 77 feet, — below that, gravel. 

24. One hundred to two hundred feet. 

25. No cesspools that require consideration. 

26. No cases. 

27. Danger slight at present. 

28. No cases observed. 

29. None lately made. 

* [For cases referred to, see the Third Annual Report of this Board, pasres 68-69; also, in index of 
this volume, "Replies to Circular 15, Relative to Prevailing Diseases of 1876, by W. B. Southard, M. 
D., Kalamazoo." IL B. B., 8ec'y_.'\ 

t The figures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 7, printed on pages 1-16-7 of 
this Report. 

% [For cases referred to, see iu index of this volume, "Burch, M. D., D. "W. C, letter relative to 
diphtheria." IL B. B., -Sec'y.] 



158 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

30. Water hard and generally clear. Alkalinitj' in some cases quite marked. 

31, 32. Xo observations. 

33. Well-water sometimes affected by surface water after heavj'- rain falls. 

34. No close relation. 
3."). N'o cases. 

36. The above replies refer to this village and to the well-settled districts adjoin- 
ino-. In the sparsely settled portions, surface water is principally used, which circum- 
stance often seems to increase malarial and other disorders in said districts. 

Yours, very respectfullr, 

Otisville, Mich., April 20, 1877. A. W. NICHOLSOX, M. D. 

REPLIES BY E. A. CHAPMAX, M. D., OF WALLED LAKE, MICH. 

Secretary of State Board of Health: 

Dear Sir:— Enclosed please find answers to such questions of Circular No. 7 as this 
locality will furnish data for. * 

1. I am located at Walled Lake, a country village situated between the townships 
of Novi and Commerce, Oakland count3^ 

2. Mostly from wells and cisterns. 

3. Comparativelv no relation. 

4. 5, 6, 7, S, 9, 10, 11, 12. Not applicable here. 

13. No artesian well here. 

14. Only for washing. 

15. 16. No. 

17. Water-lime cement, on walls of stone or brick. 
IS. Exclusively, for drinking and culinary purposes. 
10. Sand and clay. 

20. From 15 to 60 feet ; average about 30. 

21. Clay (j-ellow and blue), sand, and gravel. 

22. Mostly south and south-east. 

23. Principally claj', gravel occasionally. 

24. 20 to 75 feet. 

25. Cesspools not common here. 

26. Have observed none. 

27. The danger, if anj', is very slight. 

28. It has not to my knowledge, except from rats or other animals having fallen 
into it. 

29. No. 

30. It is clear; does not contain organic impui'ities in dangerous amount; is hard. 

31. 32. Nothing. 

33. Have not observed that either of the conditions named affected the supply 
unfavorably. 

34. Cemetery is located on a sandy elevation of ground, one-quarter of a mile south- 
west of AV^alled Lake village. The ground from it slopes south-east, and drainage is in 
that direction. T'here is one well in use, about four rods north of it; but it never has 
been apparently afiected from it. 

35. There has been no such case. 

36. There has been none. 

Respectfully j^ours, 
r^^alled Lake, Mich., April 30, 1877. E. A. CHAPMAN. 

REPLIES BY E. V. CHASE, 31. D., OF ELSIE, MICH. 

Secretary State Board of Health : 

In replj' to the questions asked in Circular 7, concerning water-supply, I would 
say : * 

1. Elsie is a village without a charter. 

2. From wells and cisterns. 

3. None. 

13. There are no artesian wells. 

14. For washing, onlv. 
15,16. No. 

♦ The figures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 7, printed on pages 146-7 of 
this Report. 



WATK -SIPPLY OF LOCAMTI KS IX MKIHGAN. 159 

17. "VVatoi-Iimc ;ind saiul. 

IS. \Vcll-\vatoi- is usclI entirely, for t-ookiiig and drinking. 

]!). Sand and day. 

20. From ten to tlilrty feet. 

21. Sand, tlrst; then anilxture of sand and clay; then :i liner grained sand, after which 
either (luioksand or quicksand and gravel, in wliich the water is found. 

22. Stnitli from center of ridge to Baker's creek, and north to Curtis's creek. 

23. The stratum that underlies the water is composed of hlue cla}', sand, and small 
stones. 

24. From 50 to 75 feet. 

25. About the same distance, but usually much farthei-. 

28. In the fall of 1870, the water in the wells seemed to be loaded with a substance 
that seemed to cause a great deal of sickness. This Fall an epidemic dysentery broke 
out among the people, that we attributed to the vitiated water. 

29. Noiie. 

31. Not particularity. 

32. There are no lead pipes used except in cisterns, and from them the water is not 
used for drinking. 

34. The cemetery is in ratlier too close proximity to the village, but I think it does 
not aftect the wells surrounding it. 

35. Mone. 

3G. In the Fall of 1870, during the epidemic, we were obliged to order the patients 
not to use the water until it had been somewhat purified by boiling. 

Yours, verv iridv, 
Elsie. Mich., July 20, 1577. " " E. V. CHASE. 

RE1>LIES BY D. C. HOLLET, D.\. 1)., OF A'ERXON, MICH. 

Answers to Circular relative to water-supply of village of Vernon and vicinity, 
Shiawassee count\% 3Iich. * 

1. A small village of 600 or 700 inhabitants. 

2. Exclusively from wells, by far the largest proportion being what are called 
drive-wells. Among the farmers, many use w'ater from open or stoned up wells. 

3. So far as 1 have been able to observe, the drive-wells are quite free from any 
possible contamination from slop, sewerage, privies, or cesspools. But with open 
wells it is strikingly otherwise. One family in particular, for manj- years used water 
for household and drinking purposes from an open well. They suftered, while so doing, 
from typhoid fever, severe chronic diarrhea, etc.. etc. Afterwards, they substituted 
a drive-well, and the surviving members are enjoying good health. The well in ques- 
tion was situated close under the caves of the house and received, as a matter of 
course, the surface washing during rains and melting of snows. Several other farmers' 
families with similarly situated wells have had a similar experience. 

Nothing appertaining to Nos. 4, 5, G,7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 1^, 15, IG, or 17, 

IS, Weils, either open or drive, exclusively. 

19, 20, 21. The land in this section of Michigan is heavily timbered; the soil is 
largely alluvial drift; about three feet below'this a heavj-- argillaceous subsoil is 
found; after i)a5siug through 6 to 10 feet of yellow clay we enter what in common 
parlance is known as blue clay, usually of about the same depth, G to 10 feet, so that 
we might say the usual depth of wells ranges from 20 to 30 feet. 

22. The general dip of strata is to the north-east. 

23. After passing the blue clay, at a depth varying from 18 to 30 feet, we enter the 
water-bearing stratum of coaise gravel, from 2 to G feet in thickness, subsequently 
tinding clay formations. 

24. From" 30 to 50 feet generally; often in much closer proximitj% 

25. Very often putrid and foul water fslops of the house) arc found in the immedi- 
ate vicinitj' of open wells, and must necessarilj^ drain, to a greater or less extent, 
into them. 

2G. It has been a common observation with me, especially in rural districts, to note 
the connection between impure well-water and the prevalence of typhoid fever, 
typho-malarial fever, and fevers of a low grade generally. More especially was this 
the case when the country was newer. 

27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32. Nothing. 

33. Nothing of note. 

34, 35. There are two graveyards within the environs of this village. The priniitiye 
graveyard, now disused and removed, was originally the only cemetery of this part 

* The fipruvcs lje;^iniuiis paragraplis refer to (luestiou.-i in Civcular 7, i)rinteil on pajccs 14(>-T of 
this Report. 



IGO STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

of the township and was tlie only place of interment for a lar^e extent of country; 
but it was discontinued in the spring of 18G1, and all the bodies and remains that 
could be found were removed. This plat of ground occupied about one acre right 
in the centre of the village as it now stands. The Congregational church has 
since been built on part of the plat, the balance is unoccupied. But the village com- 
menced its existence with the coming through of the D, & M. Railway, in the j'ear 
1856, and soon a number of dwellings were erected and inhabited on all sides of this 
plat of ground, this plat of ground being as high, or perliaps a little higher than 
any other part of the village. Immediately upon the removal of the graveyard. 
Deacon J. Wilkinson purchased a lot at tlie north-east corner adjoining this ground 
and proceeded to erect a dwelling and barn. The barn was built" first, in which the 
familj^ lived first whilst the house was being erected; at the same time an open well 
was dug within 30 feet of the old graveyard. This well supplied the family with 
water for culinarj' and drinking purposes. Within three months Mrs. W., aged about 
60 years, sickened and died with tj'phoid fever. There may be no connection in this 
case between the well-water and the fever; but the lady had lived for 25 years on a 
farm within three-fourths of a mile of the village, had suflered, as usual with early 
pioneers, from our common malarial fevers endemic to the locality. Again, Mrs. 
Pinuej% living on the west side of the graveyard plat, used water from an open well 
dug about 50 feet from the plat, sickened and died with typhoid fever in the Autumn 
of 1865. Subsequently, in the Autumn of 1870, a family from the country moved into 
the house on the same lot where Mrs. Wilkinson died; the lady of tlie household soon 
sickened and suffered for a long time with some form of low fever, probably typhoid; 
but she was not under my care, and I could not learn the facts in the case. The 
woman recovered and the family moved out. A family of seven persons occupied the 
house subsequently. The family did not use the water from this well, but obtained 
their water-supply from neighboring wells. During the succeeding Winter a child of 
two years of age sickened and died of pneumonia; in the Autumn succeeding, the 
mother and a little boy of 12 years, two little girls, aged respectively 6 and 8 years, 
all had typhoid fever; the woman and little boy, both, were grave cases; all recov- 
ered. The well, though disused, was situated under the piazza on the south-west part 
of the dwelling, within 20 feet of old graveyard; it was not filled up, but covered up 
with loose boards, and was evidently a source of blood poisoning in these cases. 
Again tlie occupants of this house were changed; the new comers were a man, his 
wife, two children, and two old people, aged respectivel}' about GO and 65. The first 
Summer, 1874, the child, aged 2 3rears, sickened with cholera infantum, and after a long 
illness died. The following Winter, the grandmother had a long fit of sickness. In 
irregular hands, but ultimatelj^ recovered. So much for the medical history of this 
dwelling. In August, 1875, Mrs. Handy, living in a house close adjoining this old 
cemetery, near the north-west corner, living within 30 feet, and using water from a 
drive-well situated equall}' in proximitj', sickened and died with typhoid fever, her 
sickness lasting about three weeks. I should liave mentioned before, that in the 
Autumn of 1874, a man by the name of Cuminings, living about twenty rods south of 
the plat, and using water from shallow drive-wells, sickened and died with typhoid 
fever; the house where he lived was situated on ground some ten or twelve feet 
below the ridge where the old grave J^ard had formerly been. 

The new cemetery stands on the highest ground adjoining the village on the north- 
west. About 30 rods south of the cemetery and parallel with it, and ])erliaps 10 or 15 
rods below, is a little run through which flows quite a stream of water in times of 
freshets. Running south from the cemetery are two streets upon which, between the 
run and the groimds, are about one dozen dwellings. In the Autumn of 1875 there 
occurred four cases of typhoid fever, three of which were of great gravity, one ter- 
minating fatally. The water used by these families was obtained from drive-wells 
adjoining the houses. Tlie man whose case terminated fatally complained that the 
water tasted badly; to use his own words, '• that it must be drainings of some cat-hole;'''' 
yet it was from a drive-well situated about twenty rods from tlie cemetery and per- 
haps ten feet below it. 

The other three cases used water from the same well, l)ut all recovered. These 
detailed cases of typhoid fever are nearly all the cases that have ever occurred in the 
village, from its commencement as a town. 

I would not be understood as positively stating the connection as cause and eft'ect 
between the water used and the fever, but to my'own mind the evidence is strong in 
that direction. I have given the facts in the premises and leave others to form their 
own conclusions. 

Yours truly. 

Vernon, Shiawassee Co.. Mich. D. C. HOELEY, M. D. 



WATER-SUPPLY OF LOCALITIES IN MICHIGAN. 161 

REPLIES BY ROBERT STEPHENSON, M. D., OP ADRIAN, MICH. 

Secretary of the Micliirjan State Board of Health : 

Eespoiise to Circular 7, water-supply : * 

1. Adrian city, 230 feet above lake Erie. 

2. Wells. 

lo. Have no artesian wells. 

14. Used by a few. 
]ri,lG. Yes. 

17. Stone or brick, plastered with water-lime. 

15. Well-water, almost entirely. 

19. Sandy loam. 

20. About thirty feet. 

21. Sandy loam, claj^, fine white sand, coarse gravel closely packed so that no water 
penetrates through; again, fine white sand, through which the water flows. 

22. Towards tbe south-east. 

24. Thirty to fifty feet. 

25. Thirty to forty feet. 

27. Most of tliem are. 

28. No. 

29. I know of no analysis being made of the usual drinking-water. The following 
is an analysis of water from a so-called mineral spring: 

Specific Gravity, G0° Farenheit, 1.0023. 



Grains ppr GaL 

Bicarbonate of Magnesia 1.36 

Bicarbonate of Iron 1.73 

Silica, Alumina 2.50 

Organic matter 2.00 

Loss 53 



Grains per Gal. 

Sulphate of Potassa.. 35 

Sulphate of Soda 4.20 

Chloride of Sodium 1.63 

Chloride of Calcium .45 

Pliosphate of Soda .97 

Bicarbonate of Lime 12.60 

Total constituents, per gallon: 

Bicarbonates 15.69 i Chlorides 2.10 

Sulphates 4.55 | 

Free Carbonic Acid, 4 cubic inches. 

The above analysis was made by Dr. Samuel P. Duffleld. 

30. Hard and clear. 

31, 32. Nothing. 

33. Nothing particular. 

Yours respectfully, 
Adrian, Mich., Aug., 1877. EOBT. STEPHENSON, M. D. 

REPLIES BY C. \V. BACKUS, M. D., OP THREE RIVERS, MICH. 

Secretary State Board of Health : 

Sir: — Enclosed find replies to questions on water-supply:* 

1. Village, incorporated. 

2. Wells. 

3. Surface drainage. 

18. Well-water altogether. 

19. Sandy soil and sandy loam. 

20. Twenty to tMentj'-eight feet. 

21. Sand and gravel. 

23. Sand or coarser gravel. 

24. Five to six rods; in many places, eight rods. 

25. One to three rods. 

27. Many wells are located too close to cesspools; in my opinion the water will 
become contaminated in this kind of soil. 

28. None. 

29. No. Never any to my knowledge. 

30. Water very good; clear at all times, and very hard. Do not think it contains 

* The figures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circuhir 7, printed on pages 14fi-7 of 
this Report. 

21 



162 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

any organic matter unless from location, and surface water or cesspools oozing into 
the wells. 

31. Have found cases of malarial or hilions remittent fever, accompanied with 
gastric and intestinal disturbance of an epidemic form, sometimes aflecting the 
whole family. Cause: decomposition of wood-curbing and filth in the well; also, 
throwing slops and stagnant water near the well, etc., the rain washing it into the 
well. 

32. Nothing. 

33. Have the most sickness in this vicinity during the dry, hot months. Though 
the water looks clear and good and cold, wells are not so full at that season. 

34. None; cemetery situated quite a distance from any houses. 

35. Three cases of severe remittent fever in a family whose well was but 12 feet 
deep, on prairie soil; well located at a low point, and stagnant water standing close 
up around the platform of well; cattle and horses drinking from trough close to 
well, depositing, whilst there, offal in the stagnant water. The peculiarity in these 
cases was intestinal and gastric irritation; they were long in recovering health; 
one died. Six cases similar to the above, from rain washing the slops into the well 
and other surface water running into it; when cleaned, the well contained about two 
feet of dirt and filth; water tasted and smelled bad. 

36. Not observed any. Our village is located on a peninsula, sand soil, formed by 
the junction of the three rivers, Avhich streams are spanned by a dam for water-power; 
village thirty feet above low water-mark. Our well-water is found in gravel soil; no 
hardpan at all. By some it is supposed the source of the water is the streams, and 
that it oozes through the sand and gravel. 

Respectfully submitted. 
Three liivers, Mich., Aug. 20, 1817. C. W. BACKUS, 

REPLIES BY A. M, OLDFIELD, M, D., OF LEXINGTON, MICH, 

1. * Village, 

2. "Wells and springs. 

3. None whatever. 

18, Almost universallj', 

19, Clay subsoil, 

20, Averaice, fifteen feet, 

21, Clay, " 

22, Towards south-east. 

29. . 

30. Clear and hard. My opinion is that it does not contain organic matter incom- 
patible with health, 

Leximjton, Mich., Aug. 24, 1877. A, M, OLDFIELD, M. D, 

llEPLIES CY NELSON H. CLAFLIN, M, D,, OF EAST SAGINAW, MICH. 

Secretary of the State Board of Health: 

Sir: — In answer to the Circular relative to water-supply, I respond as follows:* 

1, In the city of East Saginaw. 

2, River (Tittabawassee) and wells, 

3, That from river is taken above the city, and is not influenced by anj"- other 
city, etc, 

4, There is not a close relation, 

5, Rapidity, four miles per hour. It is constant; direction, north. 

t). 1,400 feet to Holly water-works, in wood pipe three feet diameter, then forced 
through iron pipes. 

8. Not at all. 

9, There is a filter, but most of the water is pumped directly from river. 

11. 1,000,000 gallons; not so much in the Winter. 

12. Comparatively /ew use Holly water. There are about 17,000 inhabitants; aver- 
age about 58 gallons. 

13. Not at all. 

14. Very few use it; perhaps one in two hundred of the inhabitants. 

15. No. 

* The figures begiiiniDg paragraphs refer to rixiestioiis in Circular 7, printed on pages HG-7 of 
this Report. 



WATER -SUPPLY OF LOCALITIES IN MICHIGAX. 163 

JG. Yes. 

17. Wood. 

IS. Well-water used by four-fifths of the inhabitants. Xo sprinars. 

19. Clay. 

20. Eight to twenty-four feet. 
■21. Clay, only. 

22. . 

23. Clay. Wells are simply a hole in the cla}^ for water to filter into. 

24. 'J'hirty to eighty feet. 

25. There are no cesspools; slops from kitchens, etc., are thrown on surface of 
ground 15 to 80 feet from wells. 

2G. Know of none. 

27. AVater-works are; cisterns generally are; wells seldom are; a feio are built with 
water-lime and brick, and built above surface so as to exclude surface water (very 
few). 

28. Wells usually are, from surface water and drainage from surface. 

29. No. 

3D. Seven-eighths of it, clear; one-eighth, turbid; one-twentieth, probably does 
contain organic matter in small quantities. Hard. 

31. Onlj"^ that particles of the rotten wood are separated and mixed with the water 
drawn. 

32. Nothing. 

33. Rain gives surface water in all wells here. Drought requires the water to filter 
in through the clay, and the water is better when we have but little rain. 

34. None. 

35. Frequent cases of diarrhcea occur in persons not accustomed to using the water 
here. 

36. And it often seems to increase the tendency to malarial fevers. 

Yours truly, 
East Sarjlnaic, Mich., Axuj. 7, 1S77. NELSON H. CLAFLIN, M. D. 

REPLIES BY E. S. SNOW, M. D., OF DEARBORX, MICH. 

Secretary of the State Hoard of Health: 

Sir : — I answer Circular No. 7, as numbered. * 

1. In small village. 

2. Wells and cisterns. 

3. 4. It has no such relation. 

5, 6, 7, S, 9. It is not taken from a stream. 

10. . 

11, 12. Cannot tell. 

13. Not used. 

14. Onl}' for bathing and washing. 

15. Sometimes. 

16. Seldom. 

17. Brick and water-lime. 

IS. Used entirely for drinking and culinary purposes. 

19. Both sand and clay soil. 

20. From 10 to 40 feet. 

21. Sand and bine clay. 

22. North-west. 

23. Blue clay. 

24. 100 feet. 

25. 100 to 500 feet. 

26. As a general thing, it is so. 

27. Generally, but with some exceptions. 

28. It is quite often the case in water from wells. 3Iost generally in the latter part 
of Summer; cannot tell why. 

29. There has not. 

30. It is clear when first taken from the well. I believe it sometimes does. Hard. 

31. Wooden pipes sometimes give taste to the water. 

32. Lead pipes not used for drinking and cooking water. 

33. It usually makes vei\v little or no diflerence. 

* The figures beginning p;iragraplis i-efer to questions in Circular 7, printed on pages 14C-7 of 
this Report. 



164 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— EEPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

34. Two families living across the street from an old graveyard, get their water for 
drinking and cooking from wells in rear of their houses; hut no sickness has arisen 
from it. 

35. I know of no such cases. 

36. I have observed no case of epidemic disease or sickness where impurity of water 
used has had any apparent influence in its production. 

Respectfully, 
Dearborn, Mich. E. S. SNOW. 

rp:plies by ^v. g. elliott, m. d., of pontiac, mich. 
Answers to Circular 7, water-supply :* 

1. City. 

2. Wells. 

3. Surface drainage into the river. 

13. None. 

14. None except for washing. 

17. Cemented on brick, stone, or clay. 

18. Wholly. 

19. Variable, — clay, sand, gravel. 

20. Fifteen to sixty feet. 

21. Sand, clay, gravel, and blue clay five to twenty feet. 

22. Not positive; from limited observation, should say south-west. 

23. Blue claj% terminating in coarse gravel. 

24. Forty to fiftv feet; many, much further. 

25. But few 50 to TOO feet. 

26. Do not know of any. 

27. None. 

30. Clear, moderately liard, and does not contain any organic matter of any 
amount. 
31,32. None. 

33. None; rainfalls or freshets slightly affect the water-suppl}'. 
I have omitted to answer some questions; they do not apply to this locality. 

Yours respectfully, 
Pontiac, Mich., Oct. 20, 1S77. W. G. ELLIOTT. 

REPLIES BY M. NORTHUP, M. U., OF PORT HURON, MICH. 

Replies to Circular relative to water-supply : * 

1. City of Port Huron. 

2. From St. Clair River, half a mile from Lake Huron. 

3. It is below the village of Fort Gratiot and the Grand Trunk R. R. crossing. 

4. Faecal excretions from boats, cars, and privies. 

5. Nine miles an hour, south-east; current steady. 

6. No distance. 

7. Cast iron pipes. 

8. No reservoirs. 

9. No process of any kind. 

10. 11. . 

12. Forty-five gallons. 

13. None. 

14. For washing, onl3\ 

15. 16. . 

17. Wood. 

18. One-fourth of the inhabitants. 

19. Clay, overlaid with sand. 

20. Ten feet. 

21. Sand, and into the claj% 

22. Unknown. 

23. Clay, interspersed with limestone. 

24. Forty feet. 

25. Fifteen feet. 

26. Have seen the privies within 15 feet, and cesspools within 5 feet. 

27. No. 

* The fiprures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 7, printed on pages 146-7 of 
this Ke))ort. 



WATER-SUPPLY OF LOCALITIES IN MICHIGAN. 1G5 

2S. From wells; causes not ascertained. 

29. None. 

30. Think the water is good from the M'orks, but it is turbid after, and during a 
gale on Lake Huron. It is a little hard. From the wells it is generally bad. 

31. Nothing. 

32. There is much lead pipe (service pipes) in use. Observe no bad effects. 

33. No effect here. 

34. One gravej'ard, on high ground, containing 2,500 graves, is entirely surrounded 
by inliabitants who mostly get their water from wells. In some of these wells the 
water is stinking, but I have never traced any disease directly to this water. 

35. The sewers of this city empty into Black Eiver, a tributary to the St. Clair. 
Below -this city, where people have used the mixed waters, they have had typhoid 
fever this Summer, a disease almost unknown in this city. 

30. Have observed none. 

Yours, etc.. 
Port Huron, Mich., Oct. 2S, 1577. M. NORTHUP, M. D. 

REPLIES BY \VM. P. MAIDEN, M. D., OP ALPENA, MICH. 

Secretary State Board of Health: 

Dear Doctor: — I regret that I have not been able to send you the subjoined report 
on "Water-Supply" sooner I have delayed in hope of making a thorough report, 
but find that impossible at present. I shall report results of investigations on this 
subject. * 

L City of Alpena. 

2. Cisterns and surface wells. 

3. No sewers. Very inadequate surface drains. 

13. Have four artesian wells, Including the so-called mineral well. Only one sup- 
plies water fit to drink. One of the wells, down about 30 feet, supplies water black 
as ink. 

14. To a very large extent. All the best families use it. 

15. No. 

16. Yes, I think, in most every case. 

17. Mostly of pine. Some few of stone and water-lime, 

18. Surface well-water is used almost entirely by the i:)oorer classes. 

19. Sand, 

20. From three to six feet, seldom deeper. 

21. I know of no well in the city beneath the sand, except artesian. 
24. Average, 40 feet. 

27. The surface wells are all more or less contaminated with surface drainage. 

28. The well-water is invariably oftensive in color, odor, and taste. 

29, Only of the mineral-spring water. 

The following is the analysis by Prof, Dufiield: 
Temperature, 52°. Specific gravity, 1.012. 

Per Gallon, 
Bicarbonate of Soda 15,736 

" Lime 55,136 

" Magnesia 02.920 

*' Iron 1,840 

Sulphate of Lime 30.056 

Silica and Aluminum 3,088 

Chloride of Sodium 08.256 

Organic matter and Loss. 928—237,900 

Total mineral constituents, 237,032 grains. Sulphuretted Hydrogen gas, 3,91 cubic 
inches. Carbonic Acid gas, a trace. 

30, Hard; contains organic matter in various proportions, 
34, None; graveyards remote, 

36. Have kept no record of cases that could be clearly attributed to this cause. 
Will report future observations. 

Very respectfullv. 
Alpena, 3Iich., Kov. 5, 1S77. WM, P. MAIDEN. M. D. 

* The lip;ures beginning paragi-aphs refer to questions in Circular 7, printed on pages 14C-7 of 
this Report. 



166 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— EEPOKT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

REPLIES BY O. B. CAMPBELL, M. D., OF OVID, 3IICH. 

Secretarg of State Board of Health: 
Dear Doctor: — I have the honor herewith to transmit ray replies to Circular 7.* 

1. Village of Ovid. Population, 1500. 

2. From wells. 

3. Drainage exclusively surface. The ground from the northern and southern por- 
tions of the village descends towards the central part, and during heavy rains the 
surface water collects in many of the cellars. But so far as I can learn, the well-water 
is clear and does not contain organic matter in any considerable amount, whicli may 
be accounted for from the fact that the water is thoroughly tiltered in the soil. 

4 to 17 inclusive. Excluded. 

IS. Well-water is used almost exclusively. 

19. Soil is sand and gravel. 

20. From 10 to 20 feet. 

21. Sand and gravel. 

23. Gravel. 

24, 25. Anywhere, 20 to 100 feet. 
2G. 1 know of none. 

27. The majority of the wells are not stoned, owing to a scarcity of the article 
here, but are curbed with wood and have no protection from contamination of 
surface water, except that afforded by the soil as a filter. 

28. So far as my observations have gone, I do not know of anj-. 

29. No. 

30. Well-water clear, highly charged with salts of lime, and contains a limited 
amount of organic matter. 

31. No observations. 

32. Nothing. 

33. My limited acquaintance and stay here have allowed no observations on this 
point. 

34. Quite distinct, so far as I know. 

35. Do not know of anj'. 

36. No observations. 

Very respectfullj', 
Ovid, Clinton Co., Mich., Dec. 4, 1S7T. O. B. CAMPBELL, M. D. 

* The figures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 7, printed on pages 146-7 of 
this Report. 



RELATIVE TO THE 



DISEASES IN MICHIGAN DURING THE YEAR 1876; 



INCLUDIXG A SUMMARY FOR THE STATE, AND THE REPLIES OF 

CORRESPONDENTS OF THE STATE BOARD OF HEALTH, 

To Circular No. 15, Issued by the Board ; 

Also Eeplies, by two Correspondents, to the Circular relative to 
diseases during the year 1875, 



Compiled and arranged for publication by the Secretary of the Board. 



DISEASES IN MICHIGAN DURING 1876. 



Ill the last Eeport of this Board, was commenced a systematic record of facts 
concerning tlie prevalence or absence of diseases in different parts of the State, 
including also statements relative to the diseases of animals and of food-crops 
used by men and animals. This was done with a view to comparisons with 
records of meteorological and other conditions, and with statistics of deaths, 
for the same time, in order the better to learn the causes which produce an 
increase or a decrease in the death-rate or in the sickness from eacli of the 
many diseases which afflict mankind. 

The record in the last Report was for the year 1875, and this is a continuation 
of the study, being for the year 1876, — the calendar year previous to the fiscal 
year ending September 30, for which this volume is a Report. 

The statements of facts on this subject were collected by means of a Circular, — 
printed immediately following this summary, — which was sent to each of the 
regular correspondents of this Board; and the statements here compiled arc 
contributed by 49 prominent physicians in different parts of tiie State, 44 local- 
ities being represented. This is a larger number than reported for tiie preced- 
ing year, and the most thickly settled parts of the State are well represented. 

In the following summary the replies to the questions in the circular are 
considered in the order in which the questions were placed in the circular. * 

1. * In answer to question 1, as to the relative amount of sickness from all 
causes during the year 187G, one corresi^ondent is "unable to give a correct 
statement"'; 3 report it greater simply; and one, ''much greater"; Instate 
that it was "about the same as the average" ; 32 say that the amount was less 
than during previous years. Of these, 8"do not state how much less. Of the 
8, one says, "a little more than last year, but less than the average of previous 
years" ; one, "about an average for last 5 years ; much less in late years than 
formerly, say 25 years ago" ; one, "greater than in 1874 and 1875,— less than 
in years preceding these". The other 24 say how much less sickness they 
think there was, the average decrease reported by them being 23 per cent, and 
the range from 10 per cent to 50 per cent. Of this 24, one says, "about same 
as in 1874 and in 1875, but less than in previous years by about 20 per cent." 

If we allow the 4 who report the sickness greater to offset the 8 who report 
it simply less, we have, for the 48 correspondents who reply to the question, an 
average decrease of 12 per cent, — certainly an indication of diminished sick- 
ness, though not so marked as that in the last Report, concerning the year 1875, 

2. In answer to question 2, two of the 49 correspondents make no statement; 
4 report tlie death-rate greater — one witliout statement how much greater ; 3 
state it greater by an average of 2G per cent, and Avith a range from 10 to 43 
per cent; while 24 report it less. Of these, 13 state it less by an average of IG 
per cent, and with a range from 10 to 33 per cent. Of the 1 1 who do not state 
how much less, one says, "also less than during 1875"; one, "about the 

*The figures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 15, printed immcdiatclv after 
this suramarj'. 



170 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— EEPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

same as average for last five years, less than 20 to 25 3'ears ago; per cent of 
deaths to sickness not diminished" ; one, ''decidedly less" ; one, at Detroit, 
''173 deaths less than in 1872, 289 less than in 1873, 109 less than in 1874, 104 
less than in 1875" ; and one, "in 1875, 21 interments; in 1876, 5." If we 
offset the four who report an increase by the 11 who report a decrease but do 
not state how great, we have, for the 47 correspondents who reply to the ques- 
tion, an average decrease of 4 per cent in tiie death-rate in 187G. 

3. The substance of the replies to this question is given in tabular form 
in Exhibit 2 on pages 172-173. The summary for the State is as follows : 
Of the 49 correspondents who reply to the circular, G make no statement 
in reply to this question; 15 state that no disease or cause of death was more 
than usually prevalent. Diplitheria is reported more than usually prevalent 
by 6 correspondents ; scarlet fever, by 5 ; consumption, by 3 ; old age, by 3 : 
cholera infantum, dysentery, intermittent fever, malarial diseases, membra- 
neous croup, remittent fever, typho-malarial fever, whooping-cough, each by 
2 ; accidents, bilious remittents, chronic diseases in very old people, croup, 
diarrhea of children, erysipelas, fevers, gastric fever, influenza, lung diseases, 
malarial fevers, mal-nutrition, measles, small-pox, typhoid fever, each by 1. 

4. The substance of the replies to this question is given in tabular form 
in Exhibit 2 on pages 172-173. The Summary for the State is as follows: 
In answer to this question, 11 correspondents make no statement; 5 others 
are unable to give any cause of increased prevalence; 15 others state no cause, 
because, in answer to question 3, they have stated that no disease was more 
than usually prevalent. Among the causes of increased prevalence of different 
diseases, unfavorable climatic conditions was mentioned by 6, and unsanitary 
conditions by 6 correspondents. The prominence given to wet weather followed 
by hot weather, as a cause of malarial diseases, is worthy of note, — four of the 
17 correspondents who name any cause, mention this. 

5. The substance of the replies to this question is given in tabular form 
in Exhibit 2 on pages 172-173. The summary for the State is as follows: 
To this question, 9 correspondents make no reply; 5 say that no disease 
or cause of death has been less than usually prevalent. "Malarial diseases" 
are reported as less than usually prevalent, by 5 correspondents; "typhoid 
fever", by 5; "malarial fevers", by 4 ; "pneumonia", by 4 ; "cholera infant- 
um", by 4; "fevers", by 3 ; "dysentery", by 2; "lung diseases", by 2; diph- 
theria", by 2; each of the following diseases, by 1: "scarlet fever"; "all 
diseases except diphtheria and consumption" ; "all diseases except cerebro- 
spinal meningitis" ; "all diseases except influenza, and in the village of Thorn- 
ville, dysentery and malarious fevers" ; "all diseases, particularly zymotic" ; 
"all diseases except consumption" ; "all zymotic diseases, except bilious and 
typho-malarial" ; "all zymotics" ; "all infectious diseases" ; "all epidemic 
and contagious diseases" ; "cerebro-spinal meningitis" ; "intestinal diseases" ; 
"measles"; "contagious"; "gastro-intestinal of children"; "eruptive fevers 
(except small-pox)" ; "whooping-cough"; "diseases of the intestinal tract"; 
"puerperal fever" ; "intermittent fever" ; "remittent fever" ; "diarrhea" ; 
"diseases of brain and nervous system." 

6. The substance of the replies to this question is given in tabular form in 
Exhibit 2 on pages 172-173. To this question, 9 correspondents do not reply ; 
8 say the cause of the lessened prevalence is unknown ; 5, that there was no 
lessened prevalence, hence no cause could be stated ; 17 correspondents mention 
improved sanitary conditions, and 8, favorable climatic influences, as causes of 
lessened prevalence of dift'erent diseases. 



DISEASES IN MICHIGAN DURING THE YEAR 187G. 



171 



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172 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1S77. 



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176 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— REPOKT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

*11 and 12. Of the 49 correspondents who reply to the circular, 5 make no 
statement in answer to question 11, and 2 make none in answer to question 12. 

In answer to question 11, one says, "about 250 cases" ; one, "about 100" ; 
and one, "200 cases besides remittents which are endemic" — showing a misap- 
prehension of the question. One says, "remittent and typho-malarial fevers 
quite prevalent ; am unable to state the exact number of cases"; one, "a few 
cases of puerperal fever"; one, ''many phagedenic ulcerations of the throat 
during April and May" ; one, "a few cases of typho-malarial fever" ; one, 
about 15 cases of mumps" ; one, "many cases of scarlet rash, contagious, 
resembled mildest forms of scarlet fever, but no sequela" ; one, "10 cases of 
dysentery; 100 of influenza"; one, "1 case spinal meningitis"; one, "200 
cases of influenza". It is to be hoped that hereafter fewer replies maybe so 
indefinite as "many cases" or "few cases". 

The statements on the diseases named in the qiiestions are summarized as 
follows : 

Small-pox. — Concerning this disease, 2 correspondents do not reply ; 42 state 
that there were no cases; and 5 report the disease as follows: one, "55 
deaths" ; one, "a few cases" ; one, "5 cases" ; and 3, "1 case" each. 

Cholera. — Concerning this disease, 3 correspondents do not reply; 46 state 
that there was no case. No correspondent reported it present during tlie year. 

Scarlet fever. — Concerning this disease, 12 correspondents do not reply; 11 
say there was no case, and 20 report it as follows: one, "4 deaths" ; one, "18 
deaths" ; 2, "many cases" ; 7, "a few cases" ; 15 give the actual or estimated 
number of cases, — the numbers ranging from 2 to 100, with an average of 26 
cases. 

Tyjjlioid fever. — Concerning this disease, 15 correspondents do not reply; 
10 say that there was no case; 24 report as follows: one, "7 deaths" ; one, "8 
deaths" ; 6, "a few cases" ; 16 give the actual or estimated number of cases, — 
the numbers ranging from 2 to 50, with an average of 10 cases. 

Measles. — Concerning this disease, 13 correspondents do not reply; 15 say 
that there was no case; 21 report it as follows: one, "10 deaths"; one, "40 
deaths" ; 8, "a few cases" ; 2, "many cases" ; 11 give the actual or estimated 
number of cases, — the numbers ranging from 2 to 250, with an average of 52 
cases. 

Whooping-cough. — Concerning this disease, 10 correspondents make no 
statement ; 7 say that there was no case ; 32 report the disease as follows : 
one, "7 deaths"; one, "21 deaths"; 12, "a few cases" ; 8, "many cases"; 
10 give the actual or estimated number of cases, — the numbers ranging from 
8 to 200, witli an average of 65 cases. 

Cerehro- spinal meningitis. — Concerning this disease, 10 correspondents make 
no statement; 24 say that there was no case; 15 report it as follows: one, "8 
deaths" ; one, "3 deaths" ; 2, "a few cases" ; 11 state the actual or estimated 
number of cases, — the numbers ranging from 1 to 20, with an average of 4 
cases. 

Diphtheria. — Concerning this disease, 14 correspondents make no statement; 
10 say that there was no case; 25 report it as follows: one, "7 deaths" ; one, 
"30 der.ths" ; 10, "a few cases" ; 13 state the actual or estimated number of 
cases, — the numbers ranging from 2 to 75, with an average of 13 cases. 

13. Question 13 asked concerning the diseases which "prevailed" in 1876. 

* The figures beginning paragraplis refer to questions in Circular 15, printed immediately after 
this Summary. 



DISEASES IN MICHIGAN DURING THE YEAR 1876. 177 

Probably it would have been better to use the word occurred instead of 
''prevailed." This explains the reason why the largest number opposite any 
given disease, in Exhibit 4, is only 10 opposite pneumonia, — while the number 
of correspondents whose replies to this question are compiled is 4G. The dis- 
eases reported, in reply to this question, by more than one correspondent in any 
month are tabulated in Exhibit 4, page 179. 

The statements for the first few diseases named in each month seem to show 
what were the ''prevailing" diseases in each month. Intermittent fever heads 
the list in May, June, July, October, and November ; pneumonia, in February, 
March, and April; diarrhea and intermittent fever, in August and September; 
bronchitis, in December ; and rheumatism, in January. Pneumonia is second 
on the list in January, November, and December. 

It is believed that the value of such a table as this can be increased in each 
year, by improved methods of stating the question, and improvements in replies 
of correspondents as they become familiar with the work. 

All of the 49 correspondents make some reply. Three, however, do not 
reply by months and, therefore, their statements are not compiled. Of the 
46 correspondents whose statements are compiled, one gives replies for only the 
last five months of the year. 

14. In reply to this question, 13 correspondents say that no disease not 
usually occurring in their locality Avas present in 18TG, and that no disease was 
attended witli an nnusually high or low rate of mortality; 21 correspondents 
do not reply to the question ; the others give useful replies which cannot well 
be summarized because of their dissimilarity. 

17. In reply to this question, 27 correspondents say that no disease has pre- 
vailed among animals; 7 make no statement. The replies of the other 15 cor- 
respondents cannot well be summarized. 

18. In reply to this question, 24 correspondents say that no disease has pre- 
vailed among crops; 3, make no statement; the other 22 give interesting 
replies, which are so dissimilar that they do not naturally fall into groups. 

19. Of the 49 correspondents who reply to the circular, 6 make no statement 
in answer to this question ; 32 say that the grains in question were marketed in 
good condition ; the other 11 correspondents give definite replies, each differ- 
ent from the other. 

20. In reply to this question, 25 correspondents say that none of the grains 
mentioned in question 19 was affected by fungus ; 12 make no statement, 2 of 
them evidently being misled by an error in printing the circular, whereby the 
diseases in question were referred to as mentioned in question "15" instead of 
"19" ; the replies of the 12 other correspondents are as follows : One says, 
"Wheat is somewhat affected with smut" ; one, "All cereals were somewhat 
affected with smut"; one, "Wheat and late oats rusted; corn, very smutty, 
and early oats affected with smut" ; one, "none, except smut in wheat" ; 
one, "Not to any extent" ; two, "not unusually" ; one, "not generally" ; one, 
"not noticeably" ; one, "wheat" ; one, "not more than common" ; one, "I 
think not ; only corn about as usual" ; one, "all cereals were somewhat affected 
with smut." 

21. To this question, 10 correspondents make no statement; 33 answer 
"yes" ; one says, "In most cases, yes" ; one, "Yes, generally" ; one, "I think 
it was" ; one, "Nothing to wet it" ; one, "I believe it was" ; and one, "It was 
not". 



178 STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH-REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

22. Of the 49 correspondents who reply to tlio circular, 13 make no state- 
ment in answer to this question; 12 say, "No" ; one, "I think not" ; and one, 
"They are not", — answers which are not very definite, but may have been 
intended to mean that the wheat was neither more nor less than usually liable 
to bank in the bin; 11 say, "less"; one, "more"; one, "neither"; one, 
"about an average" ; one, "about the same" ; one, "nothing unusual in this 
particular" ; one, "they say that it is as mobile as usual" ; 3, "no complaint" ; 
one, "do not hear much complaint" ; one, "does not bank". 

23. Of the 49 correspondents who reply to the circular, 11 make no state- 
ment in answer to this question ; 5 say tliat the hay crop was more than usually 
affected by mildew or mould ; 9 say that it was less than usually affected ; 4 
say, "No", an indefinite reply, which may mean that the cro]o was neither 
more nor less than usually affected with mildew or mould ; one says, "neither" ; 
11 say, in effect, that the hay wns secured in good condition ; 2, that it was 
secured in poor comlition ; and G, that the early cut hay was more, and the 
late cut less than usually aft'ectcd with mildew or mould. 

24. Only 13 correspondents reply to this question. Of these, 7 give quite 
full tabular statements, for which see replies by Drs. J. S. Oaulkins, 11. F. 
Thomas, W. H. Rouse, G. J. Northrop, A. Ilazlewood, E. N. Palmer, and 
J. M. Swift. Tiie replies of the other G correspondents are as follows: "Very 
dry during almost entire year". "Storms severe, drouth also; so that twice, 
during the summer, crops suffered from too much wet and twice from drouth." 
"Winter exceedingly mild ; spring, summer, and fall, unusually hot, especially 
June and July. Exceedingly wet until July 4. I think only 6 days in May 
that it did not rain. Two or three showers after July 4 to 10 ; from tliat time 
very hot and dry". "Noticed a marked falling off in the frequency of cholera 
infantum for two days after several thunder storms in July and August". 
"Atmosphere usually dry and heavy". "January, February, March, and 
April, unusually mild and moist; very little snow, mostly rain. May and 
June, warm and large amount of rain; summer months, quite hot." 



* The figures beginning paragraplis refer to questions in Circular 15, jirinted on pages 185-6 of 
this Report 



DISEASES IN MICHIGAN DURING THE YEAR 187G. 



179 



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184: STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH— REPOKT OF SECRETAEY, 1877. 

29. Of the 49 correspondents who reply to the circular, 33 make no state- 
ment in answer to this question. The other 16 give replies which may be 
briefly mentioned as follows : 

Malignancy of 3 cases of typhoid fever attributed to nearness of house and 
well to barn.— See reply by G. W. Topping, M. D., De Witt. 

Typhoid fever caused by contamination of water; and more especially, iu 
the country, by impure air. Eemedy, vigorous action by local Boards of 
Health. — See reply by H. ^Y. Browne, M. D., Hubbardston. 

Several cases of typhoid fever, one due to emanations from privy. — See reply 
by 0. Marshall, M. D., North Lansing. 

Intermittent and typho-malarial fevers and diarrheas caused by decaying 
vegetable debris, stagnant water, etc. Contagious influence of scarlatina. See 
reply by A. AV. Nicholson, M. D., Otisville. 

Perversions of liver secretions caused by miasm incident to undrained locali- 
ties when first improved and exj)osed to sunlight and climatic changes. — See 
reply by Wm. E. Marsh, M. D., Bay City. 

Impure water the most fruitful source of disease. Need of some common 
and safe source of water-supply, especially in larger villages. — See reply by 
Alfred Nash, M. D., Lapeer. 

A number of deaths from diphtheria coincident with more than usual amount 
of ozone. — See reply by H. F. Thomas, M. D., Allegan. 

People not prepared to submit to quarantine of scarlet fever ; they need to be 
educated to it. They are too careless about privy vaults and contamination of 
wells. — See reply by Milton Chase, M. D., Otsego. 

Much sickness in a tract of undrained land flooded with water, bearing the 
"wash" of many barnyards and several cheese factories. — See reply by Hal C. 
Wyman, M. D., Blissfield. 

Diphtheria, diarrhea, and fever caused by using water contaminated by privy 
and pig-pen drainage, and water from wells near a marsh. See reply by W. B. 
Southard, M. D., Kalamazoo. 

Cases illustrating contagiousness of diphtheria. Necessity of enforcing the 
same precautionary measures against diphtheria and scarlet fever as are applied 
in case of small-pox and cholera. — See reply by H. C. Clapp, M. D., Mendon. 

Continued fever and deaths apparently caused by using impure water. 
Typhoid fever communicated to a whole family by a young man sick with it 
being brought to the house. — See reply by Edwin Stewart, M. D., Mendon. 

Most of our sickness in dry weather caused by lowering water above dams in 
rivers. — See reply by C. W. Backus, M. D., Three Kivers. 

Bags imported from Germany, France, and Italy, the source of small-pox in 
the paper mills of Ypsilanti. — See reply by Edward Batwell, M. D., Ypsilanti. 

Two outbreaks of scarlet fever occurring near an old brickyard pond filled 
with stagnant water. — See reply by E. S. Snow, M. D., Dearborn. 

Diarrhea, nausea, fever, and typhoid fever apparently from drinking water 
from a well in which was a dead toad. — See reply by Eobert Johnston, M, D., 
Milford. 

The Circular to which these replies have been made, is as follows : 



DISEASES IN MICHIGAN DURING THE YEAR 1S7G. 185 

[15.] CIRCULAR TO CORRESPONDENTS RELATIVE TO PREVAILING 

DISEASES IN 1876. 



Office of the State Board of Health, ) 
Lansing, Michigan, December, 1870. ) 

To the Correspondents of the State Board of Health: 

Gentlemen:— This Board desires to have, and to place upon record for purposes of 

future study in connection with records of deaths and of meteorological conditions, 

statements, for as many different localities in the State as possible, of the diseases 

prevailing during the j^ear 187G. "Will you have the kindness to send, as soon after 

December 31, 1876, as is convenient, to the office of this Board at Lansing, your replies 

to the following questions? Please use the stamped envelope enclosed herewith, 

and leave all additional postage to be paid at this office. In replying it will not be 

necessar}'' to repeat the questions, but simply to refer to the Circular and to each 

question by number. Please define the locality for which your replies are made. 

1. Among the people of your locality, and considering the increase or decrease of 
population, was the proportion of sickness from all causes during the year 
ending Dec. 31, 1870, greater, less, or about the same as the average during pre- 
vious years? If not the same, how much was it increased or diminished ? 

2. Compared with previous years, and from all causes, was the proportion of deaths 

to inhabitants during the year 1876, greater, less, or about the same as the 
average? If not the same, how much was it increased or diminished? 

3. What diseases, or causes of death, have been more than usually prevalent during 

the year 1876 ? 

4. If you can assign any cause for the unusual prevalence of any disease, please do so. 

5. What diseases, or causes of death, liave been less than usually prevalent ? 

6. To what do you attribute the lessened prevalence? 

7. From what diseases or causes has there been more than the usual mortality 

during the year 1876? 

8. If you can assign any cause for the unusual mortality from any disease, please 

do so. 

9. From what diseases or causes has there been less than the usual mortality? 

10. To what do you attribute the lessened mortality? 

11. State number of cases of small-pox, cholera, scarlet fever, typhoid fever, measles, 
whooping-cough, cerebro-spinal meningitis, diphtheria, and of any other epi- 
demic, endemic, contagious or infectious disease that has appeared. (Facts are 
especially desired, but opinions are better than no statements, though it will 
be well to state them as opinions.) 

12. Of the eight diseases mentioned above, name those of xohich no case has appeared 
during the year 1870. 

13. Please give, by months, a summary statement of the diseases which have pre- 
vailed in the year 1870. 

14. Please mention dates of the occurrence of any disease not usualltj occurring in 
your locality, and of any attended with au unusually high or loio rate of mortality. 



186 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

15. What diseases are prevailing at the time you send this statement? 

16. Are any diseases now especially or nmisualh' prevalent or fatal? If so. what 

diseases, and to what extent? 

17. What diseases have prevailed, and to what extent, among animals? 

18. What diseases have prevailed, and to what extent, among the crops, as of pota- 

toes, hops, fruits, and especially cereals and grasses, whether affected by rot, 
rust, smut, hunt, mildew, or mould? 

19. As regards rye, oats, corn, buckwheat, and other grains, Avheat in particular, 
what was the actual condition when ready for market or use? 

20. Were any of these grains, mentioned in question 15,* affected by any kind of 
fungus ? 

21. Was the wheat generally allowed to get thorouglily dry before it was threshed? 

22. Do the wheat buyers or millers say that wheat this j'ear is more or less than 
usually liable to "bank" in the bin? 

23. Was the hay crop, secured during the past season, more or less than usually 
affected by mildew or mould? 

24. Please give a summary statement of the meteorological conditions during the 
year 1S76, specifying if possible, the general characters for each month, and 
noting any peculiar or unusual conditions. 

25. Please state the facts concerning the soil moisture in your locality, by months, 

during the year 1870, without reference to previous years. 

26. Compared with previous years, at what time of the year 1870 was the soil in 
your locality unusually dry or moist? 

27. Please state the facts concerning the depth of earth above the grou-nd icater in your 
locality, by months, during the year 1876, as indicated by the depth of water 
and distance down to water, in wells, streams, etc., or by other facts. 

28. Compared with previous years, at what time of the year 1870 was the ground 
icater in your locality unusually high or low? 

29. Please communicate facts bearing upon, or cases illustrating the causation or 
communicability of diseases. 

Any suggestions which you may feel inclined to make, concerning methods which 
seem practicable, for the prevention of sickness, or deaths from removable causes, in 
your locality, or in this State, need not be withheld. 

As stated parenthetically after question 11, in the absence of positive knowledge, 
opinions are desired. The fact that it will be difficult, and sometimes impossible to 
give the information asked for is well understood, but the importance of the subject 
warrants the effort which it is believed will not always be barren of results, but will 
tend to accumulate data which will eventually be of great value to the people. 
By direction of the State Board of Health. 

Very respectfully, 

HEXRY B. BAKER, 
Secretary. 

* [This should have been question 19 instead of 15.— H. B. B., Sec'y.] 



DISEASES IN" MICHIGAN DURING THE YEAR 187G. 



187 



The replies to this Circuhir are grouped by geograpliical divisions of the 
State, shown in E.xhibit 1, page 171, and alphabetically by localities, within 
the divisions. The replies are as follows : 

UPPER PENINSULAR DIVISION OF THE STATE. * 

RKPLIES BY GEO. J. NORTHROP, OF .AI.\EQUETTE, MICH. 

To the Secretary of the State Board of Health : 

De.\rSir: — 111 reply to Circular No. 15, relative to prevailing diseases, I have to 
report that, as far as I know: t 

1. About the same as 1874 and 1873^ but less than previous j'ears by about 20 per 
cent, I tliink. 

2. Believe it about the same as the average. 

3. Remittent and typho-malarial fevers. 

4. The continued rains of the early part of the Summer, and the hot weather fol- 
lowing. 

5. Gastro-intestinal diseases of children. 
G. Unknown. 

7. None. 

9. Gastro-intestiual diseases of children. 

10. Unknown. 

11. Scarlet fever, epidemicin a mild form; cerebro-spinal meningitis, one; diphthe 
ria, two, one fatal; remittent and typho-malarial fevers quite prevalent; unable to 
state the number of oases. 

12. No small-pox, cholera, typhoid fever, measles, or whooping-cough, — my opinion. 

13. Have not the data. 

14. Remittent and typho-malarial fevers began in August and continued into 
December, with low rate of mortality. 

15. Tonsilitis, bronchitis, influenza, and scarlet fever. 

16. No. 

17. Nothing so far as known. 
IS. Nothing. 

19, 20, 21, 22, 23, Not applicable to this section. 

24. Furnished by J. C. Rogers, Serg't Signal Service, U. S. A.: 





Thermometer. 


Prevail- 
ing 
Winds. 


Rain 

and Snow, 
Water in 
Inches. 


All Clear 
Days. 


Days 

in which 

Bain or 

Snow fell. 




MONTH. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


Mean 

Tompera- 

ture. 


Remarks. 


January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 


52° 
42° 
53° 
59° 
8C° 
90° 
98° 
91° 
70° 
73° 
58° 
35° 


-16° 
-6° 
12° 
23° 
37° 
44° 
44° 
36° 
28° 
12° 

-1S° 


21.1° 
16.7° 
22.1° 
37.9° 
49.4° 
58.2° 
66.9° 
68.1° 
54.8° 
40.2° 
348° 
1.76° 


W. 

AV. 

N. W. 

N. W. 

N. W. 

S. E. 

E. 

S. 

w. 

AV. 
AV. 
W. 


0.60 
0.65 
1.70 
1.28 
3.S4 
8.18 
3.07 
1.95 
4.22 
2.81 
2.32 
0.82 


12 
11 
13 
14 
16 
13 
12 
17 
13 
S 
7 
8 


11 
11 
10 

n 

12 
16 
13 
9 
9 
15 
10 
10 


o 3 n 
a < 

o S m 

-5? 


July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 


■ S?3 

eg 

B 

?3 


Year 1S76.... 


98° 


-18° 


40.65° 


AV. 


31.44 


145 


137 





* For counties included in each Division, see Exhibit 1, page 171. 

t The figures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 15, printed on pages 185-6 of 
this Report. 



188 STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

25. I should say that it was great in May, June, July, August and September. 

26. I should say unusually moist in September. 

27. Don't know; the soil and subsoil are sand, and water is not long retained. 

28. If any change, sliould say unusually high in June and September. 

29. Nothing special observed. 

Yours respectfully, 
Marquette, Marquette Co., Mich., Jan. 9, 1S77. GEO. J. NORTHROP. 

WESTERN DIVISION OF THE STATE.* 

REPLIES BY C. L. CHAMBEULIN, M. D., OP CANNONSBURG, MICH. 

Secretary of State Board of Health : 

Sir; — For want of records I am unable to make a report that is satisfactory even to 
myself, t 

1. According to my books, the proportion of sickness in this locality during the 
year 1876 was less, by 15 per cent, than in 1875, 

2. 25 per cent less. 

3. 4, 5, G, 7, 8, 9. I have not kept a journal, and cannot tell. 

10. The very mild form of disease. 

11. No cases of small-pox, cholera, scarlet fever, typhoid fever, cerebro-spinal men- 
ingitis, or diphtheria; whooping-cough has been vei'y prevalent, but very mild. I 
know of but two cases of measles during the year. 

12. Small-pox, cholera, scarlet fever, typhoid fever, cerebro-spinal meningitis, 
diphtheria. 

13, 14. I cannot. 

15. Bronchitis, pneumonia, influenza. 

16. See 15, prevalent but not fatal. 

17. Influenza, among horses. 

18. None that I know of. 

19. Good ; never better. 

20. No. 

21. Yes. 

22. 23. Less. 

24. I cannot do it. 

25. Very wet up to the first of July, and rather dry afterwards. 

26. See answer 25. 

27. 28. I cannot answer. 

Hoping in the future to be able to make a more intelligent report, I remain re- 
spectfully yours, 

Cannonsburg, Kent Co., Mich., Jan. 26, 1S77. C. L. CHAMBERLIN, M. D. 

REPLIES BY J. B. GRISWOLD, M. D., OF GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 

To the State Board of Health: 

Gentlemen:— Herewith I send answers, so far as I am able to give them, to your 
Circular No. 15. * 

1. Diminished, by probably 20 per cent. 

2. Less; 422 in 1875; 388 in 1876; probably 10 per cent less. 

3. Consum]otion, if correctly reported. 

4. Am unable to do so. 

5. All other forms of disease have been mild. 
€. Better sanitary surroundings, drainage, etc. 

7. Consumption, the only one. 

8. I cannot. 

9. See answer "5". 

10. See answer '"G". 

11. I am unable to state tlie number of cases with any degree of accuracy. 

12. Small-pox, cholera. 

13. Cannot, except since September, with any accuracy, 

14. There have been no such. 

* For counties included in each Division, see Exliibit 1, page 171. 

t The figures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 15, printed on pages 1S5-6 of 
this Report. 



SEASES IN MICHIGAN DURING THE YEAR 1S7U. 



189 



15. Influenza, pneumonia, bronchitis. 

16. No. 

17. None, to my knowledge, except distemper among horses. 

18. None. 

19. Very good, excellent. 

20. No. 

21. Yes. 

22. Less. 

23. Less ; very dry when housed. 

24. Have taken no observations. 

25. 26. Has been very dry during almost entire year. 

27. I only know that most wells gave out. 

28. Cannot positively state. 

29. Have no facts for the year. 

Very truly yours. 
Grand Jiapids, Kent Co., Mich., Jan. 10, 1577. J. B. GRISWOLD. 

REPLIES BY ARTHUR HAZLEWOOD, M. D., OF GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 

Secretary State Board of Health: 

Dear Doctor: — Although it is next to impossible to answer Circular No. 15 with 
the accuracy necessary to form reliable conclusions therefrom, I will use the best data 
obtainable for the purpose.* 

1. School census gives an increase of 500; probable increase of population, 1600 
inhabitants. Sickness during first six months of year, average; last six months, 
diminished. Should estimate 35 per cent for the last 5 months, or about 12 to 15 per 
cent diminished for the year. 

2. Less. 

The burial permits granted for interments in the cemeteries, of persons who died 
within the city, is 385 ; for 1875 the number was 384. 

From this data it would appear that only 1.35 per cent of our population died in 
1876, whereas 1.42 per cent died in 1875. The source of inaccuracy in this estimate is 
to be found in the fact that some persons wlio died in this city during the time spec- 
ified, have been removed elsewhere for burial; this number, however, cannot be more 
than a small fraction of all diseased persons, and the estimate, therefore, shows a very 
low rate of mortality. 

3. Membranous croup, diphtheria, and influenza. 

4. Atmospheric changes, raw winds, with dampness and snow; these may be only 
coincidences; no other cause was apparent. 

5. Typhoid and malarious fevers. 

6. Improved sanitary conditions, better water and drainage. 

7. Croup and diphtheria. 

8. The increased number of cases of these diseases. 

9. Typhoid fever. 

10. The fewer cases of this disease. See answer "G". 

11. Have no means of ascertaining the number of cases of the diseases mentioned. 
The recorded deaths from these diseases are as follows: 



DISEASES. 



Sraall-pox 

Cholera. 

Scarlet fever.. 
Typhoid fever 

Fever 

Measles 



1875. 


1876. 


None. 


None. 


None. 


None. 


7 


4 


26 


7 


1 


6 


6 


10 



DISEASES. 



"Whooping-couph. 

Cerebro-spinal meningitis.. 

Spinal 

(;iucken-pox 

Croup.. 

Diphtheria 



1875. 



1S76. 



12. Small-pox, cholera. 

13, January: Catarrlial affections of alight character, acute indigestion, diphtheria, 

measles. 
February: Bronchitis, pneumonia, and as in Januarj'. 
March: Bronchitis, pneumonia, measles, cerebro-spinal meningitis. 



* The figures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 15, printed on pages 1S5-6 of 
this Report. 



190 STATE BaARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

April: Broncliitis, pneumonia, measles, milder catarrhal affections. 

May: Intermittent fever, light fevers of no special type. 

June: Cholera infantum, infantile diarrhea, measles, colic, intermittent fever, 

whooping-cough. 
July: Cholera infantum, dysenterj% diarrhea, intermittent and remittent fevers. 
August: Cholera infantum, diarrhea, dysentery, cholera morbus, influenza. 
September: Intermittent fever, diarrhea, cholera infantum, influenza. 
October: Intermittent fever, influenza, whooping-cough, measles, bronchitis. 
November: Intermittent fever, influenza, membranous croup, pneumonia. 
December: Influenza, bronchitis, diphtheria, intermittent fever. 

14. The cases of membranous croup coming imder my own personal observation 
occurred in the latter part of November and early part of December. 

15. Common colds, and milder pulmonary aftections, among acute diseases; chronic 
diseases. 

18. From excessive moisture in some lands in our vicinity the crop of potatoes and 
corn failed to get a proper start, and the result was partial failure. Wheat and oats 
failed, in many instances, to fill the heads. Crop, therefore, light. . 

19. Wheat and oats light and inferior. 

20. Not generallj% 

21. Yes. 

22. Do not hear much complaint. 

23. Hay usually secured in good weather and in good order. 

24. By the courtesy of Mr. L. 11. Streng, I enclose a copy of his memoranda of 
observations during the year: 



Year. 

Jan... 
Feb.. 
Mar.. 
April 
Ma J-.. 
June 
July. 
Aug.. 
Sept. 
Oct.. 
Nov.. 
Dec. 







Tempeeatuke.— (Do 


greos F.) 






PUECIPITATION. 


3IEAN. 


Max- 
imum. 


Min- 
imum. 


Range. 


Kain 

and 

Melted 

Snow. 

Inches. 


Snow, 

in 
Inch's. 


7 A, M. 


2 P. M. 


9 1>. M. 


Month- 
ly. 


High- 
est 
Daily. 


Low- 
est 
Daily. 


44.09* 


54. 14* 

34.5S 


46.28* 


47.72* 


82.50 


-0 


94. 


-5. 


99. 


35.14 


49.75 


28. 


31.74 


31.57 


55. 


13. 


62. 


9. 


53. 


2.64 


4.75 


24.52 


32.28 


28.86 


28.56 


49. 


9.75 


60. 


2. 


58. 


1.76 


5.5 


26. 


34.74 


29.58 


29.97 


56.50 


14.75 


60. 


6. 


54. 


2.64 


145 


4L 


52.70 


44.06 


45.92 


65. 


32.25 


. 74. 


24. 


50. 


1.97 




54.55 


68.10 


56.10 


58.71 


75. 


45.75 


89. 


35. 


54. 


4.71 




66.93 


77.03 


65.56 


68.78 


79. 


53.75 


89. 


50. 


89. 


7.82 




71.39 


82.93 


71.10 


74.13 


82.50 


64. 


93. 


58. 


35. 


3.74 




63.10 


83.39 


69.64 


72.69 


82. 


58.25 


94. 


48. 


46. 


0.76 




55.23 


66.70 


56.10 


58.53 


70. 


45.50 


80. 


4.3. 


37. 


4.39 




41.26 


51.80 


45.29 


45.91 


61.25 


32.75 


69. 


28. 


41. 


0.57 




35.47 


41.70 


38.23 


38.40 


56.75 


19.25 


57. 


16. 


4L 


2.32 


6. 


16.64 


23.68 


19.10 


19.49 


36.75 


-0 


40. t 


-5.t 


45. 


1.81 


19. 



PCEVAILING 
WlXDS. 



Direction and 
Days. 



S. W., 68; w., 43. 

S. W.,10. 

S. W,6?3' ;■«-., e^i. 

N. W., 6. 

s. w., 7 w.,7>3. 
w., lOJi. 
s. w., 10. 
s.^y.,8%■,^r.Jyi. 
S. AV., 9%. 
E., 9. 

w., 11. 
S. W., 6Ji. 

s. w., 9K. 



* [Average of the monthly, not of the daily, means (made in this office;.— H. B. B., Sec'y-] 
t (12th.) X (16th.) 



26. In June, tlie soil was unusually moist; in early September, very dry. 
I have no data from which to give answers, or even opinions, with reference to the 
other questions. 

Yerv respectfullv. 
Grand Bapids, Kent Co., Mich., Jan. 26,'lS77. ' A. HAZLEWOOD. 



DISEASES IX MICIIIGAX DUllING THE YEAR 1870. 191 

liKPI.IES BY J. O. MCILVAIX, M. D., OK LAMOXT, MICH. 

Secretary of State Board of Health: 

In answer to Circnlav Xo. 15, 1 am sorry that you request an immediate answer. 
Many of the questions asked require, for a proper response, considerable time and 
labor. * 

1. In this locality, the year 1S7G has been characterized by unusual ,ij;ood health. 
During most of the year 1875, two physicians -were verj' busy; while in 1S7G, one phy- 
sician alone did not have as great a ride as he did the previous j'car. and this, not- 
withstanding the fact that the area of the ride had been extended considerably. 

2. Xotwithstanding the fact that there was less sickness in this year, tliere were 
nearly as many deaths as in the previous j'ear. Fatal accidents have helped to swell 
the mortality; for instance, two accidental deaths by hanging; one person shot 
through the heart last week by accidental discharge of pistol; one, burned to death; 
one, drowned. 

3. Consumption has caused more deaths than any other two diseases. One familj', 
consisting of four persons, have all died of consumption, two within six months. 
There are many cases of consumption in this vicinity at the present time. You ask 
me to assign a cause for the unusual prevalence of this disease. This I would not 
A^enture to do, did you not ask it; for 1 have no means of taking statistics and of fol- 
lowing out the history of individual cases. But first, I believe that people inherit 
(not consumption) but a tendency or a susceptibility to its influence. AVitliin two 
years, an epidemic of measles was very prevalent and widespread throughout this 
section. Tliis occurred during an open Winter, with notable changes of temperature. 
This was immediately followed by a severe epidemic of whooping-cougii ; and now 
this Fall witnesses a severe epidemic of catarrhal fever or influenza. A succession 
of favorable opportunities has been presented for the invasion of the lungs by this 
disease. Invasion cannot occur where the powers are fully capable of resistance, and 
the vitality of oi-gans must be lowered in proportion as tiiey sufler from disease. 

I have noticed the fact that most cases of consumption are developed (in this local- 
ity) in persons who have sowed great flelds of wild oats. — young ladies in the habit 
of attending country dances, full of life and activity, and j'oung men who have the 
name of being "wild." So much is this the case,t]iat it is difficult to convince friends 
that it is not the direct result of dissipation. 

5. There has not been a case of scarlet fever, and but one of diphtheria, in this locality 
for two years. 

6. I do not really consider it a lessened prevalence, in fact, so much as I do a 
lessened amount of something else. It is well known, and I have observed for years, 
that a certain class of practitioners are always called upon to treat the most formi- 
dable diseases. Their nosology differs somewhat from mine. Every sore throat is 
diphtheria, and every ephemeral rash is scarlet fever. 

7. Consumption. 

8. See answer ''4". 

9. See answer "6". 

10. — . 

11. Typhoid fever, 2; measles, 50; whooping-cough, 150; cerebro-spinal meningi- 
tis, 1 ; influenza, 200. 

12. Small-pox, cholera, diphtheria, and scarlet fever. 

13. See by weekly report. 

14. Xo instance. 

15. Influenza. 
16, 17. Xone. 

I have no meteorological records. Grains, cereals, and roots, all right general)}'. 

I think it bad to feed soft corn, so called. It is almost sure to mould, and I have 
known sickness to occur in animals fed soft corn. I think the late i)oacliblow potato 
never gets ripe in northern Michigan. Its tops are always killed by frosts. Potatoes 
are attacked by bugs, underground, sometimes forming a nucleus for dry rot. Apples 
are not keeping well. 

In my opinion, poverty and ignorance are the cause of more disease than is gener- 
ally credited to them. I don't think people can be too well clothed, fed, or warmed. 
There is a notable increase of sickness of poor i)eople in the Winter. 

Kespectfull}', 

Lament, Ottawa Co., 3Iich., Dec. 31, 1S76. J. C. McILVAIX. 

* The figures beginning paragraplis refer to questions in Circular !.'>, iirinted on pages ]3o-6 of 
this Report. 



192 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1S77. 

REPLIES BY E. N. DUNDASS, M. D., OP LUDINGTON, MICH. 

Secretary of the State Board of Health: 

Dear Sir: — The following are my replies to Circular 15, relative to Prevailing 
Diseases, 1876. They are for the city of Ludington and vicinity.* 

1. Average less, about 25 per cent; last year we had scarlet fever, this year none. 

2. Diminished about 25 per cent. 

3. Cholera infantum, in warm months; scarlet fever, in Spring of 1876. 

4. Scarlet fever spread; cause, neglect on part of parties in control. 

5. Malarial fevers. 

6. High water. 

7. None. 

9. Malarial fevers. 

10. Want of cause or disease. 

11. About 250 cases. 

12. Small-pox, cholera, cerebro-spinal meningitis, diphtheria. 

13. For the first three months we had scarlet fever; in August, September, and 
October, cholera infantum. 

14. Scarlet fever as an epidemic. 

15. Nothing special. 
16, 17, 18. No. 

19. Good. 

20. No. 

21. Yes. 

22. 23. No. 

24. I have no means of giving a correct description; atmosphere usually damp and 
heavy. 

25. Soil usually more moist in the first half-year; last, dryer. 

26. Answered in "25". 

27. Ground water usually the same, governed by the lake. 

28. Water about the same every year, governed by the lake. 

29. No facts to give. 

Ludington, Mason Co., Mich., Jan. 20, 1877. E. N. DUNDASS, M. D. 

CENTRAL DIVISION OF THE STATE, t 

REPLIES BY G. B. ALLEN, M. D., OP CHARLOTTE, MICH. 

Answers to Circular 15, relative to prevailing diseases, for Charlotte and vicinity.* 

1. About the same as the average for previous years. 

2. Less; diminished about 5 per cent. 

3. Measles have been more than usually prevalent the past year. Malarial diseases 
of intermittent and remittent types. Diphtheria has been cause of moi'C deaths. 

4. I cannot, except for malarial diseases, which were developed from the wet season 
early in the Summer. 

5. Typhoid fever (enteric), pneumonia, puerperal fever, dj'sentery, cholera infantum. 

6. I do not know. 

7. Diphtheria, typho-malarial fever. 

8. I cannot. 

9. The same as in answer ''5". 

10. I do not know. 

11. No small-pox, no cholera; about 5 of scarlet fever; of typhoid fever, I do not 
know; I should judge about 250 cases of measles, as it was very general; whooping- 
cough, not very many; I know of no cases of cerebro-spinal meningitis; about 75 
cases of diphtheria; I cannot give any facts in regard to these cases as to actual num- 
bers, for the reason that physicians have not reported their cases. I can only make 
an estimate from a personal judgment. 

12. Small-pox and cholera." 
13, 14. I have no data. 

15. Bronchitis, influenza, diphtheria, pneumonia, rheumatism. 

16. No. 

17. I think there has been no disease prevalent among animals. 

* The fijjures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 15, printed on pages 185-6 of 
this Report. 
t For counties included in eacli Division, see Exhibit 1, page 171. 



DISEASES IX MICHIGAN DUKIXG THE YEAR 187G. 193 

IS. Xo diseases prevailed to any extent. These crops were light, except f^rasseS' 
19. Il.ve is not raised to an}' extent in this section; oats were fail-, their weii^ht was 
light when threshed; corn was a "short" crop, much of it was killed bj- wet weather 
in June and July, and was not proiierly worked, owing to other work then i)ressing 
farmers; much of the crop was in.jiu-ed by the early frosts and was brought into 
market in a soft condition; buckwheat was, in this vicinity, almost entirely killed by 
frosts, and but little ripened and was harvested; wheat was a good crop and was 
brought into market in a good condition, except that the berry was "shrunken"'. 

20.1 do not see that these grains were mentioned in "question 15",* but 1 believe 
they were not affected by any kind of fungus. 

22. They say it is less liable to "bank" in the bin. 

23. Clover haj% cut in its season, was more than usually aflected bj' mold and mil- 
dew. Timothj'' and red top cut in their season were less aftccted. 

24. X^o data. 

25. I cannot state facts. 

26. In Juue the soil was unusually moist; in August it was (\vy. 

27. I cannot state facts. 

28. In June and July it was high ; at no time has it been unusually low. 

29. I have no facts to communicate. 

Respectfullj', 
Charlotte, Eaton Co., Mich., Jan. IS, 1S77. G. B. ALLEX, M. D. 

REPLIES BY G. AV. TOPPING, M. D., OF DEWITT, MICH. 

Secretary of State Board of Health: 

Dear Doctor : — I herewith submit the following replies to Circular Xo. 15. Thougli 
in many of the replies I make no pretence to accuracy, some of them are quite cor- 
rect and all are as nearly so as the limited number of facts in my possession could 
make them, f 

1. A decrease of 25 per cent from the average of the last six years, arid of 15 per 
cent from the sickness of last j'ear, bj' actual calculation from my own practice. 

2. About the usual proportion of deaths. 

3. Whooping-cough was unusually prevalent, but there liave been but few deaths 
from it, and none, so far as I know, except where there has been some intercurrent 
disease, like pneumonia or acute bronchitis. 

5, 6. Cannot say. 

7, 8, 9, 10. Have no data bj^ which I can answer these questions. 

11. Xo cases of small-pox or cholera; probabl}^ about G cases of scarlet fever, and 
about the same number of cases of typhoid fever; eight cases of measles; a good 
many cases of whooping-cough, probabh^ about 50 within five miles of DeWitt village ; 
no cases of ccrebro-spinal meningitis; about three of diphtheria; a few of mumps, 
I should think about 15. 

12. Xo cases of Asiatic cholera, small-pox, or cerebro-spinal meningitis. 

13. January: Pneumonia, bronchitis, rheumatism, porrigo, eczema, abortion. 
February: Pneumonia, bronchitis, rheumatism, valvular disease of heart, 

ccdema, pericarditis, eczema, keratitis. 

March: Bronchitis, pneumonia, rheumatism, pericarditis, disease of valves of 
heart, dropsy, measles, tonsilitis, mctrorrliagia, whooping-cough, keratitis. 

April: Bronchitis, pneumonia, ilieumatism, neuralgia, paraplegia, whooping- 
cough, scarlatina, eczema, gastralgia, scrofulous abcesses, tonsilitis, keratitis. 

May: Bronchitis, whooping-cough, pneumonia, keratitis, rheumatism, amenor- 
riirca, retention of urine, gonorrha?a, endocervicitis, intermittent fever, dys- 
menorrluca, chlorosis, paraplegia. 

June: Whooping-cough, bronchitis, intermittent fever, remittent fever, rheu- 
matism, gonorrhaa, abortion, chlorosis, cry tliema nodosum. 

July: Intermittent fever, remittent fever, typho-malarial fever, whooping- 
cough, diphtheria, pneumonia, rheunaatic arthritis, typhoid fever, diarrhoea, 
dysentery, capillary bronciiitis, erysipelas, hysteria, opium poisoning, abor- 
tion, gonorrhcea, etc. 

August: Typhoid fever, typho-malarial fever, intermittent fever, remittent 
fever, whuoi)ing-cougli, diarrhroa, dysentery, cholera infantmn, rheumatic 
arthritis, pneuuionia, rheumatism, asthma, erythema nodosum, gangrene, 
bronchitis, neuralgia, gastralgia, etc. 

* [This should have been printeil in the circular, (jiiestion in.— II. B. ]{., Sec'y.] 

t The ligures beginning jiaragraphs refer to questions in Circular 15, printed on pages ISj-C of 
this Report. 

25 



194 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

September: T^'phoid fever, typho-malarial fever, remittent fever, intermittent 
fever, diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera infantum, wliooping-cough, bronchitis, 
dyspepsia, inflamation of the mouth, jaundice, eczema, pityriasis, lichen, 
enlargement of the spleen. 

October: Typho-malarial fever, remittent fever, intermittent fever, whooping- 
cough, bronchitis, pneumonia, jaundice, diarrhcea, dysentery, retention of urine, 
abortion, spermatorrhaja, acne, erysipelas, rheumatism, pulmonary consump- 
tion, neuralgia, gonorrhoea, etc. 

November: AVhooping-cough, bronchitis, pneumonia, asthma, erysipelas, gan- 
grene, retention of urine, gonorrhoea, onychia, eczema, enlargement of the 
spleen, anemia, rheumatism, intermittent fever, pulmonary consumption, 
lierpes, eczema, goitre, synovitis, sciatica, dysmenorrhoea, endocervicitis, 
remittent fever. 

December: Whooping-cough, bronchitis, pneumonia, asthma, tonsilitis, pul- 
monary consumption, rheumatism, intermittent fever, erysipelas, scarlatina, 
parotitis, goitre, herpes, neuralgia, endocervicitis, dysmenorrhoea, enlarge- 
ment of the spleen, chronic diarrhoea, oedema, emphysema, prostatitis, 
spermatorrhoea. 
The above statement of diseases prevailing during the different months of the year 
has been gleaned entirely from my own practice; but it is presumed that it includes 
all the diseases prevailing in this vicinity, for the several luonths named. 

14. See answers "4" and '"IS". 

15. Whooping-cough, parotitis, scarlatina, bronchitis, tonsilitis, rheumatism, en- 
largement of the spleen, goitre, pulmonary consumption, asthma, emphysema, sperma- 
torrhoea, catarrh. 

16. Whooping-cough is very prevalent, but not very fatal. 

17. In tlie latter part of September last, five horses'died finite close together, in the 
stables of two farmers living in the townships of Riley and Olive, about four miles 
from this village. The veterinary surgeons in attendance did not agree as to the 
diagnosis of the disease, though it was generallj" conceded tliat they were all sick of 
the same disease. I saw two of tliese horses and described their symptoms in a 
letter to the Secretary of the State Board of Health.* Messrs. Pike and Fletcher 
made a post mortem examination of two of these horses, and found the tissues about 
the pharynx and roots of the tongue full of little grubs resembling bots; some of the 
same griibs were found in the stomach of one of the animals, which was killed and 
examined immediately after death. 

18. Plave not heard of any general disease of crops in this vicinitj'. 

19. Good, so far as I know. 

20. I do not understand "question lo't to refer to grains at all. 

21. Yes. 

22. I hear no complaints from millers or wheat-dealers about its "banking"". 

23. There is a great deal of hay injured by the wet weather, especially clover hay. 

24. I cannot. 

25. May, June, and the first part of July were very wet ; the balance of the Summer 
and Fall'was very dry. Wells and streams are now ver.y low. 

26. Answer "25" contains all I can give upon that topic. 

27. I cannot. 

28. I cannot say. 

29. In one family where there were three cases of typhoid fever and two deaths, I 
attributed the malignancy of the disease largely to the nearness of the house and 
well to the barn, hen-house, and privy, — the two first being within 20 and 30 feet 
respectively of the last two. 

DeWitt, Clinton Co., Jlich., Jan. 10, 2S77. G. W. TOPPING. 

REPLIES HY A. P. DRAKE, 31. D., OF HASTINGS, MICH. 

Secretary of State Board of Health : 

Dear Sir:— Below find answers to questions of Circular Xo. 15, as full as my oppor- 
tunities of observation will permit. + 



nai, lioani, anu ii is expecieu iiiai iiiey win oc ijiiuiibiiuti lu lae ive[Joii. oi inai/ nuai 

S77.— H. B. B., Sec'y.] ' 

t [This should have been printeil in the Circular, "question 10."— II. B. B., Sec'y.] 
J The ligures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 1.5, printC'l ou pages ISo-G of 
this Report. 



DISEASES IX MICHIGAN DURING THE YEAR 187G. 195 

I, 2. About tlie same us the average. 

3. Nothing iiinisual. 

4, 5, G, 7, 8, 9, 10. No marketl tlifference. 

II. I have 110 means of knowing definitel}'; tliere have been but few cases?. 

12. Small-pox and cholera. 

13. I have kept no record. 
14, 15, IG. Notliing unusual. 

17. Some form of epizooty slightly in Dee.. 1876. 

18. Not any. 

19. Prime. 

20. No. 

21. Yes. 

22. No; good. 

23. Clean and dry. 

24. I have no means of knowing. 

25. I cannot. 

26. No material difterence. 

27. But little difterence. 

28. No great extreme. 

Respectfullv vours, 
Hastings, Barry Co., Mich., April 6, 1877. ' " A. P. DRAKE. M. D. 

KEPLIES I5Y II. AV. BROWNE, M. D., OF IIURBARDSTON, MICH. 

Secretary State Board of Health : 

For reasons and causes which were beyond my control, I have been unable to make 
an earlier reply to j'our circular No. 15, relative to the prevailing diseases in 1876. 
and the same causes will now prevent me from making as full and satisfactory replies 
as I could wish. 

1. Greater. 

2. About the same as the average; I cannot make accurate statement. 

3. Of specific diseases, fevers. 

4. Excessive moisture in the Spring months, followed by hot weather of Summer. 

5. Diseases of the respiratory system; diseases of the brain and nervous system. 

6. Better houses, good wells, better drainage, jierhaps less excessive general use of 
narcotics and stimulants, owing to the "hard times*'. 

7. I do not know of ain' disease, or class of diseases, from which there has been an 
unusual mortality. There have been deaths from tlie several diseases prevalent 
during the year. 

8. No unusual mortalitj-. 

9. I should say that, considering the number of cases, there had been less than the 
usual mortality from typhoid and typho-malarial fevers. 

10. The fact that the cause was dittused, if one might so express it. There was no 
concentrated ))oison acting upon any large number of persons collected togetlier in 
the same conditions, to be exposed to its influence; that is, not an epidemic of the 
disease, in a proper sense. Also the cases were not so severe as are sometimes 
observed, and there were less complications, especially of the respiratory sj'Stem. 

11. No case of small-pox, cholera, scarlet fever; of typhoid fever, there were several 
sporadic cases in the vicinity; I cannot state the exact number; no case of measles; 
whooping-cough, a few cases; cerebro-spina! meningitis, — I am of the opinion from 
the description 1 have heard, there has been one case, but did not see it; 1 liave heard 
of two cases of diphtheria. 

12. Small-pox, cholera, scarlet fever. 

13. I cannot. 

14. None. 

15. No prevailing disease, at this time. 

16. I have learned of none. 

17. None, in this section. 

18. None. 

19. Rye, none raised; oats, corn, good; buckwheat, a short crop; wheat was of a 
good rpiality, in good condition. 

20. Not that I am aware of. 

21. In most cases, yes. Some, I think thresh too early in the season. There are 
so many "machines"' in use at the present time that it would appear to be easy to 
allow time for the wheat to get thoroughh- dry before threshing. 

22. Does not bank. 

23. Less. 



19G STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

24, 25.* I cannot. 

2G. I should think that in the months of April ami May the soil was unusnally moist, 

27. I cannot. I can saj'' in a general wny, that in tiie Spring and early Summer 
water in wells and streams was nnusually high; but late in Autumn the wells and 
streams were very shallow, and tlie depth of earth above the ground water was 
correspondingl}'^ great. 

28. In the months of April and May. unusual! j' high, I should think. 

29. As typhoid fever has been mentioned, I might say we had several cases of that 
disease, in this section, — not an epidemic, but sporadic cases, as we might say, occur- 
ring in difterent localities and witliout any apparent connection with each other, and 
not deriving their origin from any common source. Thisfever has been diagnosticated 
by manj^ physicians as a mixture or hybrid of t^'phoid and malarial fevers, and for 
the reason that it is not uniform in its course or character. In some cases the mala- 
rial element may predominate, and in others the typhoid element may predominate; 
but I do not tliiiik it is malarial disease complicated by typhoid element. 

Last Fall I saw man}' cases in which there was a gradual development followed by 
continued fever, diarrhea, with yellow colored discharges, tympanites, tenderness, 
and gurgling in iliac regions, epistaxis, and eruption, characteristic of typhoid 
fever, and yet having during course of disease marked remissions in everything bid 
the temj^erature,^.?, indicated by thermometer. Many practitioners are perplexed by 
these cases. I think they are a sort of hybrid with the typlioid and malarial fevers, 
the typhoid influences p'redominating. There is often delirium and great implica- 
tion of the nervous system. My diagnosis is typhoid fever. I do not get opportuni- 
ties to verify upon the cadaver; but I make no doubt these are cases of typhoid 
fever, but tiiey may be obscured by being concomitant with periodical fever. I know 
I have seen cases diagnosticated remittent fever, which were nothing else but 
typhoid. It is a common thing to hear it remarked, even by physicians, '"we don't get 
any marked cases of typlioid in this country." They don't think it is typhoid, if the 
tongue is not dry and tissured. But I liave seen these cases in which the tongue was 
neither cracked nor brown throughout the disease, which lasts from one to six and 
eiglit weeks. Murchison's cases probably did not occur in malarious districts. 

In one case, in a family of ten, four of the family contracted the disease and one 
died. In this case there was a cellar, or cellar hole, under the house, which was orig- 
inally planked up, but had caved in, near the door entering the kitchen: here the 
slops were thrown out, and ran down into the cellar, and spread out upon the ground 
under the house, where the gases, arising from this fermenting mass of filth, confined 
by the cellar walls and house floor, and thus excluded from the disinfecting power of 
the winds, permeated the house, and were probablj' tiie cause of the infection. The 
disgusting odor of decomposition had been long perceptible to the familv. but had 
excited no anxiety as to the cause. The cellar cleaned out, the slops and filth carried 
away and buried," the health of the family was restored, with the exception above 
stated, and has remained good to the present time. 

Two cases of the fever were traced to the use of watei- which was found to contain 
organic matter. In one case the well was simply a tub placed in the ground. At 
times the water was high and the tub would be under water, and surface water would 
mix with that of the well ; and again, the water would fall, and then a portion of the 
titb would be above water. In this condition of things it was impossible but that 
fungi should be generated upon the walls of the tub; a'lso that organic matter shoidd 
not be carried into the well )\v the surface water. There were many things in the sur- 
roundings not consistent with the best state of health. The family here consisted of 
a man and wife and two small children. The man was taken sick in March last, and 
continued sick three months with a low fever, diagnosticated typhoid, and is now 
(June) slowly convalescing. The children, both quite young, were sick during the 
Winter with a mild form of the same disease. The mother, youthful and vigorous, 
and not using much of the water, escaped. A complication, or I'ather a duplication 
of the supposed cause of disease in this case, is the fact that the dead body of a horse 
was hauled into the woods (about 40 rods from the house, which was to leeward of 
the woods) and left there to decay. It was hauled there in Jaimary, 1 think, and the 
wind, blowing from the north-west, bore constantly to the nostrils of this household 
an odor which was intolerable. It moved upon them every time the door was opened. 
I think there was but one door which was used in the "Winter season, and two small 
windows. Wiien this family ceased to use the water of their '-weH", and when the 
bones of the dead horse had whitened, this family recovered their health. 



* The figures beginning paragraplis refer to questions in Circular 15, printed on pages 185-G of 
this Report. 



DISEASES IX MICHIGAN DUJnXG THE YEAR 1S7(3. 197 

It may be remarked that the above is a true picture of the home life of far too many 
of the dwellers of "the woods", — those of small means and less enernfy and vim, who 
come to ''clear up" a forty, or more rarely an eighty, and prepare the way for those 
with laru'cr means and experience, and more ambition to rise. The well is usually a 
hole in tlie ground, or the source of water-supply is a spring in Avhich surface water 
and washings freely commingle. The water usually tastes and smells bad, and when 
freely used cannot but be productive of disease. The house is poorly constructed, 
"without regard to hygienic principles, and if it is of logs with one, or at the most, 
two small windows. Tl>e door, for often there is but one, is located in that part 
where it will be most convenient for the work, which, under all circumstances must 
be performed. The sleeping apartment is but a dark closet, and so on. That men 
and women live and apparenth'' thrive under such conditions, deprived of a due 
supply of light, pure air. and pure water, is no proof of the advantages of such cir- 
cumstances of human existence; it onl}' exhil)its, as far as it goes, tlie powers of 
nature, and of life-force. But perliaps, after all, there may be less danger to life and 
health here than lurks, unsuspected, in the luxurious liomes of those more fortunate ( ?) 
individuals who dwell in more pretentious liabitations, having all the modern 
improvements. 

By far tlie most common and fertile source of contagion in typhoid fever, is, in my 
opinion, air-contamination, air poisoned hj mephitic gases evolved from overflowing 
cesspools, privy-vaults, and pig-sties. The relation of tliose to the water-supplj' has 
been mentioned above; and many cases of this disease can, no doubt, be shown to 
have resulted from tiie use of impure water. Still I am of the opinion that this 
cause, in the '"rural districts," at least, is not so general as air-contamination. In 
many of our villages, during the Summer months, the air is foul with putrescent 
gases, and after some weeks of a high tempei-ature. one ])assing along to leeward of 
the rear of the street, is saluted with a stench which would cause him to exclaim with 
Lear, ''Give me some civet, good apothecar}', to sweeten nij' imagination."' As the 
contents of these cesspools and privy-vaults are not, in this section at any rate, con- 
sidered valuable for manure, it happens that these receptacles for tilth and rottenness, 
in many cases are not discharged of their contents for years; and thus air, and too 
often water, become contaminated, unfit to preserve life and health, and when the 
pestilence comes, and hurries its victims to death, then men stare, and are distracted, 
and ask the cause of such dangerous diseases. 

As to the remed\', it seems that much might be accomplished tlirough systematic 
and vigorous action of the local boards of health (now that the law has been amended 
so as lo make it obligatory upon sucli local l;oards to organize) in executing the 
laws. "The board of healtli shall examine into all nuisances, sources of filth, and 
causes of sickness, that may, in their opinion, be injui'ious to the health of the inhab- 
itants within their townships, or in any vessel within any Iiarbor or port of such town- 
ship, — and t!ie same shall destroj', remove or prevent, as the case may require." They 
should require all cesspools and privy-vaults to bo cleaned out at least once a year, 
and disinfected as often as the health officer shall deem expedient; see that the lanes, 
rear walks, and enclosures of villages are kept clear of otlal and refuse; and exercise 
such supervision over the carrying on of trades and employments dangerous to the 
public health, as the circumstances of the case may require. 

Hubbardston, Ionia Co., Mich., May 30, 1S78. H. W. BROWNE. 

REPLIES BY O. MARSHALL, M. D., OF XOUTII LAXSIXG, MICH, 

Secretary State Board of Health : 

Deau Sir:— The following replies to questions in Circular No. 1"), "Relative to pro- 
vailing diseases for the year 1S7G", are for the territory included in the first ward, 
and the nortli parts of the fourtli and fifth wards, city of Lansing, and four to six 
miles into the adjoining townships of I>ansing, DeWitt, Watertown, and Delta. 

1. In my own practice, tliere was a decrease of 1") per cent, wliich was about the 
average with other physicians, as far as I was able to learn. 

2. About 15 per cent less. 

3. Scarlet fever. 

4. The same as produced tlie scarlet fever epidemic of 1S75-G, of which a full report 
was given last year.* 

5. The year was remarkable for the absence of the severe forms of lung, intestinal, 
and malarious diseases. 

G. Probably better sanitary conditions. 

7. Scarlet fever. 

8. The cause of death in scarlet fever may be the natural malignancy of the disease, 

* [In the Fourth Amuial Report of the State Roanl of Health, pages 41-o-2.— II. B. B., Sec'v.] 



198 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPOET OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

bad sanitary conditions surrounding the patient, or some peculiar depraved condition 
of the body in individual cases; but more often 1 believe it to be improper care and 
treatment, resulting from the ignorance and imprudence of those having charge of 
the sick. 
9.* Those given in answer "5"'. 

10. Better sanitary conditions. 

11. Scarlet fever, 67; typhoid fever, 9; cerebro-spinal meningitis, 2; whooping- 
cough, many cases. 

12. Small-pox, cholera, and measles. 

13. The answers given are from records of mj^ own practice and what information 
could be gathered by observation, and otherwise, in the practice of others. 

13.t January : Scarlet fever, pneumonia, bronchitis, rheumatism. 

February: Pneumonia and catarrhal diseases, scarlet fevei-, rheumatism. 

March: Pneumonia, bronchitis, scarlet fever. 

April: Catarrhal diseases, pneumonia, intermittent fever, scarlet fever. 

Ma}^: Intermittent fever, 

June: Intermittent fever. 

July: Intermittent fever, tj-phoid fever. 

August: Intermittent fever, typhoid fever, scarlet fever, whooping-cough. 

September: Intermittent fever, remittent fever, diarrhoea, dysentery. 

October: remittent fever. Intermittent fever, pneumonia and catarrhal diseases. 

November: Intermittent fever, pneumonia. 

December: Intermittent fever, ■whooping-cough, pneumonia, bronchitis. 

14. Most of the scarlet fever cases occurred in the first four months of the year. In 
the months of Maj% June, and July no cases occurred. In tlie remaining months, 
there were a few cases in localities where the disease had prevailed before. 

15. Unusually healthv at the present time, June 19,1877. 

16. No. 

17. None that I know of. 

18. There was not more than a half a crop of potatoes; cause, '"bugs" and drouth. 
They were not much atlected with rot, but from the wet weather in the Fall they 
were "watery." 

19. From having been winter-killed, and injured by insects and rust, wheat was a 
short crop. What there was left was of good quality, but somewhat shrnnken. 

20. Not more than common. 

21. It is the custom here with the farmers to thresh their wheat as soon as possible 
after harvesting. 

22. No. 

23. Hay cut early was injured by rains. Late made hay was secured in good con- 
dition, and was free from mildew or mould. 

24. 25, 26, 27, 28. 1 kept no record. 

29. Of the nine cases of typhoid fever which occurred, but one or two seemed to 
have any traceable cause. One of these was at the residence of Prof. C. Tracy, mem- 
ber of the city board of health, for the fourth ward. His son Milton, ten years of 
age, was taken sick with tj^phoid fever Juh' 24. His disease ran a regular and well 
defined course, witli the usual characteristic symptoms of typhoid fever, although it 
was a mild case. The house is new, with large rooms and high ceilings, well venti- 
lated, and clean. The privj' is a part of the house, at the west end, and opens into the 
woodhouse. It is made without a vault and is so arranged that the feces are caught 
in a movable box, which is put in place from the outside. "When it is full, the con- 
tents are buried in the garden, in the rear of the house. The intention of this 
arrangement was cleanliness and pure air; but the result was that all the urine 
escaped from the box, while the west winds carried the gases froni decomposing 
urine and fresh feces directly into the house. The son Milton often used the wood- 
house as a playhouse and work-shop. 

Three of the cases occurred at the residence of R. B. Pratt, near the Odd Fellows' 
Institute, in the months of June and July. There was nothing about the premises or 
neighborhood to which the cause of the disease could be attributed. The well was 
open and about twenty feet deep. The water entei-ed by a small stream, about ten 
feet from the top. and" disappeared at the bottom, where the water was constantly 
about three feet deep. The water was clear and wholesome, but was not examined 
by any other test for impurity. 

* The figures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 15, printed on pages 185-6 of 
this Report. 
t Diseases arranged in order of prevalence; the disease of which there were the most cases, first. 



DISEASES IX MICIIICJAX DURING THE YEAR 1S7G. 199 

Two other cases occurred at a house ou Turner street, occupied bj' a family by the 
name of Curtis. A diihl of D. D. White, who lived in this house a .short time before, 
also had a disease which 1 believe to have been typhoid fever. Two of these three 
cases died. In the Fall of the year 1873, a family of six persons, by tiie name of 
Grammel, who occupied this house, were all sick. Two of the cases were well marked 
typhoid fever. Several examinations of the premises liave failed to reveal the cause 
of the disease in these cases. 

North Lansing, Ingham Co., June 19, 1877. O. MARSHALL. 

REPLIES BY A. W. NICHOLSON, M. D., OV OTISVILLE, MICH. 

To the Secretary of the State Board of Health: 
The followino^ replies to Circular 15, are respectfullj' submitted: 

1. With the exception of the prevalence of scarlatina, the general sickness in this 
locality has been about the same as the average for the three preceding years; yet, 
while some sections have been favored with unusual immunity from sickness, in 
another an increased amount occurred. 

2. About the same. 

3. The most deaths occurred from scarlatina, and diarrhoea of children. 

4. As mentioned in the reply to question No. 1, in one section in this locality unu- 
sual sickness prevailed. This was confined to a radius of country about one mile in 
extent, and occupied by mills for the manufacture of pine lumber. Estimated popu- 
lation, 150. The habitations are entirely of a temporary nature, built of rough 
boards, and are questionable protections in inclement weather. The contiguous ter- 
ritory is mostly pine forest. A pond for the reception of logs adjoins the mills, and 
large quantities of decaying vegetable debris surround the premises. In one habi- 
tation, where the most serious illness appeared, the floor consisted of movable boards, 
beneath which stagnant water stood two feet in depth. One of its inmates died of 
colliquative diarrhrea, and four others, after removal, slowly recovered from fevers 
of a typhus type. I have, in one day, prescribed to more than one-sixth of this pop- 
ulation. The sickness mostly consisted of intermittent and typho-malarial fevers 
and diarrhoeas. The preceding data seem to lead to a definition of the unusual pre- 
A^alence of disease within the mentioned limits. 

5. In other sections than the one mentioned in answer "4", intermittent, remittent, 
and other forms of fever. 

G. Perhaps to the increased amount of drainage. 
7. From no disease. 
S. — . 

9. Scarlatina. 

10. To sanitary measures and to the general mildness of the disease. 

11. Scarlatina,' about 00 cases; typhoid fever, 4 cases; whooping-cough, about 20 
cases; measles, about 10 cases; diphtheria, 2 cases. 

12. Small-pox, cholera, cerebro-siiinal meningitis. 

13. Januarj^: Scarlatina, bronchitis, pneumonia, diphtheria, tonsilitis. 
February: Scarlatina, pneumonia, bronchitis. 

March: Scarlatina, bronchitis, pneumonia. 

April: Scarlatina, intermittent fever, erysipelas. 

May: Intermittent fever. 

June: Whooping-cough, intermittent fever. 

July: Scarlatina, reniittent fever, intermittent fever. 

August: Scarlatiiui, intermittent fever, remittent fever. 

September: Intermittent fever, typho-malarial fever, typhoid fever, diarrhoe.i, 

cholera infantum. 
October: Intermittent fever, pulmonary consumption. 
November: Typho-malarial fever, intermittent fever, erysipelas. 
December: Bronchitis, rheumatism. 

14. Scarlatina in January, February, and March. 

15. Neuralgia, bronchitis, and intermittent fever. 
16, 17. No disease. 

18. Slight amount of i-ust in wheat. 

19. Generally fair; wheat some shrunken. 

20. Not noticeably. 

21. It was. 



200 STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH— KEPORT OF SECRETAKY, 1877. 

22. iSTo complaint. 

23. Usualh' well secured. 

24. Am unable to answer deflnitelj'. 

25. Unable to answer. 

26. Unusualljr drj^ in the months of July, August, and September. 

27. Wells, in this vicinity, bored to the depth of about eighty feet, bring water to 
within eleven feet of the >?urface of the ground. "Wells from ten to fifteen feet in 
depth were dry during the months of August, September, and October. Cannot 
answer more definitelJ^ 

28. Unusually low during the months of Julj'-, August, and September, also in 
November. 

29. Perhaps sufficiently answered in No. 4. Xo other cases to specify unless those 
from the contagious influence of scarlatina. 

Very respectfully, 
Otisville, Genesee Co., Mich., April 20, 1877. A. W. NICHOLSON, M. D. 

REPLIES BY C. V. BEE BE, M. D., OP OVID, MICH. 

Secretary of State Board of Health: 

Dear Sir: — Yon will please find enclosed answers to Circular No. 15, for Ovid, 
Clinton Co., and vicinity. As I have been a correspondent for only about two 
niontlis, it will be more difficult for me to arrive at definite conclusions than it would 
otherwise have been. But I will endeavor to come approximately near to correct 
answers. * 

1. About the same as the average of last year. 

2. Increased about 25 per cent over last year. 

3. Chronic diseases in verj'^ old people. 

4. I cannot say. 

5. 6. I do not know. 

7. A species of throat disease, probably membraneous croup. I did not lose any 
cases of this kind myself, consequently I cannot answer definitel}'. 

8. I cannot. 

9. 1 do not know. 

10. — . 

11. No cases of small-pox. A few of scarlatina gravior (probably 20), mostly fatal, 
last Spring in the vicinity of Mungerville, 5 miles east of Ovid. Quite a large num- 
her of typhoid cases, at least 50. I cannot give exact numbers for any of the above. 

12. Small-pox, Asiatic cholera. 

13. I cannot. 

14. Scarlatina, March and April; exact dates I cannot give. 

15. Influenza. 

16. There is none. 

17. Epizootic, not very extensive or fatal. 

18. The wheat crop was badly injured by rust, and, in the opinion of some, by the 
extreme wet and hot weather in Spring, causing a sort of a blight. 

19. Wheat, shrunk; oats, light; buckwheat and corn, good quality. 

20. I do not know. 

21. Yes. 

22. I do not know. 

23. I think less. 

24. I cannot. 

25. Quite wet from January to June, and dry from June to September; Sept. and 
Oct., moderately dry. Oct. to Jan., 1877, rather dry. 

26. I do not remember. 

27. Usually, from 12 to 14 feet; it would [not] varv over 2 feet at any time. 

28. April. 

29. I do not know of any other than the shape the seasons assumed, or changes in 
the weather. I could not suggest any methods for the prevention of diseases, better 
than a strict attention to hygiene and diet. 

Very respectfully, 
Ovid, Clinton Co., Mich., Jan. 1, 1S77. C. V. BEEBE, M. D. 

* The figures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 15, printed on pages 185-C of 
this Ileport. 



DISEASES JX MICHIGAX DUKING THE YEAR 1S70. 201 

KEl'LIES I5Y G. E. CORIJIK, M. D., OP ST. JOIIXS, MICH. 

Dear Sir: — I will attempt a reply to your circular relative to the diseases of this 
locality during the year ]S7('>. 

1. Decidedly less than during the year 1875. 

2. Less tliau during the year 1875, and less tliau the average for previous years. 

3. Not an}'. 

5. Scarlet'fever and measles prevailed seriously during the year 1875, and scarcely 
prevailed at all during the j^ear 1876. 

0. I cannot state. 

7. Not any of which I am aware. 

9. Diseases dependent upon malarial intluences are rapidly subsiding in this 
locality; hence the mortality from such diseases is constantlj^ growing less. 
11, A few sporadic cases of diphtheria are all that I can mention under this head. 
13. I cannot. 

15. Catarrh, chicken-pox, and a little pneumonia. 

16. No. 

17. I am not aware of any. 

18. I cannot state. I have heard of none. 

19. Good, I think. 

21. Yes. 

22. Neither. 

23. In as good condition as usual. 

24. I cannot do so. 

25. I cannot give it by months, as I kept no record; but 1 distinctlj- remember that 
the fore part of the season was excessively wet, and the latter part excessively dry. 

26. Unusually moist, during May and June; unusually dry during August and Sep- 
tember, and, in fact, during the entire Autumn. 

27. The village of St. Johns is built mostly upon a ridge, or elevation, extending 
from north-east to south-west. In digging our wells, Ave pass through solid clay to 
the depth of ten or twenty feet, when quicksand of an unknown depth is reached. In 
this quicksand is found clear, pure, cool, "hard water"'. On the south side of the 
ridge tlie water is reached at a depth of twenty to thirty-five feet. On tlie north 
side of the ridge, the depth of ground above ground water, is five or ten feet less. 
The height of the water in this quicksand is not sensibly affected by dry spells of 
short dui-ation. When it so happens that an entire year records much less than the 
usual rainfall, and especially when two such years occur in succession, the water in 
our wells recedes several inches, — ten or fifteen, possibly. 

28. Low, late in Autmnn. 

Very truly, 
St. Johns, Clinton Co., dlich, March, 1S77. G. E. C'OKBIN. 

BAY AND EASTEEN DIVISION.* 

REPLIES BY AV. R. MARSH, M. I>., OF BAY CITY. 

Dear Sir:— Circular 15 is before me; but as I did not keep a record of 1876, 1 can- 
not give you figures or statements of sufficient correctness to be of much value. Such 
as I have I give you. 

1, 2. The same as the average. 

11. No small-pox, no cholera, or typhoid fever; a few cases of scarlet fever, typho- 
malarial fever, measles, whooping-cough, and cerebro-spinal meningitis, with here 
and there occasional cases of diphtheria. "We had no epidemic of any of the above- 
named diseases. The cases that did present themselves for treatment were light, 
■with small percentage of deaths. . 

17. Nothing noticed among animals. 

18. Crops good with no decay or disease. 

19. Good, except corn, which was not quite matured before the cold weather caused 
it prematurely to cease growing. 

21. It was. 

22. Less liable to "bank". The wheat was dry, but had a shrunken or small berry. 

* For counties inchicled lu each Division, see Exhibit 1, page 171. 
26 



202 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

29, One of the most prominent causes, and one that prevails and gives some of the 
diseases their character, is miasm, with perversions of liver secretions, incident to 
imdrained localities when freshly improved, and exposed to sunlight and climatic 
changes. Good drainage and early Spring cleaning up, so that the heavy rains of 
Spring may wash away the waste of Autumn and Winter, would make our city a 
health}^ locality. 

Our city is on hard clay with a rich surface of soil, from one to five feet in depth; 
so that drainage is much more necessary than on a porous subsoil. 

Respectfully yours. 

Bail City, Bay Co., Mich., October 23, 1S77. WILLIAM R, MARSH, 

REPLIES BY NELSON II. CLAFLIN, M. D., OP EAST SAGINAW, 

1,* Less, by one-eighth. 

2, About the same. 

3, None, 

4, — , 

5, Malarial fevers, d5'sentery. 

G, Filling and draining the low portions of the city. 
7. None. 
S. — . 

9. Dysentery, scarlatina, diphtheria, 

10. The diseases were of a milder form than usual. 

11. Do not know; as nearly as I can judge, there Avere of scarlet fever, 12 to 20; 
measles. 5 to 15; whooping-cough, 200; diphtheria, 15 to 20. 

12. Of small-pox, cholera, typhoid fever, and cerebro-spinal meningitis, there was 
no case. 

13. I cannot. 

14. There has been none. 

15. Malarial fevers, onl}\ 
IG. No. 

17,18. None. 

19, 20. I think all were well developed and not diseased. 

21. Yes. 

22, 23. — . 

24, 25. I cannot. 

2G. In July, it was dry. 

27. I cannot. 

28. It was at no time unusually hiffh or low. 
29.-. 

The above is the best I can do now in answer to Circular 15. 

Yours trulv. 
East Saginaw, Saginaw Co., Mich., Sept. 16, 1877. NELSON H. CLAFLIN, M. D. 

REPLIES BY B. B. ROSS, M. D., OP EAST SAGINAW, MICH. 

Secretary State Board of Health : 

Sir:— Herewith, as your correspondent at this point, I send report of diseases, etc., 
in response to questions contained In circular No. 15. Territory covered by report is 
Saginaw county and portions of Tuscola and Midland counties.* 

1. Greater than in 1874 and 1875; less than in years preceding these. 

2. About the average of the two precedins' years. 

3. None. l = ^ 

4. No diseases more prevalent than usual. 

5. All zymotics, especially. 

6. Climatic cau.^es generally, and in this city particularly, improved drainage and 
better h3-giene. 

7. From none. 

8. — . 

9. From all. 

10. See '-6". 

11. Small-pox, none; cholera, none; scarlet fever, 100; typhoid, 25; measles and 

* The figures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 15, printed on pages 185-6 of 
this Report. 



DISEASES IN^ MICHIGAN DURING THE YEAR 1S7G. 203 

whooping-cough iu largo muiibers (Uiring first half of )-ear. I cannot give any estimate 
of numbers; cerebro-spinal meningitis and diphtheria, onl}' a few cases, not epidemic. 

12. See "11." 

13. Can't. 

14. None have occurred. 

15. Catarrhal and malarial fevers. 
IG. No. 

17. None. 

IS. Am not aware of anj'. 

10. First-class. 

20. No. 

21. Yes. 

22. No. 

23. Hay crop in good condition, but light. 
24 to 29. I cannot answer these. 

Yours, 
East Saginaw, Saginaw Co., Mich., Jan. 2, 1S77. BENJAMIN B. ROSS. 

REPLIES BY A. NASH, M. D., OF LAPEER, MICU. 

Answers to Circular No. 15. 

1. It was greater than in former years. 

2. The proportion of deaths was greater. 

3. Dysentery, gastric fever, intermittent fever, cholera infantum. 

4. Defective sewerage, and the total absence of all police or sanitary regulations. 

5. None. 

7. Dysenter}', and infirmities incident to old age. 
S. The general prevalence of malaria. 

9. Pneumonia, scarlatina, croup, and diarrhoea. 

10. Any cause I might assign would be merely conjectural. 

11. No' small-pox or cholera. Scarlet fever was not epidemic; 1 think 10 cases 
would comprise the entire number in this vicinit}'; no tj'phoid fever or measles; 
whooping-cough has prevailed the entire year; no cases of cerebro-spinal meningitis* 
diphtheria has also been mild. 

12. Small-pox, cholera, typhoid fever, cerebro-spinal meningitis. 

13. I have not the data to make a reliable statement. 

14. Dj'sentery commenced here about the middle of July. 

15. Scarlatina, inlhienza, erysipelas, pneumonia. 

16. No. 

17. None to mj^ knowledge. 

18. 1 have heard of nothing except rust of wheat. 

19. Condition good. 

20. I think not. 

21. Yes. 

22. Nothing unusual, in this particular. 

23. I cannot say. Hay at present is in good condition. 

24. 1 am unable to state, but would refer you to Dr. Caulkins of Thornville, for reli- 
able facts under this head. 

25. I cannot give iriformation on this point. 
2G. The soil was moist, most of the season. 

27. I think the ground water lies from 20 to 50 feet below the surface. The depth 
of water in most of tlie wells varies from 2 to 5 feet. 

28. 1 cannot state. 

29. I am becoming more and more convinced that the use of impure water is the 
most fruitful source of disease we have to contend with. I find, by examining the 
water from a large number of wells in this vicinitj', with a microscope, that it is 
loaded with organic matter, and differs but little from the water from our ponds and 
lakes. I have frequently foiuid water from a well, situated 10 to 15, and even 20 rods 
from a stagnant pond or lake, emitting the same odor, and having the same taste as 
the water from the adjacent pond. The public need some practical hints in reference 
to the proper construction of wells.* This is particularly true of our villages, many 
of which are entirelv destitute of police regulations, and all sanitary measures; they 
are, as a general thing, much worse off than'our most populous cities, which have some 

* [For hints of this kind, see Report on the " Water-Supplv of Micliigan," by Prof. R. C. Kedzie, 
Fourth ^Vunual Report of this Board, pp., 100-119.— H. B. B., Sec'y.] 



^04 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

common -water-siipplj^ I think it could easily be demonstrated to any intelligent 
community that a large proportion of our villages of 2,000 inhabitants and upwards 
could be more economically and healthfully supplied with water from a common 
source, through water-Avorks or artesian wells, than bj'- family Avells constructed with- 
out any reference to the nature of soil, tlie direction of underlying strata, or the 
nearness of stagnant pools. I am satisfied that in many localities it would be impos- 
sible to dig a well without obtaining more or less impurities with the water, perhaps 
from a neighboring lake or marsh. 

Respectfully, 
Lapeer, Lapeer Co., Mich., Feb. o, 2577. A. NASH. 

IIEPLIES r.Y A. M. OLUFIELD, M. D., OF LEXINGTON, MICH. 

Secretary of State Board of Health : * 

1. I could not say, with any certainty of accuracy; probably about the average. 

2. Average, as nearly as can be ascertained. 

11. A good many cases of whooping-cough; as to the number, I could not say; I 
know of but two cases of diphtheria. 

12. Small-pox, cholera, scarlet fever. 

15. Intlammatory diarrhea. 

16. Inflammatory diarrhea, children. 

18. Rust on wheat. 

19. Shrunken. 

20. Wheat. 

21. Yes. 

26. Dry in July. 

Lexington, Lapeer Co., Mich., Aug., 1S77. A. M. OLDFIELD M. D. 

KEPLIES UY M. NOUTIIUP, M. D., OF PORT HURON, MICH. 

Secretary State Board of Health : 

Sir: — The following is my replj^ to the Circular relative to prevailing diseases 
of 1876:* 

1. Less, 15 per cent. 

2. Less, 20 per cent. 

3. 4. None. 

5. Cholera infantum and diarrhcea. 

6. Better and more abundant water-supply. 

7. S. None. 

9. Cholera infantum and diarrhcea. 

10. Better and more abundant water-supply. 

11. 200 cases (opinion), besides intermittents, and remittents, which are endemic. 

12. Small-pox, cholera, cerebro-spinal meningitis. 

13. Cannot give it. 

14. None. 

15. Remittents, intermittents. 

16. None. 

17. Do not know of anj\ 

18. Potatoes were rotting some. 

19. Good. 

20. No. 

21. Yes. 

22. 23. No. 

24. Refer you to Government Signal Service report. 

25, 26. Cannot give it. 

27. Six feet. 

28. Unknown. 

29. Cannot give any at present. 

Yours, etc. 
Port Huron, St. Clair Co., Mich., Oct. 22, 1877. M. NORTHUP, M. D. 

* The figures beginning paragraplis refer to questions in Circular 15, printed on pages 185-6 of 
tbis Report. 



DISEASES m MICHIGAN DURING THE YEAR 187G. 205 

REPLIES UY J. M. LOOl', M. D., OF POliX SAXILAC, MICH. 

Secretary State Board of Health : 

Dear Sir: — The following answers apply mostly to the surroundliig country, not 
to the village. 

1. About the same as in previous years. 

2. About the same. 

3. Croup and diphtheria. 

4. I cannot give the cause. 

5. C. — . 

7. Consumption and croup. 

8, 9, 10, 11. — . 

12. Small-pox, cholera, measles, whooping-cough, and cerebro-spinal meningitis. 

13. My mind not being specially called to the subject, I am not prepared to answer 
to an earlier date than August. 

August : Diarrhoea, intermittent fever, bronchitis, cholera morbus, cholera infantum , 

inllammatory rheumatism. 
September: Diarrhoea, influenza, intermittent fever, croup, rheumatism, dysentery 

erj'sipelas. 
October: Diarrhoea, intermittent fever, influenza, croup, erj'sipelas, scarlatina. 
November: Bronchitis, scarlatina, intermittent fever, rheumatism, pneumonia. 
December: Diphtheria, scarlatina, croup, and sore throat of a diphtheric character. 

14. — . 

15, 16. Not any. 

17. Some cases of horse-distemper in Winter. 

18. Smut in cereals; wheat, shrunk; potatoes, wet and pasty. 

19. Dry and in good condition. 

20. All cereals were somewhat affected with smut. 

21. 1 believe it was. 

22. I have not heard any complaint. 

23. Good, and well secured. 

24. — . 

25. April and INIay, unusually wet, and Summer dry. The seasons have been pretty 
uniform, wet Spring and dry Summer montlis. 

26. The earth has been, as the seasons would indicate, wet in the early part of the 
season, and dry in the latter part. 

27. 28. — . 

29. Nothing to communicate that would be of interest. 

Very respectfullv, 
Port Sanilac, Sanilac Co., Mich., 3Iay 21, 1817, ' J. M. LOOP. 

REPLIES BY JOHN S. CAULKINS, M. D., OF TIIORNVILLE, MICH. 

To the Secretary of the State Board of Health: 

My answers to the Circular relative to prevailing diseases, appl}' to the township, 
of Diyden and parts of the contiguous townships oi" Lapeer, Attica, and ^letamora. 

1. Less. I think I am warranted in saying that, with the exception of some locali- 
ties (principally Lapeer City), where epidemic dysentery prevailed, 1876 was one of 
the healthiest years in the history of Lapeer county. 

2. I;ess than tiie average, by 15 per cent. 

3. During the Winter and Spring there were a few cases of scarlet fever; during the 
months of August and September, some dysentery; and later in the year, quite an 
epidemic of whooping-cough, witli one fatal case. For nearly the entire year there 
has been a mild type of diphtheria. 

4. The village of Thornvillo is situated on a niillpond. There was a coincidence 
between the temporary draining of tlic pond for repairs and tlie breaking out of dys- 
entery, during the latter part of August. Tlie smell from the pond was bad, and 
after nightfall could be perceived very distinctly a mile away. Simultaneous with 
the dysentery, there was an outbreak of malarious fevers. No doubt the stink of the 
pond caused tlie last-named disease; whether it caused tiie other, is an open question, 
but it is safe to say that if it did not cause, it might aggravate. 



30G STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— EEPORT OF SECRETARY, 1S77. 

5.* Malarious diseases and all others, excejit those mentioned above; and in Dec, 
an epidemic of Influenza. 
G. To improved conditions, especially with regard to drainage and residences. 
7, S. Xone. 

9. From most. Some cases of scarlet fever were severe, but none fatal. Whooping- 
ing cough might be classed as average. 

10. Perhaps, in the case of scarlet fever, to milder type, — an unsatisfactory answer, 
equivalent to an admission of ignorance. It is difficult, on account of want of knowl- 
edge concerning the whole subject, to theorize on the conditions that modify this 
disease. In all other diseases. I attribute the lessened mortality to their lessened 
prevalence; perhaps the mild Winter has to do with that. AVhat has been said above 
about scarlet fever will apply to diphtheria. 

11. Scarlet fever, twenty-five cases; typhoid fever, four; whooping-cough, prob- 
ably fiftj''; dj'sentery, ten; for influenza, a hundred would be a low estimate. 

12. Small-pox, cholera, measles, cerebro-spiual meningitis. 

13. Jan., Feb., March, April : Pneumonia, scarlet fever, rheumatism, and diphtheria. 
May, June, and July: Scarlet fever and bilious diseases. 

August and September: Dysentery, bilious diseases, and whooping-cough, 
Oct., and Nov.: Typhoid fever, bilious diseases, and whooping-cough. 
December: Typhoitl fever, pneumonia, bronchitis, and influenza. There have 
been mild cases of diphtheria, scattering through the whole year. 

14. The influenza commencing Dec. 15th and prevailing at this date (Jan. 5, 1877), 
is rather unusual. 

15. Besides the influenza, there is not much. Tlie little is divided between pneu- 
monia, bronchitis, typhoid fever, and rheumatism. 

16. None unusually fatal. 

17. Have ascertained by enquiry the following facts : Horses, pigs, and sheep are 
quite as health}' as usual; but among the horned stock tliere have been some sudden 
deaths, which are believed by some to be caused by eating the smut from corn. Corn 
this year is unusually smutty. Ira Reynolds of Lapeer, who lost four head of j'oung 
fat cattle, believes his cattle died from eating the smut of corn. lie turned them, in 
a health}' condition, into the corn stubble, an S-ucre fleld, where the smut had been 
left OJi the ground. There was not enough sound corn to kill them at the rate they 
would get "it. Tliey were not found baked in the manifolds, on opening. Their 
symi:)to"nis were different from death by repletion. Their symptoms were jerking 
and trembling, frothing and blindness. AVhen made to get up, they would walk, 
jerking, against any object, as a fence or stump. 

It is not of course, proved that the smut killed the cattle, but it looks very proba- 
ble, Tliere is a great skepticism, in the minds of the farmers, with regard to smut 
being hurtful. Out of the many that I liave consulted, nine-tenths, at least, consider 
it perfect!}' innocent. It is certain that it is not at all distasteful to the cattle. 

There has been, and is, something wrong witli the barn-door fowls, — quite a mor- 
tality among them, besides the annual one tliat the holidays cause. One fancier 
claims that he has lost 400. 

18. Wheat was affected with rust ; corn (as stated .above), and early oats, by smut ; late 
oats, by rust. Not much lye raised about here. Buckwheat was mostly killed by 
frost. Potatoes were hurt by bugs and dry weatlier. Hops were almost ruined by 
Avorms. apparently the same as the currant worm. 

19. Wheat, a good deal shrunk, in many cases; oats, very good, but light in weight; 
buckwheat, beans, barley, and corn, good. 

20. Answered in "18". The condition of the corn crop needs farther remark. It 
was the smuttiest I ever saw, and I have the expression of many, say 20 prominent 
farmers, on the subject. They are unanimous in their verdict that the corn is about 
tliree times more smutty than usual. 

21. Yes. 

22. They say that it is as mobile as usual. • 

23. The early cut, more; the late cut, less. 

* The figures beginning par.igraphs refer to questions m Circular 15, printed on pages 185-6 of 
this Keport. 



DISEASES IN MICHIGAN" DUKING THE YEAR 1S7G. 207 

24. jSiimmary,fnr the yea)' 1S70, of meteorolo'jical condilions at Thornville, Michigan: 



Year 

AND 

Months, 
1876. 



Year.. 

Jan 

Feb.. . 
Mar... 

April . 
May.. 
June . 
July.. 
Aug... 

Sept... 

Oct.... 
Nov... 
Dec... 



Tempkrati'rk. 



High- 


Low- 


est. 


est. 


92° 


-7° 


60° 


10° 


52° 


-2° 


60° 


-7° 


70° 


22° 


S5° 


26° 


91° 


50° 


9'2'' 


55° 


89° 


47° 


73° 


40° 


63° 


27° 


f.r)° 


14° 


40° 


-9° 



50° 
54° 
67° 

4S° 
59° 
41° 
37° 
42° 



36° 
51° 
49° 



Aver- 


Date of 


age. 


Highest. 


45.67° 


2 p. M., 




July 7. 


31.39° 


2 P. jr., 




1st. 


23.55° 


11th. 


28.52° 

1 


6th. 


41.58° 


2 P. M., 




27th. 


52.52° 


2 p. M., 




20th. 


67.77° 


2 p. M., 




12th. 


67.42° 


2 p. M., 




7th. 


71.77° 


3 p. M., 




4 th. 


54.57° 


3 P. M., 




19th. 


44.32° 


2 P. M., 




21st. 


38.8° 


2 P. M., 




1st. 


22.5° 


2 P. M., 




13th. 



Date of 
Lowest. 



March 19th. 



7 a.m., ]0th 
and 20th. 



19th. 

1 X. M., 1st. 

7 A. M., 1st. 

6th, 7th, 
19th, 21st. 
25th. 

Before sun- 
rise, 21st. 



Before sun- 
rise, 27th 
and 30th. 



9th, 11th, 
15th. 

Before sun- 
rise, 30th. 

7 a.m., 11th 



Total 
Precipi- 
tation,— 
inches. 



3.58 

6 
3 



Prevailing 
Wind. 



Westerly. 



S. W. and 

W. 
S. W. and 

N. W. 
S.W.,S. E. 



W., S. AV., 
E. 
E., S. W. 

S. W. 

S. W. 

S. "W. 



N'. W., W. 



N. W. 



Last hard frost of Sprinjj, 
April 30; first ot Fall, 
Oct. 6. 



Warm, dry, and pleasant. 

Much like January, but 
colder. 

More like a Winter 
month than Jan.; great 
range of temp. ; good 
sleighing, last half. 

.A. dry month; few high 
Avinds. 

A wet month ; fresh 
■winds, muddy roads. 

A hot month"; much 
cloudy weather. 

A hot month: little wind, 
many calm days. 

Not so hot as Jiily; less 
wind; wind gentle for 
whole month; many 
calm da vs; slight frost 
on night of 2Uth. 

Adry, cool month ; much 
cloudy w e a t h e r . 13 
days of easterly wintl, 
and so little precipita- 
tion, an unusual result. 

All almost rainless 
month ; more than half 
cloudy; severe frosts. 

Pleasant month, grow- 
ing wintrv toward the 
last. 

Steady winter weather, 
thawing only one day ; 
good sleighing the lat- 
ter half. 



25. Soil moisture was deficient during tlie entire year, except the months of May 
and June. 

2G. The soil Avas unusually moist during the first half of May, to tliat degree that 
crops could not be sown; and in some cases land already fitted had to be replowed. 
It was unusually dry the rest of the year, except a short time in August. These 
exceptions apply only to the surface soil. The subsoil has been abnormally dry 
during the entire year. 

27. I cannot give measurements of the depth of earth above tiie ground water, but 
can state that its level became constantly lower from the beginning of the year till 
Jul}% at which time there was a temporary rise. Since September 1 it has constantly 
grown less again, and at present it is unprecedentedly low. All low lands, swamps, 
and cat-holes are entirely dry, and many wells have entirely failed. 

28. Never unusually high. 

Verv respectfully. 
Thornville, Lapeer Co., Mich., Jan., 1S77. JOHN S. CAULKINS. 



208 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 



SOUTII-WESTERX DIVISION OF THE STATE.* 

REPLIES BY II. S. LAY, M. D., OP ALLEGAN, 51IC1I. 

Secretary of the State Board of Health: 

Dear Sir: — Herewith I send answers to questions in Circular No. 15: t 

1. A decrease of 20 per cent. 

2. Probably 10 ])qv cent less. 

3. No diseases. 

5. Malarial fevers, diphtheria, and cerebro-spinal meningitis. 
G. Better drainage, the drying up of low and swampy lands, etc. 

7. Scarlet fever, in a few families. 

8. A lack of sanitary conditions. 

11. Do not know, but my opinion is about 100. 

12. Small-pox, cholera, and cerebro-spinal meningitis. 

13. I cannot do so, for want of statistics. 

15. Malarial fevers, to a limited extent. 

16. No. 

17. Epizootic among horses, to a slight extent. 
IS. None, to any extent. 

19. Generally good. 

20. No. 

21. Yes. 

22. No. 

23. Rather less. 

24. I am unable to do so. 

25. I cannot do it. 

26. At no time. 

27. I cannot do it with any degree of accuracy. 

28. At no time. 

29. I cannot at present; I may at some future time. 

This report is made to cover Allegan township and village, in the county of Allegan. 
Allegan, Allegan Co., Mich., October, 1S77. H. S. LAY, M. D. 

replies I?Y henry F. THOMAS, M. D., OF ALLEGAN, MICH. 

Secretary State Board of Health: 

Sir: — In reply to Circular No. 15, 1 submit the following :t 

1. About the same as during previous years. 

2. Greater, 10 per cent. 

3. About the same. 

4. None. 

5. Less intermittent and remittent fevers. 

6. To increased drainage, which has been quite great in this township and the sur- 
rounding countrJ^ 

7. We liave had, during the year 1876, a greater number of deaths from old age, 
which I think is the cause of the increased mortality. 

8. — . 

9. There has been less mortality from scarlet fever. 

10. For the reason that the people exercise more care as t© the hj'gienic conditions. 

11. Small-pox, 0; cholera, 0; scarlet fever, 25 cases; typhoid fever, 2 cases; measles, 
40 cases; whooping-cough, 25; cerebro-spinal meningitis, G cases; diphtheria, 0, 

12. Small-pox, cholera, and diphtheria. 

13. I cannot. 
14,15,16. — 

17. No epidemic. 

18. No complaint. 

19. Good condition. 

20. No, 

21. Yes. 

22. About the same. 

23. Good condition. 

*For counties included in each division, see Exhibit 1, page 17L 

t The ligures beginning paragraplis refer to questions in Circular 15, printed on pages 185-6 of 
this Report. 



DISEASES IN MICHIGAN DUKING THE YEAR 1S7G. 



209 



24. Meteorological coiulitioiis at Allegan, Mich., for tlie year 187G. Lat., 42° 31' 
43,07"; Long., 8" 50' 29.18", west of AVashiiigton. 



MONTHS, 

1870. 



Jan 

Feb 

March. 
April... 
May.... 
June ... 
July.... 
August 

Sept 

Oct 

Nov 

Dec 



Year. 



TlIERMO.MO'ER. 



Mean. 


Highest. 


•i^M" 


76° 


26° 


6-2° 


32.V° 


07° 


44?,° 


71° 


66 .S'" 


88° 


68>;<' 


91° 


73° 


90° 


76.', ° 


96° 


55>i° 


88° 


50° 


70° 


ioy.° 


76° 


i2;4° 


47° 


4S>4° 


99° 



6" 

1° 

0° 

8° 

21° 

36° 

43° 

41° 

26° 

17° 

10° 







Snow .* 


I'lcvailiiig 




Winds. 


Indies 




Snow. 


s. w. & w. 


3.0 


W. & N. W. 


7.0 


S. & S. E. 


4.0 


s. w. 




East. 




S. W. 




S.W.&S.E. 





S.E.&S.W. 




S. W. & W. 




Westerly. 




E. & S. E. 


4.0 


S. E. & S. 


11.0 


S.E.&S.W. 


29.0 



Inclu'S of 

Kain and 

Melted 

Snow. 



2.05 
3.50 
2.40 
2.40 
4.05 
2.70 
1.55 
2.44 
1.85 
2.05 
8.20 
1.10 



Days 

all 

Clear. 



2 

4 
1 

1 

1 
2 
1 
1 



Days 

all 

Cloudy. 


Ozone. 


Kange. 


Average. 


16 
9 

10 
2 
4 
3 

1 
7 
1 
9 

13 


1 to 8 

2 to 9 
1 to 7 
1 to 8 
1 to 6 
1 to 6 

to 4 

1 to 2 
1 to 2 
1 to 3 
1 to 4 
1 too 


4 
4 
3 
3 

1}1 

1 
2.'i 


17 


75 


1 to 4 


2X 



Re.makks. 






•r ~ 2. B"^ 

."■ a 5 ,£ 2. 



), = 3 3 c 
5^ ^ 5' oiCf 

K ?r 2 Li 00 

^ -: 3 ?^- 

■I a 3 ^ 5* 

•< ? <^' s S 



25, See table. 

26, I cannot give a statement for 1875, 

27, 28. Cannot give facts, 

29, 1 would report that during the month of December, 1875, we had a number of 
deaths from dlphtiieria; and that my observations as to ozone showed a large average 
for the month; while this year, 1876, the average has been only three, with an absence 
of the disease, 

Respectfull}', 

Allegan, Allegan Co., Mich., June 2S, 1877. HENRY F, THOMAS. 



KEPLIES BY TIIOS, H. 15RIGGS, M, D,, OP MATT A WAN, MICH, 

Dear Doctor:— In relation to Circular No, 15: 

1. Less, by 25 per cent. 

2. Less, by 20 per cent, 

5. Malarial diseases and their complications, 
G. Dry weather. 

11. Measles, 40; Avhooping-congh, 50; diphtheria, 5. 

12. Small-pox, cholera, scarlet fever, typhoid fever, cerebro-spinal meningitis. 
15. Rheumatism. 

17, 18. None. 

19. Good. 

20. No. 

21. Yes. 

22. 23. No. 

20. From Jan,, 1875, to Jan., 1876, dry. 

27. Wells are an average of about seventy feet in depth; no streams. 

28. Unusually low from March till November. 

29. I cannot saj' anything about this, 

Trulv yours, 
Mattaimn, Van Buren Co., Mich., May 14, isii7. THUS, H, BRIGGS. 

27 



210 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

REPLIES BY MILTON CHASE, M. D., OF OTSEGO, MICH. 

Secretary State Board of Health: 

Sir: — 'I'he following is my reply to Circular Xo. 15, relative to prevailing diseases, 
1876. Locality, village of Otsego and the surrounding countr}'', for a radius of about 
six miles. * 

1. Less than the average; diminished about 15 per cent. 

2. Less than the average, by about ten per cent. 

3. 4. None. 

5. All, unless cerebro-spinal meningitis, which some years is not present at all. 

6. Hard times. This makes people more temperate, virtuous, and less venturesome 
and reckless. There has been no epidemic or endemic disease among us; why, I do 
not know. 

7. None. 

8. No occasion to assign a cause. 

9. Remittent, continued, and eruptive fevers, diarrhoea, and dysentery. 

10. To lessened amount of the diseases mentioned in answer "9." 

11. Not much of any of them ; I cannot be definite. I should say about 20 cases of 
cerebro-spinal meningitis and fifty cases of measles and whooping-cough. 

12. Small-pox, cholera, scarlet fever, typhoid fever, measles, diphtheria. 

13. I cannot do it. 

14. Cerebro-spinal meningitis in April and October, a few cases. 
15,16, 17. None. 

18. A little more smut in wheat; buckwheat, light berry and small yield, caused by 
dry weather when filling. Potatoes small and small crop, — bugs and dry weather 
when setting, the probable cause. 

19. Better than usual. 

20. None, except smut in wheat. 

21. Yes. 

22. No. 

23. Clover hay that was cut in June, more than usual. 

24. I cannot do it. 

25. First half of the year more than usually wet; last half, about an average. 

26. Answered above. 

27. 28. No knowledge about this. 
29. Nothing under this head. 

I think tliat our people are not prepared to submit to quarantine of scarlet fever, 
and they ought to be educated to this. I am quite sure that people about here are 
too negligent about privy-vaults, and too careless about the contamination of wells. 

Very respectfully A'ours, 

Otsego, Allegan Co., Mich., Jan. 17, 2577. "" Dr. M. CHASE. 

SOUTHERN CENTRAL DIVISION OF THE STATE.t 

REPLIES BY ROBERT STEPHENSON, M. D., OP ADRIAN, MICH. 

Secretary of State Board of Health: 

Dear Doctor: — The following I send in answer to Circular 15, Prevailing Dis- 
eases, 1876: * 

I, 2. About the same. 

3. There have been no causes of death more than usually prevalent. 

4. — . 

5. There have been no causes of death less than usuallv prevalent. 

6. — . 

7. None. 

8. — . 

9. None less than usual. 

10. — . 

II. No cases of small-pox in cit}', but all around us; no cholera; scarlet fever, about 
10 cases, as far as 1 can ascertain; tj'phoid fever, a few; measles, quite a number, how 
many 1 do not know, but should judge as many as an hundred or more; whooping- 

* The figures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular lo, printed on pages 1S5-6 of 
this Report, 
t For.counties incluclecl in each division, see Exliihit 1, page 171. 



DISEASES IN" MICHIGAN DURING THE YEAR 1876. 211 

con^h, a few; cerebro-spinal meningitis, none that T know of or can find out; diph- 
theria, quite a number. 

]2. Small-pox. 

13.14. — . 

15. Dysentery, diarrhoea, intermittent and remittent fever, also a few cases of 
typhoid. 

16. No. 
17,18, None. 

19. Good. 

20. No. 

21. Yes. 

22. No. 

23. Yes. 

24. 25. — . 

26. Au2;ust and September, dry. 

27, 28, '2d. — . 

Yours respectfully, 
Adrian, Lenawee Co., Mich., Sept. 27, 1S77. ROBERT STEPHENSON. 

REPLIES BY JOHN P. STODDARD, M. D., OF ALBIOX, MICH. 

To the State Board of Health : 

Gentlemen: — I have the honor to replj^ as follows to Circular No. 15, Relative to 
Prevailinji; Diseases for 1876. 

I answer for the villao^e of Albion, Mich., and surrounding country within a radius 
of five or six miles, — containing a population, probably, of about 3,600. I regret to 
have to say that 1 am unable to be as exact in many of my answers as I could wish, 
and that far too often a mere opinion must take the place of a definite statement. I 
trust the time may soon come when intelligent legislation will compel all physicians 
to keep a record of all cases of disease, accident, and death, and they be obliged by 
law to make a written report each month to the pioper health oflicer for each local- 
ity. Thus we could insure greater exactness and arrive more nearly at the true state 
of the facts, and our answers would better advance true statistical knowledge. 

1. I am quite sure that the amount of sickness in this locality, for the ])ast year, has 
been less than the average for the past five years, — perhaps ten per cent less. 

2. Nearly the same as the average, or slightly less. 

3. No one disease or cause more prominent than another, except diphtheria. From 
the latter disease five persons died during the month of December. 

4. Diphtheria was imported to this locality. 

5. All diseases, except diphtheria and, perhaps, consumption. 

6. To the better drainage of our village, and to a more equable season. 

7. Diphtheria. 

8. I cannot say. 

9. All diseases, except diphtheria and consumption, as before mentioned. 

10. To the more equable climate, and to the less prevalence of disease of all 
descriptions. 

11. 1 cannot be exact, but I think there have been about forty cases of these dis- 
eases, as stated more in detail below. Of scarlet fever, there have been 2 cases; of 
typhoid fever, 5 cases; of measles and whooping-cougla, a larger muiiber, but 1 cannot 
say how many, as often no physician was called; of cerebro-spinal meningitis, one 
case; of diphtheria, 15 cases. 

12. Small-pox and cholera. 

13. I am not able to do so. 

14. Typhoid fever, in August and September, but no deaths therefrom; diphtheria 
prevailed in December, from which there were five deaths, or 33,1^ per cent of all 
reported cases. 

15. Diphtheria, influenza, laryngitis, bronchitis, consumption, rlieumatism, intermit- 
tent and remittent fevers. The prevalence in order of their mention. 

16. Diphtheria only. There have been during this month (January), 8 or 9 cases, 
"with two reported deaths. 

17. I caimot say. 

18. liust on most grains, rather more than usual. Cabbages rotted very badly while 
standing and even before coming to maturity. 

19. Very good. 

20. No. 

21. Yes. 



212 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— EEPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877, 

22. Not so much. 

23. Hay poorly cured and much moulded in the bay and stuck. 

24. 25. I cannot do so. 

26. More moist than the two previous years, but not exceedingly so. 

27. I can answer only approximately. Water in all wells and streams was higher^ 
by one or two feet, than for the previous year, during months of April and May, and 
lowest during September. 

28. About the average. 

29. I have none. 

Truly yours, 
Albion, Calhoun Co., Mich., Jan. 26, 1877. JOHN P. STODDARD, M. D. 

REPLIES BY "WILLIAM WORSFOLD, M. D., OP AUGUSTA, MICH. 

Secretary of the Stale Board of Health: 

Dear Sir: — In answer to Circular No. 15, 1 take great pleasure in supplying what 
little information I have been able to collect during my short residence in this local- 
ity, apologizing for its fragmentary character:* 

1. General sickness lias not been more than one-third of what it was in 1875; com- 
pared with some j'ears previous to that, the proportion would be rather less than 
one-third, 

2. I have not been able to collect statistics as regards deaths, but will give the 
record of the sexton of the cemetery here : In 1875 there were 21 interments ; in 1876,. 
but 5 interments. 

3. 4. None. 

5. There lias been a general diminution of all diseases, particularly zymotic diseases^ 

6. Along with climatic influences, general constitution of the atmosphere, I think 
the less prevalence of disease is partly owing to the more economical and careful 
manner in which people generally have had to live. 

7. 8. Nothing. 

9, 10. There has been less than the usual mortality from all diseases, particularly in 
summer complaints. The cause of this might be briefly ascribed to the general mild 
type of disease. 

11. I have become cognizant of several cases of diphtheria, occurring in two fami- 
lies some five miles from here ; but as they were treated by some one in Battle Creek,. 
I cannot give particulars; they occurred in November. 

15. Pneumonia, pulmonary congestion, bronchitis, tonsilitis, laryngitis. 

16. Tiie above mentioned diseases, no usual mortality attending them. 

17. I can find no record, or information personally obtained, of any disease amongst 
animals. 

18. None. 

19. All grains in this locality were harvested in good condition. 

20. Wheat is somewhat aflected with "smut;" this is more particularly noticeable- 
in the grain that was below average quality. 

21. Yes. 

22. Less liable to "bank," and it produces a rather better quality of flour than in 
1875. 

23. Less. 

The latter part of the circular I am obliged to omit, as I have no information con- 
cerning it. Yours very respectfullj^ 

Augusta, Kalamazoo Co., Mich., Jan. 10, 1877. W. WORSFOLD. 

REPLIES BY HAL C. WYMAN, M. D., OF BLISSFIELD, MICH. 

Secretary State Board of Health: 

In reply to Circular 15,1 make answers for the south-east quarter of Lenawee, and' 
south-west quarter of Monroe county.* 

1, 2. About the same as the average. 

3. Membraneous croup. 

4. I cannot. 

5. Typhoid fever. 

6. Some knowledge of sanitary science. 

7. Cholera infantum and membraneous croup. 

* The figures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 15, printed on pages 185-6 of 
this Report. 



DISEASES IX MICIIIGAX DUKING THE YEAR 1870. 213 

8. I cannot. 

9. Typhoid fever. 

10. Less frequency of the disease. 

11. I cannot give the number of cases of cholera (c. infantum), even approximately. 

12. Small-pox. 
14,15. — . 

16. No. 

17. Hog cholera. 

18. Crops usually healthy. 

19. Healthy. 

20. Not nn'usuallv, say the millers. 

21. Yes. 

22. 23. No. 

24. Noticed a marked falling oft" in the frequency of cholera infantum for two days 
after several thunder storms in the months of July and August. 

25. Has been icet, excepting July, August, and Septcrabei*, when it was moist. 

26. Spring and Fall unusually wet. 

27. Six feet. 

28. Unusually high in months of April and May. 

29. A tract of country has been very sickly, is without drainage, and is flooded by 
water bearing the "wash" of many barnyards and several cheese factories. I am pre- 
paring a full statement of facts regarding this tract, its population, mortality, and 
sufiering. 

Blissjield, Lenawee Co., Mich., Jan. 2, 1S7T. . HAL C. WYMAN. 

KEPLIES BY E. N. PALMER, M. D., OF BROOKLYX, MICH. 

Secretary State Board of Health : 

Dear Sir: — The following is respectfully submitted, and I deeply regret that 1 
cannot make it more complete. 

1. Sickness was less than the previous year; also deaths. 

2. At least 10 per cent. 

3. None, except malaria. 

5. Pneumonia, in particular. 

6. To climatic influence alone. The winter of 1874-5 -was extremely cold and varied 
by extremes of temperature. Pneumonia became an epidemic. There was only 
about 2 per cent of deaths. These occurred among the very old and very young. The 
last year has been mild, with no great extremes of heat or cold. 

7. 8. None. 

11. Typhoid fever, 8; diphtheria, 20; whooping-cough, — almost every child under 
10 years had it. The disease was of a mild character; but few died, and these from 
the supervention of pneumonia; scarlatina, 3; cerebro-spinal meningitis, 2. 

12. Small-pox. cholera, measles. 

13. January: Typhoid fever, 8; pneumonia, 5; rheumatism,! ; diphtheria, 1 ; erysip- 

elas, 1. 

February: Diphtheria, 2; typhoid fever, 3; pneumonia, 9; whooping-cough, — 
see answer "11"; rheumatism, 2; scarlatina, 2. 

March: Rheumatism, 4; pneumonia, 6; scarlatina, 3; cerebro-spin.al meningi- 
tis, 1 ; whooping-cough, 1. 

April: Pneumonia, 8; scarlatina,!; whooping-cough,!. 

May: Rheumatism,!; pneumonia, G; malarial fever, 2; whooping-cough, diph- 
theria. 1; cerebro-spinal meningitis, 1. 

June: Pneumonia, 3; malarial fever, 1 ; typho-malarial fever,!. 

Jul}': Erysipelas,!; malarial fever, G ; rheumatism,!; diphtheria, 2; dysentery, 
4; pneumonia (traumatic),!. 

August: Malarial fever, 10; diphtheria, 1; dysentery, 2; diarrhea, 5; pneumo- 
nia (traumatic), 1. 

September: Pneumonia, 3; malarial fever, 27; typho-malarial fever, 2; diar- 
rhoea, 2. 

October: 1 was absent from home. 

November: Malarial fever, 3; pneumonia. 3; erysipelas, 3; diphtheria, 5. 

December: Pneumonia, S; diphtheria, 8. 
15. Pneumonia. 
16, 17. None. 

18. None, except mould. 

19. All grains are in good condition, wheat being more than good. 



214 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— KEPORT OF SECRETARY, 1S77. 

20.* Xo. 

21. Yes. 

22. Less. 

23. None. 

24. Meteorolorjical Co7iditions in Brooklyn, Michigan, for the year 1876. 



TEAR AND 3I0NTHS, 

1S76. 



Year . 



T 


DERMOMF.TER. 


Prevailing 
winds. 


Snowy 
days. 


Rainy 
days. 


Clear 
days. 


Cloudy 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


Average. 


days. 


100° 


-10° 


4S°t 


S. W. 


20 


23 


151 


164 


58° 


12° 


51° 


S. W. 


3 


3 


S 


17 


51° 


-0° 


29° 


W. S. W. 


1 


3 


12 


12 


55° 


10° 


2S° 


W. 


5 


4 


10 


11 


62° 
80° 
92° 
100° 
9S» 

7y° 

65° 

58° 


32° 
40° 
55° 
60° 
45° 
43° 
26° 
20* 


46° 
57° 
72° 
80° 
75° 
53° 
43° 
41° 


W. N. W. 
W. 

s.w. 
s. w. 

E. S. E. 
E. 
S. W. 

s. w. 




2 
4 

4 

1 
3 

1 
1 


20 
16 
10 
20 
17 

7 
U 

5 


8 




11 




IS 




6 




13 




20 




16 


5 


19 


39° 


-10° 


14* 


s.w. 


6 





12 


13 



t [Average of mouthly averages, made in this office.— H. B. B., Sec'j'.] 

25. I cannot give it by months, as I have no data; but for the first half of the year 
the soil was very moist, while for the later half it has been quite dry. 

26. The first half r>f tlie year was unusually moist. 

27. Jan., 10 feet; Feb., S' feet.; Mar., 4 to *G feet; April. 7 feet; May, 6 feet; June, S 
feet; July, 7 feet; Aug., 10 feet; Sept., 12 feet; Oct., 12 feet; Nov. and Dec, about 
the same. 

28. During the first half of the year it was unusually high. 

Very truly, 
Brooklyn, Jackson Co., Mich., Jan. 10, 1877. E. N. PALMER. 

REPLIES BY LOUIS H. WURTZ, M. D., OF COLD WATER, MICH. 

Replies to Circular No. 15, relative to prevailing diseases in city of Cokhvater 
Michigan.* 

1. There was no apparent increase or decrease of population in the city of Cold- 
water, during the j'car 1S7G. The sickness was about the same as the average during 
past years. 

2. About tlie same as the avernge. 

11. I cannot give number of cases of the mentioned diseases. I shall in future 
endeavor to collect facts. Of the disea.«es mentioned that occurred in this citj', the 
fatality was not imusuiilly great. 'I'he scailatina was mostly of the simple variet3% 

12. Small-pox. cholera, cerebro-s])inal meningitis, di phtheria. 

i;^. During the first 4 or h months of the year, soarlat inn, ])neumonia, bronchitis, 
broncho-pneumonia, measles, pulmonary consumption, and whooping-cough were the 
prevailing diseases. Dui'ing the Summer and Autumn months, we had I'especti vely 
the following diseases in this locality diarrhea, fholei-a infantum, dysentery, intcr- 
mittenr fever, remittent fever, typhoid fevei', and rheumatism. 

14. None. 



* The figures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 15, printed on pages 185-G of 
this Report. 



DISEASES IN MICHIGAN DURING THE YEAR 1S7C. 215 

15. Tiitormittent fever. 

16. None. 

17. NoiKi to my knowledge. 

18. Apples unusuiilly '"wormy", potato bugs injured the crop of potatoes to a great 
extent. 

19. 'i'he actual condition, so far a.s quality is concerned, was better than in the pre- 
vious year; but quantity, much less. 

20. No. 

21. Yes. 

22. About an average. 

23. 'i'he hay crop was more than usually affected with mildew and mould. 

24. The mouths of Januarj% Febiuar}', March, and April were unusually mild and 
moist; very little snow; mostly rain; May and June, warm and large amount of 
rain; Summer months, quite hot. 

25. 1 have no means of ascertaining facts, 

26. Unusually moist during the first six months of the year. 

27. I have made no observations. 

28. I cannot state facts, 

Coldwater, Branch Co., Mich., May 24, 1877. LOUIS H. ^VURTZ, M, D. 

REPLIES BY N. D. YALE, M, D., OF DEERFIELD, MICH. 

Secretary State Board of Health : 

Dear Sir: — The following are my replies relative to prevailing diseases in 1876, 
in and near this place. They apply to the township of Deerfield, the eastern part of 
Blissfield, the southern part of Ridgeway, the western part of Summerfield, and the 
south-western part of Dundee. As to diseases, I mention those 1 attended. 

1. Much greater. 

2. Less, 1 should judge, at least no greater. 

3. Malarial diseases have been very prevalent. 

4. The unusual prevalence was doubtless due to excessive rains in June and July. 

5. Typhoid fever was less prevalent than I ever knew it. 

6. Am unable to answer. 

7. Consumptives. 

8. I considered it probably accidental. But I really lost more patients in 1876 from 
consumption, tuberculosis, than from all other causes combined. Possibly the wet 
season hastened tlie worst cases off. 

11. I saw three cases of sporadic scarlet fever; three cases of typhoid; a very large 
number of cases of measles; a few cases of diphtheria, only one fatal, croupous form 
following measles. I saw a large number of cases of "scarlet rash", contagious; it 
resembled the very mildest forms of scarlet fever, but was followed by no sequela. 
Several physicians called it scarlet fever. I think it was not, but should "be glad to be 
corrected, if I am wiong. 

12. Small-pox, cholera, whooping-cough, cerebro-spinal meningitis. 
13, 14. I cannot. 

15, Whooping-cough, measles, mumps, typhoid fever, malarial intcrmittents and 
remittejits, 

16, Whooping-cough is unusually prevalent, not fatal, 

17, Farmers lost many hogs in Winter of 1875-6, I do not know from what disease. 

18, I do not know, 

19, Verv i)oor crops, from wet season, I cannot answer more defmitelv. 
20,21,23, I do not know. 

24, 25, Cannot, 

26. Unusually moist the whole year; in June and July, excessively so, 

27. In most places water was on top of ground most of the time. 

28. High in July. 

A'ery trulj', 
Deerfield, Lenawee Co., Mich., Jan. 20, 1577. N. D. YALE. 

REPLIES UY J. W. KALLEY, M. D., OF HILLSDALE, MICH, 

De.\r Doctor:— If I had the time and data at hatul to make a full and correct 
report it would afford me pleasuie to do so, I can report one part of the county just 
about as well as another, as 1 am around a good deal. Let me say that 1 have nothing 
striking to report. No severe epidemics, — iu general a healthy and fruitful year. 



21G STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

1.* Mild, — about the same as the year previous. 
2. About the same as for the last three j-ears. 
i5. None. 

4. Spring and early Summer, very wet; Summer hot, and we looked for much bil- 
ious and bowel diseases, but they were light. 

5, "While diseases have been comparatively light, I think pneumonia is not more 
than one-tifth what it was 25 j^ears ago. 

6. I think the causes were the same as those which make bilious diseases so much 
less: viz., improvement of lands, drainage, etc.; the people are better housed, better 
clothed, less exposed. 

7, 8. None. 

9, 10. Xo epidemic, of any severity. 

11. Small-pox, five cases in one "family,— all, I believe, there have been in the 
county. There were reported severol cases of spinal meningitis in south-west part 
of county, but I doubt it. I had one case. The head was drawn to one side, throat 
nearly paralyzed; but it was not spinal meningitis. The other epidemics mentioned 
in "li" have all been in some parts of the county, and though there have been a few 
deaths from most of them, the general affect has been very light, and scattered over 
the county. 

12. Cholera. 

13. Scarlatina, last Spring and earlj- Summer; varioloid in December; typhoid 
fever most last "Winter; bilious, continued, etc., in Fall; some doctors call every 
severe continued fever typhoid; that kind comes as often, and more so in Fall of the 
year; pneumonia and bronchial and rheumatic troubles, in damp and cold weathei*. 

14. Obstetrical cases have been ver}^ mucli more common in this city for the last 
three years tlian formerly. I think there has been no different means used, but the 
same means used more effectually; I am happy to say, with a fair increase of mortals. 

15. Some pneumonia, croup, for the last year; a great rheumatic tendency, with 
some intlammatory cases; healthv. 

16. No. 

17. No epidemic or endemic; healthy. 

18. Potato bugs and drouth following Spring rains. 

19. Less than usual, but fair in amount and quality; clover seed, very light. 

20. No. 

21. Nothing to wet it. 

22. I do not know; but as it was dry and sound, it must be good. 

23. Crop heavy; that cut early, much injured; late cut, good; it grew too heavy 
and had too much early rain to be best quality. 

24. I kept no account. "Winter exceedingly mild; Spring, Summer, and Fall unu- 
sually hot, especially June and July. Exceedingly wet till July 4; I think only six 
days in Maj^ but it rained; two or three showers after July 4 to 10; from that time 
verj' hot and drj-. "We expected much malarial diseases, but they were light and 
comparativelj' few. 

25. Stated in answer "24". 

2G. For the two previous j^ears the same months were wet and the same months 
dry, but not to so great an extent. 

27. It varies vastly in the county; but the surface water was higher than in eight 
years before. 

28. "Unusually high in May and June. 

29. Thanks to a kind Providence and a very healthy countj^ and whatever else it 
may be, we have little trouble of that kind. For years our epidemics of scarlatina, 
measles, whooping-cough, etc., have been exceedingly light. 

Most truly yours, 
HillscUle, Hillsdale Co., Mich., Jan 12, 1877. J. "W. FALLEY. 

REPLIES BY W. B. SOUTHARD, M. D., OF KALAMAZOO, MICH. 

Secretary Slate Board of Health : 

Dear Sir:— The Circular to Correspondents, etc., is received, and in reply I would 
say:* 

1. Sickness from all causes during 1876 was, I believe, one-third less than the aver- 
age for the past 10 years. 

2. Deaths I judge to have been one-third less, except as to aged persons; I believe 
deaths among that class fully up to the average. 

* The ligurcs beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 15, printed on pages 185-6 of 
this Report. 



DISEASES IN MICIIIGAX DUEING THE YEAR 1S7G. 217 

3. We have had more bilious remittents tliaii any other disease; have had some 
diphtheria, and yet I wouhliiot speak of it as prevai"iiii<>: as an epidemic. Our bilious 
remitteuts for tfie last two mouths have beeu complicated with severe sore tiiroats; 
they have, however, yielded readily to quinine and alteratives. 

11. Scarlet fever (of mild type), measles, and wliooi)iu<^-couo;h, were somewhat 
prevalent during the Spring montlis, v/ith but little fatality. 

12. I have seen no case of cerebro-spinal meningitis or cliolera, and but one case of 
mild varioloid. 

15. Unusually healthy. 

18. Potatoes were much injured by the bug; they failed to mature and are poor in 
qualitj'. 

19. All kinds of grains, as well as the hay crop, were well matured, unusually free 
from disease, and garnered in excellent condition. 

25. We had heavy rains in May and June; in August and September the surface 
was unusually dry; in 1875 the water was unusually low, and many wells became dry; 
but since the heavy rains of May and June, 1S76, the w'ater has been well up. 

The larger proportion of cases of diphtheria occurring in my practice has been 
located upon the marsh and borders of tlie same, skirting the south and south-eastern 
portion of the main part of our town, many of the families using the water from the 
springs which crop out from the water-level of our town along the borders of the 
marsh. The disease has, in the main, yielded readily to treatment, there having 
been comparatively but few fatal cases. 

Since the report of the cases which I furnished for your report of 1875,* my atten- 
tion has been particularly directed to impure water as a cause of illness, and, in many 
cases, death. 1 have three instances which I would like to report to you, in brief, 
hoping thereby to direct attention to what seems to me so often a cause of severe 
illness and death. 

I was called, September 22, 1875, to the family of G. C. in the northern part of the 
town, where the surface is very level and was formerlj' somewhat wet. but since that 
portion of the town has been built up, seems to be quite dry. The lot upon which 
the house stands is but four rods deep; there is a drive-well pipe IG feet. There \vas 
-within fifteen feet a vault from which the privy had been moved and which had been 
covered up, and within the same distance a vault in use; there was also one on the 
adjoining lot, within 18 feet; the water from this well was used for drinking and 
-culinary purposes. When called, as above stated, I found the wife and mother suffer- 
ing from a low form of fever, with great irritability of the stomach and bowels, more 
or less diarrhea, great prostration, and nervous restlessness. 

The above is a history of the condition of tiie difterent members of the family, five 
in all, as they came down, one after another, during the next two or three weeks. I 
continued to visit them until December 26; but they did not get strong until late in 
the Winter. All recovered. The water was discontinued soon after I first saw them. 
Early in the Fall of 1S7G I was again called in; I found two of the children ill with 
diphtheria, and upon inquirj^ found they had again been using the water, which was 
at once stopped. Both recovered. 

Case 2.— October 25, 1876, 1 was called to visit a child of J. B., aged 5 years, ill with 
diphtheria. Tlie fauces were entirely covered with membrane, which gradually 
-extended into the trachea. She died 10 days after. On Xovember 2, the mother also 
became ill, the membrane covering the entire tonsils. She recovered, in about ten 
days, so as to attend to her family, but at this time is not strong. We found, upon 
examining the premises, that they were using water from a spring the surface of 
which was about 18 inches below^ the surface of tiie ground, and within 12 feet was a 
pig-pen containing three hogs, and within 15 feet was the privy-vault. 

Case 3.— 1 was called to the family of II. E., November 20, 1876 ; I found two of the 
children ill of diphtheria. Upon examining their water-supply, I found the well 30 
feet from the privy-vault, which had been in use several years without cleaning; a 
cesspool 20 feet distant, the pipe leading to it running directly past the well, and 
near the well the pipe had become defective. The familj' knew that it had leaked 
into the well, and had discontinued the use of the sink but continued the use of the 
water in the well. The children both recovered. 

I have given the foregoing cases because they more particularly point to the impure 
Avater as the cause of their severe illness. 

Very respectfullv yours, 
Kalamazoo, Kalamazoo Co.,Mich.,Jan.22,JS77. W. B. SOUTHARD, M. D. 

[*See Third Annual Report of State Board of Health, pp. 63-69.— II. B. B., Sec'y.] 
28 



218 STATE BOARD OF IlEAI/ni— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1S77. 

REPLIES BY IIEXUY L. JOY, M. D., OF JIAIiSIIALL, MICH. 

Secretary of State Board of Health: 

The following: is a very incompleto ropl}- to ('ircnlar No. 15:* 

1. The i)rop'>rtioii of sickness duriniz; the yoar 187U was less than the average tliu'ing 
previous year-. — perhaps 20 per cent less. 

2. Diseases of all kinds assumed a mild form, and were therefore less fatal than in 
previous yeais. 

3. Had no epidemic or endemic causing more than usual number of deaths. 

4. 5, G, 7, 8. No answer to give. 

9. Le.-s mortality from malarial diseases. 

10. 1 cannot say. 

11. Xo small-pox; no cholera; a large numher of cases of scarlet fever of a mild 
form, with only thi-ee deaths in the city; no pure cases of typhoid fever; a few cases 
of measles and whooping-cough; one or two cases of cerebro-spinal meningitis 
reported; several cases of (liphtheria reported, 

12. No small-pox; no cholera. 

13. I cannot. 

14. Scarlatina during November and December, less fatal than usual. 

15. Bronchial inflanimations (Feb. 1, 1877). 

16. No. 

17. No prevailing diseases. 

18. I know of no iirevailing diseases among the crops. 

19. Ordinarily' good. 

20. No. 

21. I think it was. 

22. I think not. 

23. More affected by mildew. 

24. I cannot. 

25. A good degree of moisture. 

26. I think it was unusuall}' moist during August and September. 

27. 28. J cannot. 
29. I have no facts. 

Very respectfully, 
MarshaU, Calhoun Co., Mich., Feb. J, 2S77. HENRY L. JOY. 

REPLIES BY II. C. CLAPP, M. D., OF MEXDOX, MICH. 

Secretary of the State Board of Health : 

The locality for which I report is the village of Mendon and the adjacent country 
within a radius of about six miles. The village is located on the north side of the 
St. Joseph river, about 18 feet above low water-mark, in the township of Mendon, 
St. Joseph county. The country on the south is prairie and level; on the east and 
west, a rich, sandy loam, originally oak openings; and on the north, rolling, stony, 
and clayey, having been formerly heavily timbered with beech and maple. 'J'here 
are marshes within one to four miles all around us, most of which have been success- 
fully drained, to the great relief of the community from tiie ravages of malarious 
diseases, and of the i)hysicians from the burden of plethoric purses. 

1.* A little more than last year, 1875, but less than the average of previous years. 

2. I should think the proportion of deaths to sickness at least 10 per cent less than 
the average of previous j-ears. 

3. Typho-nialarial fever, — but few deaths. 

4. Am of the npinion that there are certain causes operating locally in the produc- 
tion of these low fevers, — decaying houses, foul cellars, and iminire water. My cases 
have principallj' occurred in oZMiouses, generally with wooden-curbed svells, the 
water ()f which was turbid and filled with decaying vegetable particles, and tasted 
strongly of the old curbing. I had five casps. during the Fall, in one old house with 
rotten sills and an illy-ventilated cellar. The cellar (stoned) was clean but damp, 
and had a musty smell; the plastering in the house was cracked and in many places 
loose, and wherever tlie walls were papered, the paper was wrinkled and bagging, 
furnisiiiiig many a nest for disease germs. The curbing in the well was old and 
rotten, and trom fear it might cave in. one of those so-called "di-ive pumps" liad been 
driven into ihe bottom of it and the top had been covered over tight, — thus confining 

* The figures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 15, printed on pages 185-6 of 
this Keijort. 



DISEASES IN MICHIGAN DURING THE YEAK 187G. 319 

the pestiforious nir -within, and in contact witli the water already filled with the 
rotten (/e//>-('A- of the curb) n<r. and in coniniuiiioation with the under cnrreMt.«. One of 
the five — the mother, ai^ed (JS. died; the other four— children— hud a tedion.^ conva- 
lescence. Two years ai^o, in tliis same family, a son and dau;^hter had typhoid fever; 
the son— af^ed 20— died, and the daughter jnst escaped with her life. 

0. All zymotic, diseases, with the exception of bilious and typlio-malarial ; there 
having been only a few cases of diphtheria; two of cerebro-spiuul meningitis; and 
one or two mild cases of erysipelas. 

(>. 1 do not know. 

7. Fiom none. 

9. From bilious diseases— intermittent, remittent, and typho-malarial, — which 
have been the most prevalent of any. 

10. To the improved methods of treatment, and also to the draining of the marshes, 
which has lessened the virulence of the cause. 

11. About two of cerebro-spinal meningitis; eight of diphtheria, and a large num- 
ber of whooping-cough; it is difficult to determine how manj', as they did not 
usually call for treatment. The disease commenced about December 1. 

12. None of them have occuired, excepting diphtheria, cerebro-spinal meningitis, 
and whooping-cough; nor has any other epidemic, endemic, contagious, or infectious 
disease. 

13. January: Bronchitis, rlieumatism, erysipelas. 

P'ebruary : Intermittent fever, iheumatism, hepatitis, bronchitis. 

March: Pneumonia, bronchitis, intermittent fever. 

April: Intermittent fever, bronchitis, pneumonia. 

May: Intermittent fever, erysipelas, asthma, cerebro-spinal meningitis. 

June: Intermittent and remittent fevers. 

Jul\': Intermittent and remittent fevers. 

August: Intermittent and remittent fevers, typho-malarial, typhoid (enteric), 
diarrhoea. 

September: Intermittent and remittent fevers, typho-malarial, influenza, 
whooping-cough, diarrhnea. 

October: Intermittent and remittent fevers, typho-malarial. 

November: Intermittent and remittent fevers, pneumonia, diphtheria, rheu- 
matism. 

December: Pneumonia, whooping-cough, bronchitis, rheumatism, intermittent 
and remittent fevers, diphtheria. 

14. Two-cases of cerebro-spinal meningitis in May (one died); about eight of diph- 
theria, during the last days of November and first few days of December, of which one 
died. 

15. Whooping-cough, bronchitis, pneumonia, intermittent and remittent fevers, 
rheumatism. 

IG. AVliooping-congh is quite prevalent now, but no cases fatal. 

17. Hog cholera, to a limited extent. 

On an area of about a mile and a half, in the township of Brady, Kalamazoo county, 
seven miles north-west of ^Mendoii, occ.irred a singular epidemic among the hogs, 
during Octolier. Some few died with symptoms of cholera, but a large nupority had 
simply a cough; they ate well, and would not appear very sick, yet woidd, after a few 
days or sometimes weeks, suddenly and unexpectedly die. Over .^Yy hogs dieil in a 
few weeks, in that neighboihood. I could learn of no autopsies. 

Kight upon the heels of that endemic among hogs occurred one among horses, 
although not very fatal, which some c died the ep.'zooty and others the usual ''distetn- 
per", which has continued up to the present time (Jan. 2-1. 1S77), but which is 
evidently declining. 1 could not learn how it originated, whetlier through contagion 
from without or infection from within the district, or whether its proj)agation was 
in accordance with the laws of contagion; although the weight of opinion was in 
favor of its iKin-communicabilitj' vUer se. 

Tlie iidiabitants of the district w*-re usually well.no contagious orinfectious disease 
prevailing; the crops were unaffected by any disease, were secured in a very good 
condition; the streams were not different from their usual conditi(Ui, there was no 
stagnant watei", and so the cause of this terrible slaughter amonj^ the hogs remains a 
mystery, seemingl}^ undeterminable by any known methods of investigation, but it 
was evidently atuiospheiical,— something like an infiuenza. 

18. Crops of all kinds quite free from any disease. 

19. Good. 

20. Not muisualh\ 

21. Yes, gencralfy. 



^20 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

22 * Less liable than usual to bank. 

23. I think less, although much was deadened in color from being rained on while 
curing. 

25. "j have no data. It has been quite moist during the entire year. 

26. Unusuall)' moist during June and July. 

27. I did not make the necessary observations. The average "depth of earth above 
the ground water' during the year was about 16 feet; depth of water in wells, from 
three to live feet. 

28. Unusually high, during the Spring months, and until about the middle of 
August. 

29. Concerning the contagiousness and incubation of diphtheria, I think I have had 
a good demonstration. A healthy boy, four years old, was taken by his parents, Nov. 
24, to visit some friends about ten miles distant. They found several of their friends' 
children sick with diphtheria. They returned the same day, and on Nov. 27, at 
night, the boy came down with the disease, of a malignant character, and died 
Dec. 1. The day the boy died, his sister, 12 years old, who loersisted in being over 
her little brother almost constantly, came down with it; she was quite sick a week. 
The oldest boy, 16 years old, I persuaded from the first to keep out of the room 
entirely; I also requested them to keep the sick girl from mingling with the family, 
until the disease had entirely disappeared, t In about five days after the girl was 
allowed the privileges of the house, the oldest boy came down, but had the disease 
mildly. The only remaining child, a babe 5 months old, nursing a bottle, was very 
successfully isolated, although in the same house, and escaped entirely. There were 
no other ciises in the neighborhood, nor had there been for a year past. 

Until the same precautionary measures are instituted by public authority against 
the spread of diphtheria and scarlet fever, as have been adopted to stay the ravages 
of small-pox and cholera, these most dreaded diseases will continue to have free 
•course in their work of deatli, and our little ones must pay the penalty for our 
persistent and inexcusable neglect, as a State, to adopt and enforce the needful 
sanitary and statutory regulations. It is folly to trust implicitly in the supposed 
prophylactic virtues of sulpho-carbolate of soda, and belladonna, to the neglect of 
enforced hygienic rules, municipal laws, and legislative requirements; for whether 
the little ones partake infinitesimally of the shadow, or drink lustily of the substance, 
these medicines are wholly powerless to save. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Mendon, Si. Joseph Co., Mich., Jan. 20, 1S77. H. C. CLAPP. 

UKPLIES BY EDWIN STEWART, M. D., OP MENDON, MICH. 

To the Secretary of the State Board of Health: 

Dear Siu: — The following replies are respectfully submitted. The locality is the 
village and township of Mendon and vicinity, in the north part of St. Joseph county. * 

1. About an average for the last five years. There is much less sickness in late 
years than formerly, say twenty-five years ago; probably less by one-half, in propor- 
tion to population. 

2. About the same as the average for the last five years. The per cent of deaths 
to population is less than twenty to thirty years ago; but the per cent of deaths 
to sickness has not diminished. 

3 to 10. There has been no cause for variation, in the rate of sickness or mortality 
this year, difierent from any of the last five years; though within these years we have 
had the most ultra extremes of heat and cold, and of moisture and dryness to which 
we are ever subject, without any apparent effect upon the public health. The 
lessened prevalence of disease for the last few years depends upon several changes of 
conditions : firstly, and perhaps chiefly, upon a diminution of the cause of ague, what- 
ever that may be; secondly, upon the improved surroundings of tlie people in regard 
to food, clothing, and dwellings; the better knowledge of sanitary conditions by the 
people generally contributes to their health; tlie poor and the ignorant still furnish 
the physician with the greater part of his business. Doubtless something should be 
credited to improvement in medical treatment. 

11. About ten cases of continued fever of questionable diagnosis, typhoid or typho- 

* The figures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 15, printed on pages 185-6 of 
this Report. 

[tFora further history of this case and a marked instance of apparent communication of diphtne- 
ria, see in index of this volume, "Clupp, M. D., H. C, of Mendon, letter on diphtheria".~IL B. B., 
Sec'y.] 



DISEASES IN MICIIIGAX DUKING THE YEAR 187G. 221 

malarial; iiumhorlcps cases of mild whoo ping-cough; two cases of cerebro-spinal 
meningitis; and six cases of diphtheria. 

12. Small-pox, cholera, scarlet fever, and measles. 

13. Januar)': Bronchitis, rhcuniatisni, and neuralgia. 

February: Bronchitis, pharyngitis, and other catarrhal ufi'ections. 

March: Bronchitis, pneumonia, rheumatism. 

April: Bronchitis, remittent fever, neuralgia. _ 

May: Eeinittent fever, cerebro-spinal meningitis. 

June: Kemittent fever, and chronic disorders. 

July: Kemittent fever, diarrhea, and hepatic disorders. 

August: Kemittents, intermittents, diarrhea. 

September: Intermittents, remittents, diarrhea. 

October: Intermittent, remittent, and continued fever. 

November: Remittent and continued fevers, and rheumatism. 

December: Pneumonia, bronchitis, and whooping-cough. 

14. There was none. 

15. Bronchitis, whooping-cougli, pneumonia, (first of January). 

16. None. 

17. Some "hog-cholera," unusual for this locality. 

18. None, excepting mildew or mold in hay. 

19. Good. 

20. No. 

21. Yes. 

22. Less. 

23. Early clover liay; more; other grass, not. 

24. I have no notes of weather for 1876. 

25. The soil moisture was excessive, in April, May, and June; in August and Sep- 
tember the earth was very dry, absolutely and relatively. 

27. Depth of earth above water, about 20 feet on an average; subject to variation 
of about two feet; but I cannot state accurately. 

28. Low in January, February, and March; for the remainder of the year, I think 
it was about an average. 

1^. '■'■ Positive knowledge'''' as to causation and communicability of disease is not 
easily obtained; but every one has '■'opinio7is''\ It is our opinion that the following 
cases of sickness were caused by the water drank. In one liouse situated high and 
dry, two cases of continued fever occurred last Fall, one following the other, running 
three weeks each before convalescence. I only remember the drinking-water at the 
time was brought from the neiglibors' because the water at home was not fit to drink. 

In another family, four miles distant from the first, three or four cases, one fatal, 
occurred, lasting from three to six weeks. At this jjlace poor water was obtained 
from a drive-pump in an old, wood-curbed well, with water standing in the bottom 
around the pipe. This well divided the distance between the house and barn, and to 
save expense supplied both. In another family having representatives of continued 
fever all the time for the last ten weeks, and still continuing, tlie water used was 
surface water obtained from a barrel sunk in a ravine, and which also supplied the 
stock. It is said the family who lived in the same house before the present occupants, 
were sick while they used this water. 

I attended two fatal cases during the Fall, one a female aged 85, and the other a 
boy of 17, where the well-water was said to be good, but a part of the house — which 
is in a flat low place where in a wet time water settles under the floor— on a stone 
wall, has no aperture for ventilating the space under the floor. I attended patients 
sick with tiie same fever in the same house some years ago, but thej' are still living. 

I will give an experience concerning the communicability of typhoid. A young 
man was sick with enteritis, not believed to be true typhoid; he was treated awhile 
by a homeopathist, and then removed to the house of his friend in my neighborhood. 
I attended him and in due time he got well and left ; but while he was getting better, 
and after his departure, one by one the family came down and went through well 
marked typhoid. One died, some lost the hair from their heads, and altogether 
they were left in bad condition. It was a large family in a small house, and i)oorly 
ventilated. This happened years ago. Query: Can typhoid be developed from the 
emanations or excretions of nonspecific enteritis? or must the first case necessarily 
have been true typhoid? 

Yours trulv, 

Mendon, St. Joseph Co., Mich., February, 1S77. ' EDWIN STEWART, M. D. 



222 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPOKT OF SECRETARY, 1S77. 

REPLIES BY C. M. "WOODWARD, M. D., TECUMSEH, MICH. 

Secretary State Board of Health: 

Dear Sir: — In reply to Circular No. 15, 1 would saj^ that I will answer to the best 
of mj' ability; hut having had but a sliort residence in Tecumseh, 1 must leave many 
of the questions unanswered.* 

1, 2. 1 am unable to give a correct statement. 

3. Old age and erysipelas. 

4. Malaria. 

5. Cholera infantum. 

6. Fewer children to die of it. 

7. 8. 9. — . 

11. Typhoid fever, 10 cases; scarlet fever, 3 cases (sporadic). 

12. None, of the other diseases mentioned. 

13. I have not a full record and cannot report. 

14. None such occurring. 

15. Malarial and pneumonia. 

16. No. 

17. Colic in horses, moderately. 

18. Rust in wheat, and mildew in hay. Apples do not keep well. 

19. Good. 

20. Not to any extent. 

21. Yes. 

22. Wheat does not "bank" in the bin this j-ear at all, it did badly last year, but 
there is less gluten in the berrj* than formerly; and, as a consequence, the beiMy was 
shrunken and there is a larger proportion of starch in the flour. When there is 
sufficient gluten in the flour, from its expansive qualities under heat, the loaf of bread 
fills out large and to the greatest extent of the action of the yeast; and The surface 
of the loaf is protected by a coating of thin glassj' film of hardened gluten. When 
there is an absence of sufiicient amount of gluten, the loaf is liable to crack open iu 
places and tiie contents run out; tlien the loaf flattens and becomes heavy and soggy 
and unfit for the action of the digestive fluids. Our millers are ordering their wheat 
from the north-west where the wheat was grown and ripened in a dryer climate; 
hence the flour manufactured is of a l)etter quality. The action of too much wet or 
rain in the growing and ripening of the grain seems to dissolve out the glutenous 
portions leaving only the bran and starch. 

23. More. 

24. 25, 20, No observations. 

27. Same as usual and in my previous report. 

28. No observations. 

29. Malaria. 

As I have lived in Tecumseh only about a year and a half, you will observe that it 
is difficult to furnish answers to many of tiie questions. 

Very respectfullj-, 
recumseh, Lenawee Co., Mich., Jan. S\ 7677. C. MEREDYTH WOODWARD. 

REPLIES BY C. W. BACKUS, M. D., THREE RIVERS, MICH. 

Secretary State Board of Health : 

Sir: — Enclosed find replies relative to prevailing diseases of 1876, for the incorpo- 
rated town of Three Rivers, the township of Lockport, and portions of the township 
ofFabius. * 

1. Less. In 1876 there were 23 burials in our cemetery, 4 or 5 of them foreign to 
the above locality. In 1875, thei-e were 45, about the same number foreign. 

2. Less; I am not able to furnish the evidence how much less. 

5. Malarial diseases. 

6. To not being a dr\^ season. 

11. There has been none of those diseases. 

12. I did not hear of any case of that kind. In my opinion, there were none. 

15. Malarial remittent fever, ague, neuralgia, diarrhea, and cholera morbus. 

16. No. 

17. Hog cholera, and distemper among horses, not very bad in either class. 

18. None. 

* The figures beginning paragraplis refer to (juestions in Circular 15, pvinteil on pages 185-6 of 
this Report. 



DISEASES IN MICniGAX DURING THE YEAR 1870. 223 

19. Good. 

20. No. 

21. Yes. 

22. No. 

23. Neither. 

27. Water was not very low at any time. 

Our town is located at the junction of three rivers, and eacli of those streams is 
crossed hy a dam for water-power purposes. Consequently when the streams get 
low there is much stagnant water; and the water being drawn down low to supply 
the mills, leaves the receded banks and marshes too dr}". From that source comes 
most of our sickness in the dry seasons of the year. The authorities of the town trj' 
to prevent, and do prevent the consumers, or millers, from draining it too low, and 
make lh((m keep it up so there is coustantl.v a current over tlie dams. The diseases 
we have in this vicinity are malarial, remittent and intermittent fevers, he|)atic dis- 
orders, rlieumatism, neuralgias, etc., — most of the sickness occurring during the 
months of July, August, and September. The remaining seasons are generally 
healthy. All the diseases we have here take the periodic form, and quinine is our 
sheet anchor. We have had no ei)idemic here since I have been in this countj", 12 
years. Sometimes some cases of that class occur, but they have been mild and not 
fatal. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Three liivers, St. Joseph Co., Mich., Aug. 24, iS77. C. W. BACKUS. 

IIEPLIES r.Y EDWARD nATAVELL, JI. D., OF YPSILANTI, MICH. 

Secretary State Board of Health : 

■ Deau Sir: — In reply to the questions contained in Circular 1'>. relative to the sani- 
tarj' condition of this cit\' and of the suriounding localities, I beg to say: 

1. ('omparing the amount of sickness in 187G with that of i)revious years,! find, 
from autlientic sources besides my own personal observation, that the amount; of 
sickness this year has been fully t(!n per cent less than tiiat of previous years; and 

2. That the death-rate has been proi:»ortionately diminished. 

3. In tJie spiing of 1876 many cases of pulmonary consumption seemed to diop off, 
notwithstanding the general mildness of the preceding Winter. 

5. The absence of pneumonia was commented on, notwithstanding the humid state 
of the atmosphere in the Spring month*. 

11. During the year, but one case of small-pox occurred in this city. It originated 
in the rag-room of one of our paper-mills, and proved fatal on the third day after the 
appearance of the eruption. Scarlet fever, of the mildest type, now and then would 
spring up. Typhoid fever (I mean genuine enteric fever), was ver\' rare. It has 
become a prevailing custom to call ever}' form of fever that does not yield to 20 grs. 
of quinine, typhoid, and particularly if the remedy has produced a dr}'. red-edged 
tongue. The pure, genuine typhoid fever of some years ago is now a comparativel.v 
rare disease, at least in this section of ]Michigau. During the months of October and 
November, whooping-cougli prevailed, though of a vei-y mild character. Diphtheria 
has not been prevalent during the past year, though many |)hagedenic ulcerations of 
the fauces presented themselves during the months of A|)ril and May. Here again, I 
would say that the disease to which we apply the name of diiihtheria is very difler- 
ent from the scourge that visited New York some years ago, and now occasionall}' 
makes such havoc in Loudon and Paris, — diflerent in appearance, in symptoms, in 
treatment. It possesses one common trait, that is its fatality. 

12. Cholera did not make its appearance, and even cholei-a morbus was not heard 
of. Cerebro-spinal meningitis did not prevail; in fact, disease of all sorts was com- 
paratively rare. Vital statistics will, however, find a larger proportion of births in 
this county than has ever before been heard of. Though an "off year" ("or general 
practice, it has been a decided success for obstetrics. 

15. At this present time we have no pi-evailing disease. 

17. Even animals seem to partake of the general good health. 

18. As a general thing, crops are superior, excei)t potatoes, which are very poor 
and scarce. 

20, 21. ■\Vheat was harvested verv well, was of good quail t}'. ami ilevoid of all fungus. 

23. The hay crop was vei-y large, as is fully exemi)liticd by the aviditj' exhibited by 
farmers to ])ay their doctors' bills in this commodit\-; in qnalit}' it was good, though 
somewhat "dusty". 

25. During the months of May and .Tune the soil moisture was excessive. 



224 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

27.* Notwithstanding, in Jnly and Aiia;ust nianj- wells in this locality ran dry. 

28. It was observed that several wells that withstood the excessive drought of 1875, 
ran dry during the summer of 1876. 

Before closing this report I would desire briefly to allude to the source of our 
small-pox in this cit3^ In most all the cases it has been directly traced to those 
engaged in picking over rags in our paper-mills. The lai-gest proportion of these 
rags, particularly the best or linen "stock", are imported in bales from France, Italy, 
and Germany. One can easily imagine that we have here a never failing source of 
contagion, and that these rags, collected fi-om all sources, hospitals, pest houses, etc., 
etc., form a germ from which many of our epidemics originate. During the late war, 
the newspapers held up to the execration of the civilized world the name of a doctor 
accused of sending the clothing of yellow fever patients to northern ports; but here 
the same thing goes on every day under the guise of lawful trade. Cannot some 
remedy be devised or some nieans introduced to disinfect these rags previously to 
sending them on their mission of death and disease througii the United States? I 
say death, for I never knew one sinqle case to recover that had its origin from this source. 
Rags we must have; protection from contagion through their means u-e ought to have.f 
During the past year, a large increase of cancer cases has been noted among our 
inhabitants and tlirough adjacent counties. 

In submitting this report. I have endeavored to obtain as accurate data as circum- 
stances would admit. 

Respectfully j'ouis. 

Ypsila7iti, Washtenaw Co., Mich., Dec. 31, 1S76. EDWARD BAT WELL, M. D., 

Health Officer of the City of Ypsilanti. 



SOUTH-EASTERX DIVISION OF THE STATE. J 

RKPLIKS BV E. S. SNOW, M. D., OF DEARBOUX, MICH. 

Secretary State Board of Health. • 

Sir:— In reply to Circular No. 15, I would state tliat Dearborn is a small village 10 
miles west of Detroit, on M. C. R. R., on rather more high and rolling country than 
Wayne county generally. It is considered a very healthy place. * 

1. 25 per cent less. 

2. Less. 

3. Lung diseases. 

4. Sudden and extreme changes from dry to wet. 

5. Most malarial and febrile diseases. 

6. Drainage, cultivation, and the more intelligent care that people generally take 
of themselves and of tlieir homes. 

7. Consumption of the lungs and cancer of stomach. 

8. Uncommon and extreme changes of weatlier. 

9. Malarial and febrile diseases, and all contagious diseases dangerous to public 
health. 

10. Less atmospheric malaria and more judicious management in regard to spread 
of contagious diseases. 

11. One case of spinal and two of cerebro-spinal meningitis; 8 of whooping-cough; 
3 of typhoid fever. 

12. Small-pox, scarlet fever, measles, diphtheria. 

13. May and June: Whooping-cough. 
December: Tyi)hoid fever. 
February: Diphtheria. 

14. Cerebro-spinal and nervous diseases during the entire j'car; but not attended 
with a high rate of mortality. 

15. Diarrhea and dysentery. 

16. No. 

17. Inflammation of the lungs has been quite prevalent among horses, and in a 
number of cases it proved fatal. 

IS. Potatoes, not well ripened. An unusual amount of must and mildew among 
grasses; and more than ordinary amount of smut on corn. 

* The figures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 15, printed on pages 1S5-6 of 
this Report. 

t [Tlie exposure of tliose rags, sjiread out on raelcs, to a lieat of 240° F., would not injure them and 
■would thoroughly <iisinf'crt them. — IT. B. 15., 8ec,'v. ] 

X For counties included in each Division, see Exhibit 1, page 171. 



DISEASES IN" MICIIIGAX DURING THE YEAR 187G. 225 

19. All grains in good condition, except wheat, which was shrunken and some 
mildewed. 

20. No grains mentioned in question 15.* 

21. It was not. 

22. As far as I am able to learn, they do not. 

23. IVlore. 

24. All that I can state is, that the storms were very severe and the drouth also, 
so that twice during the Summer the crops suffered from too much wet, and twice, In 
the same season, from drouth. 

25. Having kei3t no record, I am nnable to answer. 

26. Dry, in June and August; wet, in April and July. 

27. I cannot. 

28. High, in April and July; low, in June and August. 

29. Scarlet fever has originated twice within a few years near an old brick-yard 
pond, filled with stagnant water. The first time it spread to 13 families and there 
were six deaths. The second time, with proper precaution, but one had it out of the 
family where it originated, and no one died. 

Dearborn^ Wayne Co., Mich., Sept., 1877. E. S. SNOW. 

REPLIES BY LEARTUS CONNOR, M. D., OF DETROIT, MICH. 

Dear Doctor: — Circular 15, relative to prevailing diseases, has been received from 
your Board. In answer to the several inquiries, I offer the following: 

1. The proportion of sickness in the city of Detroit has certainly been less than the 
average of previous years. As to the exact dimiiuxtion, I am unable to say with any 
degree of accuracy. I should estimate it at fifty per cent less. 

2. The proportion of deaths was also diminished, but not so much as tlie propor- 
tion of sickness. The record of deaths kept by our city government, in previous years 
and even this year, is so imperfect as to be almost useless for any scientific purpose. 

3. Malnutrition, as a cause of death, has been more prevalent than in j^revious 
years. Its origin is manifold. Doubtless the most important elements have been 
the financial reverses of the year, with their attendant worrj^, loss of sleep, impaired 
digestion, bad food, confinement in ill-ventilated apartments, dissipation, etc. 

5. All infectious diseases have been less prevalent than usual. 

6. Excellent drainage, fair quality of food, and an indefinable healthy state of the air. 

7. Pulmonary consumption. 

S. Mental depression, from financial reverses; also bad digestion, defective assimi- 
lation, imperfect respiration, confinement in bad air, etc. 

12. No cholera. 

15. Small-pox, diphtheria, rheumatism, scarlet fever, erysipelas, pneumonia, bron- 
chitis. 

9-i Cass St., Detroit, Wayne Co., Mich., Jan. 11, 1S77. LEARTUS CONNOR, M. D. 

REPLIES BY W. H. ROUSE, M. D., OF DETROIT, MICH. 

Dear Sir: — The subjoined answex-s to Circular No. 15, relative to Prevailing Dis- 
eases, in the city of Detroit, during the year 1876, are submitted for your inspection. 
I regret that the data are not available that I required to answer some of the questions. 

1. Less; probably 10 to 20 per cent, 

2. Less. The deaths tliis year have been 173 less than in 1872; 289 less than in 
1873; 169 less than in 1874; and 104 less than in 1875. 

3. Typhoid and malarial fevers, small-pox, and diphtheria. 

4. Typhoid fever, by the location of the receiving basin of our water-works. Several 
large sewers empty into the river above it. This will be remedied in a short time. 

Small-pox is more than usually prevalent. Two causes might be suggested: 
(1.) Defective vaccination. Very little care seems to have been exercised in the 
selection of either vaccine or vaccinators. Any thing to produce a big sore on the 
arm has been the one thing needful. Some who trusted in the protective qualities of 
such vaccination have suffered from small-pox, and thus confidence has been impaired. 
If the State would supply pure and good bovine virus, and by law, as in England, 
compel all to be vaccinated, there could be but few cases of this disease. 

(2.) No vaccination. The non-protective quality of the present system of vaccina- 
tion, and the possibility of inoculating other diseases, have caused numbers to neglect 
or refuse to be vaccinated. 

5. Eruptive fevers (except small-pox), whooping-cough, cholera infantum, and dis- 
eases of tlie intestinal tract. The number of deaths from cholera infixntum, 225, seems 

[* This should have been printeil iu the Circular, "question 19."— 11. B. B., Sec'y.] 

29 



226 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1S77. 



high; but the disease was not so prevalent nor so long-continuetl as usual. During 
July and August, children died very suddenly of this ailment, hence the high mortal- 
ity, 100 in Julj% and 79 in August. 

6.* There has been no epidemic, and the financial panic has induced people to live 
more in accordance with the laws of health. These seem to be the most obvious 
causes of the decrease. 

7. I am not able to obtain statistics to answer definitely. 

8. See answer "4". 

9. Scarlatina and similar diseases; but statistics are wanting. 

10. See answer "6". 

11. I am not able to state the number of cases of these diseases. None of them 
seems to have been more tlian usuall)' fatal. The most of them have been very light. 
The subjoined mortuary table will give the best idea of their prevalence : 

Table exhibiting, for the city of Detroit, 3fichigan, by months during the year 1S76, the 
number of interments and the reported causes of deaths, — as compiled from reports made 
by superintendents of cemeteries to the city clerk. 



DISEASES AND CAUSES OF 
DEATH. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


3Iay. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. Sept. 


Oct. 

1 


Not. 


Dec. 

2 
1 


Total 


Asthma 


2 


1 
1 


1 
1 


.... 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 
1 


7 
4 


Abscess 




Apoplexy 






1 
4 
6 


1 


2 




1 

1 


.... 


9 


Aphtha? 






o 


Bright 's Disease 


3 
2 


4 


4 


1 


5 


1 
10 
2 

1 

1 

11 

1 

1 
1 


2 1 

3 2 

4 2 


1 
2 
2 


1 
5 

1 


1 
2 

1 
2 

3 
2 


21 


Brain, Inflammation of. 

Brain, Meningitis 


45 

12 


Brain, Men. Tubercular... 










2 

5 
2 

6 
3 
1 

1 
12 

1 
10 

7 


4 

2 
3 

1 

10 

12 

7 
8 


4 


Brain, Softening of. 


3 
2 


3 

2 

4 


1 

3 
2 

1 


6 
2 
4 
2 


1 




6 


Brain, Congestion of. 

Brain, Water on 

Bronchitis 


4 2 
1 2 
1 

1 1 


1 
1 


1 

1 
1 


41 
15 
"2 


Cancer 


3 


04 


Cerebro-spinal Meningitis. 
Confinement 


3 


1 

11 
3 

18 

1 
7 


4 
i 
17 
10 
17 

11 


2 

1 

17 

10 

24 

1 


3 

18 

2 

20 

5 






9 


Congestion 


3 

21 

22 
100 
13 


2 2 

7 23 
1 1 

10 19 
70 33 

8 2 

1 

4 3 

5 3 

7 

3 1 

2 2 

1 2 

4 1 

8 8 

5 

2 3 

1 

1 

1 


10 
1 

13 
1 
5 
1 

11 

3 
6 

1 
1 
2 

' 
1 

1 

2 

1 


11 

15 
I 
6 

3 
2 
1 

2 

1 

4 


1 

10 
7 
12 

6 

1 
2 

1 
2 

1 
2 



1 


20 


Convulsions 


176 


Croup 

Consumption 


33 
210 


Cholera Infantum 


225 


Debility 

Delirium Tremens 


79 



Diphtheria 

Diarrlioea 

Dysenterj' 


1 
1 





2 
1 


1 


2 
8 

4 


2 
3 
4 

1 


4 
11 
2 

2 
8 
1 
1 

1 

6 
1 
1 


30 
46 
''0 


Dropsy 

Drowned 


1 


5 


1 


31 
15 


Fever, Intermittent 


.... 


2 


1 








10 


Fever, Remittent 


5 


1 
4 


1 
2 


Y> 


Fever, Typhoid 


2 


2 
1 

1 
3 

1 


40 


Fever, Bilious 


4 


Fever, Typhus 




1 

1 
1 


3 


1 
7 


8 


8 


Heart Disease 

Heart, Dropsy ot 


3 


52 
5 


Inanition 


1 


] 


4 


10 


Insanity 


1 


3 




Liver, Enlargement of. 






2 


2 


2 3 


12 



* T'le figures beginning x^aragraphs refer to questions in Circular 15, printed on pages 185-6 of 
this Keport. 



DISEASES IN MICHIGAN DUFJNG THE YEAR 187G. 



227 



TABLE. — Continued. — Deaths in Detroit, by Months of year 1S76. 



DISEASES AND CAUSES OF 
DEATH. 


Jan. 
12 


Feb. 

19 
6 

1 


Mar. 


Apr. 

14 

7 
2 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Not. 


Dec. 


Total. 




23 
10 

1 


1 
11 

1 

4 
3 

4 

1 
1 

3 

9 

1 
1 

1 
8 
3 

22 
20 








1 
5 
2 

1 

7 


1 
6 

1 


1 
5 

1 

1 
5 
1 

1 
1 
1 

1 

1 
4 
5 


1 
5 
1 

1 

2 

1 

1 

4 

1 
17 

1 

2 
2 

1 
20 
13 


5 


Lungs, Inllamniationof 

Lungs, Congestion of 

Lungs, Miscellaneous 


14 

1 
5 
1 
3 
3 

1 
1 
1 

1 
5 

7 
1 
2 


8 

1 

4 
1 
5 
2 
2 

1 

2 
6 

3 


8 

1 
1 


130 
23 
13 
25 


Measles 


10 
2 


12 
3 


7 
5 
3 


5 
4 


40 


Old Age 


6 
2 

2 

1 
1 

1 

3 

3 


1 

1 
1 


5 
4 
1 
2 

1 
4 

1 

1 

4 

4 


46 


Paralysis 


20 


Peritonitis 






10 


Puerperal Fever 

Puerperal Convulsions 

Rheumatism 


1 
1 


1 


1 


3 

2 

1 

4 
2 

1 

6 
5 

16 
15 


9 
3 
6 


Scarlatina 

Scrofula 


18 

s 


Spinal Disease 


1 


1 
1 

5 

1 
3 


1 
1 
1 

3 
5 

1 
2 

23 

20 


1 
3 
1 
4 


8 


Small-pox 


55 


Suicide 

Teething 

Tumors , 


3 
2 

1 
4 


5 

21 

7 


Whooping-cough 

Accidents 

Unknown 


11 

1 

1 
IG 


1 
1 
7 
1 

14 


4 
2 

6 
1 

27 
20 


4 
4 

8 


21 
49 
4'J 


Died at Birth 


5 


Miscellaneous 

Still-born 


9 
15 


14 


28 
17 


12 
14 


20 

7 


178 

185 


Interments in 1876 


128 

11 

189 


173 

16 


192 


182 
10 


190 


163 


288 


268 


211 


142 

19 
176 


120 


160 


2,217 


Number of these who died 
outside ot city limits 


19 


15 


10 
165 


19 


32 


22 


8 


6 
169 


187 


Interments in 1875 


168 
5 


178 


170 


177 


319 


244 


220 


146 


2,321 


Interments in 1876, more 
than in 1875 . 


14 


12 


13 


2 


31 


24 










Interments in 187G less 
than in 1S75. .. .. 


61 


9 


34 


26 


9 


104 














C'oarAuisoN avith Four Prf.c 


EDINO YEAEt 


. 




1872. 


1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


Number of interments ._ _- 


2,39 


2,506 


2,386 


2,321 




2,217 












Interments more than in 187 




17 


3 289 


163 


104 





























Population, as per State Census in 1874,^101,245. 

1^. Cholerii. 

13. The above mortuary table will give the best data at present available. Deaths, 
however, do not give any definite idea of the amount of sicicness; for in some seasons 
there are few deatlis but much sickness, and vice versa. This year the death-rate is 
high compared with the amount of sickness, there having been many sudden deaths. 

14. None. 

15. Influenza, diphtlieria, small-pox, and rheumatism. Influenza is the only one 
that is very prevalent. 



328 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— KEPORT OF SECRETARY, 1S77. 

16.* Influenza is prevalent, but not fatal. 

19, 20. I do not think my limited knowledge of the crops will justify any opinion; 
yet it appears to me that the cereals are inferior; api^les, wormy ; and potatoes^ 
poor, 

24. Meteorological Table for Detroit. 

(Information furnished by Theo. V. Van Heiisen, Sergeant Signal Service, U. S. A.) 



MONTHS AND 
TEARS. 

1876. 

January 

February 

March 

April , 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November , 

December 

1873 

1874 

1875 

1876 



Mean Bar- 
ometer. 
Inches. 


Highest 
Tempera- 
ture. 
Degrees 
Fahr. 


Lowest 
Temper- 
ature. 


Mean 
Temper- 
ature. 


Total 
Rainfall. 


Prevailing 
winds. 


Miles trav- 
eled by 
wind. 


Maximum 

velocity 
of wind. 


Days 

on which 

rain or 

snow felL 


30.036 


65 


9 


.32.4 


2.00 


W. 


7,150 


36 


19 


30.036 


54 


4 


28.6 


5.59 


\\. 


5,986 


36 


17 


29.979 


62 


7 


29.8 


5.50 


N. W. 


6,646 


32 


20 


29.964 


69 


25 


44.0 


1.80 


W. 


5,690 


45 


13 


29.975 


85 


30 


57.5 


5.62 


E. 


4,896 


20 


20 


29.863 


88 


50 


69.3 


1.51 


S. W. 


4,643 


30 


17 


29.945 


90 


53 


73.0 


5.94 


S. W. 


4,293 


36 


12 


30.002 


87 


4<5 


72.1 


2.46 


S. W. 


3,346 


15 


15 


29.952 


77 


39 


59.1 


2.81 


E. 


4,487 


24 


20 


29.917 


72 


24 


46.2 


2.89 


S. AV 


5,583 


30 


20 


29.935 


68 


16 


38.6 


2.32 


W. 


4,233 


36 


21 


30.015 


42 


-9 


18.5 


1.96 


S. W. 


5,821 


35 


21 


29.971 
30.013 
29.983 


94 

97 
90 


-12 



-20 


46.4 
48.4 
44.5 


34.00 
26.63 
35.71 


w. 

S. AV. 
\\. S. W. 


67,919 
67,405 
66,175 














29.968 


90 


-9 


47.4 


40.40 


S. W. 


66,862 


45 


215 



It will be observed from this table that in February, March, Maj', and July, the 
rainfall was over 5 inches each month, and from the table of interments, that the 
interments, in February, March, April, Maj'', and August were more than in the cor- 
responding months of 1875, while in all the other months they are less. 

I have given no attention to "ground" moisture during the year, and I cannot^ 
therefore, give the information you desire. The rainfall, 40.40 inches, is considerably 
greater than during any of the three preceding years. See the above meteorological 
table. 

Hoping this feeble effort may be of some use, as a slight contribution to vital sta- 
tistics, I remain, Yours truly, 

Ml Sixth St., Detroit, Wayjie Co., Mich., January, 1877. W. H. ROUSE, M. D. 

REPLIES BY ROBERT JOHNSTON, M. D., OE MILFORD, MICH. 

Secretary of State Board of Health : 

Dear Sir: — Enclosed please find replies to Circular 15, relative to prevailing dis- 
eases. The locality for which replies are made is the village of Milford and the 
country for six miles out. * 

1. The same. 

2. About the same as the average. 

3. Scarlet fever was more than usually prevalent and fatal in the Spring. 

4. I know of no cause. 

5. Typhoid fever. 

6. To good drainage and pure water. 

7. Scarlet fever. 

8. I know of none, unless it was imperfect ventilation. See reply to Circular No. 17.t 
Typhoid fever. 



10. To good hygienic surroundings. 



* The figures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 15, printed on pages 185-6 of 
this Report. 

t [See in index of this volume, "Johnston, M. D., Robert, of Milford, Replies to Circular 17 Rela- 
tive to Scarlet Fever".— II. B. B., Sec'y.] 



DISEASES IN MICHIGAN DURING THE YEAR 187G. 229 

11. About CO cases of scarlet fever; 50 cases of whooping-cough. There were 5 
cases typhoid fever and 8 cases of measles. 

12. Small-pox, cholera, cerebro-spinal meningitis, diphtheria. 

13. January: scarlet fever, rheumatism, intermittent fever, pneumonia. 
February: Intermittent fever, scarlet fever, pneumonia, rheumatism. 
March: Pneumonia, scarlet fever, intermittent fever. 

April and May: No new cases under these heads.* 
June: Tvphoid fever, diarrhea, intermittent fever. 
July : No new cases.* 

August: Typhoid fever, diarrhea, bronchitis, intermittent fever. 
September: Intermittent fever, cholera infantum, cholera morbus, rheumatism. 
October: Dysentery, diarrhea, bronchitis. Intermittent fever. 
November: Whooping-cough, bronchitis, intermittent fever, influenza. 
December: Scarlet fever, whooping-cough, intermittent fever, bronchitis, influ- 
enza. 

14. Typhoid fever, in June; no death during the year. Scarlet fever was prevalent 
here January 1, 1S7G; 5 deaths from it during the yeai\ 

15. Intermittent fever, diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid fever, bronchitis. 

16. No. 

17. None. 

18. Potatoes were of poor quality, and a small crop. Hop raisers say, "The hop 
crop was very light, and of inferior quality, and was injured by flre-blight." The 
fruit crop was very large and of good quality. Cereals and grasses were secured in 
good condition; and were an average crop as to quality and quantity. 

19. In good condition. 

20. No. 

21. Yes. 

22. Less than usually liable to bank in bin. 

23. Less than usually affected by mildew or mould, 

24. I have not sufficient data from which to answer correctly. 

29. I was called, Aug. 24,1877, to see Mr. Joseph Gordon and wife (aged about 55 
years), who live two miles north of Milford. They were suffering with nausea, vomit- 
ing, diarrhea, and fever ; they were quite sick for a week. A few days after they were 
taken, the rest of the family, George, Helen, and Stanley, aged respectively 23, 21, 
and 15 years, were taken with similar symptoms. George had been living in the 
village for several months, and was at home only occasionally. He was sick but a 
few days, complaining most of nausea, headache, and debilitj\ Helen had a low grade 
of fever, lasting four weeks. There was no delirium, no rose-colored eruption, but 
great emaciation. The temperature was from 102° to 105°, most of the time. Stanley 
has now had well-marked typhoid fever for four weeks, following a severe attack of 
dysentery; he has had the rose-colored eruption, sudamina, iliac tenderness, and in- 
voluntarj' evacuations of bowels and bladder. Delirium has been almost constant. 
The temperature has been from 101° to 105°; it is 105° this evening. 

When first called, I examined the well and tasted the water, but I did not find any- 
thing that would indicate any impurity. Mrs. G. then said that they had the best 
water in the neighborhood. A week later, when I spoke to George about the water, 
he said, "A short time since it tasted and smelt very bad.'''' Mrs. G. then said, "Yes, 
some three weeks ago it was bad, and one day I drew a pail, and there was in the 
bucket the largest toad I ever saw; it was as large as my hand, was rotten, just ready 
to fall to pieces, and smelt so bad that I could hardly bear to lift the bucket out of 
the well-box." I at once tested the water, using Heisch's test; but the water proved 
to be pure, or at least it remained perfecth^ clear. I was not surprised at this; for 
after the putrid reptile was removed from the well, thej' continued to water all the 
stock, horses, cows, hogs, etc., from the well, using from thirty to fifty pails per day; 
this in a few days would change the entire quantity of water in the well. As all who 
used the water suffered from similar symptoms, about the same time, and as George, 
who used least, suffered least, 1 think it is very probable that putrid water was the 
cause of their sickness. The well Is 40 feet deep ; the water is usually three feet deep 
in the well. There had been open spaces about the top of the wall (it was stoned up), 
which had been closed since finding a toad had got in. The privy is five or six rods 
from the well. The soil is clay and gravel. The impure water had been used some 
two or three weeks. Several times they had sent to a neighbor's for water to drink 
and to make tea and coffee. 

Respectfully yours, 

Milford, Oakland Co., Mich., Oct. S, 1S77. ROBERT JOHNSTON. 

* [The question refers to all cases, new or old.— H. B. B., Sec'y.] 



230 STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 



Dear Sir:— Geo. Gordon, after recovering from the effects of drinking impure 
water, and for a month being in perfect health, assisted in taking care of the other 
cases of tj-phoid fever. He was taken with typhoid fever Oct. 13, but is now conva- 
lescent. 

Respectfully, 

Milford, Mich., Nov. 5, 1S77. ROBERT JOHNSTON. 

REPLIES BY J. M. SWIFT, M. D., OP NORTIIVILLE, MICH. 

Secretary State Board of Health: 

In answering Circular No. 15, 1 can give only in part such answers as you desire- 
The locality for which answers are made embraces the village, a portion of this town- 
ship, Plymouth, and portions contiguous of Livonia, Novi, Lyon, and Salem, in the 
counties of Wayne, Oakland, and Washtenaw.* 

1. Less, by 25 -per cent. 

2. Greater. 

3. Old age and its usual concomitant diseases. 

Deaths in the village of Northville and vicinity during the years IS73. JS74, 187 5, 1S76. 



YEAR. 



1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 



Village of 

Northville.* 



10 
7 
11 



Northville 
and vicinity 

(as above). I 



Under 
20 years. 



Over 
20 years 



§12 



X Increase over avera; 
§ One, unknown. 



* Population, about 1,000. f Population (estimated) 2500. 
years, attributed to the great number of old people who died. 

During the 4 years from 1873 to 1876, inclusive, the deaths, by months, w 
lows : 



',Q of other 
5 re as fol- 



December 

January 

February 


y 

15 

4 

28 




20 
10 

s 

38 




9 
4 

8 

21 


September 

October 


10 
8 
4 

22 


Total. 


April 

May 


July 

August 


November 




Winter Months. 


Spring Months. 


Summer Months.. 


Autumn Months.. 


109 



The causes of deaths in 1876, in the village of Northville and its vicinitj-, as 
described above, so far as known, were, consumption, 4; apoplexy, 5; cancer, 2; burned 
to death, 1 ; membraneous croup, 1 ; cystitis (chronic), 1 ; organic diseases of heart, 2 ; 
diphtheria, 2; infantile convulsions, 1; paralysis 2; drowning, 1; erysipelas, 2; old 
age and concomitant diseases, 9; two infants, unknown. Of tliese, I am sure that 10 
would average 80 years of age; one was 97 years, and 17 were about 65 years of age. 
The fact of so small mortality of infants, and indeed of all classes under 20 years of 
age, is remarkable. There has been but little sickness, as compared with former 
years, and no epidemic forms of disease, during the year, unless the prevalence of 
diphtheria during December and continuing up to this date (Jan. 13, 1877), may be 
epidemical. 

4. Answered above. 

5. Fevers of all types. 

6. I do not know. 

7. None. See answer "3". 

11, 12. No small-pox or cholera; of scarlet fever, I have seen but two cases; of ty- 
phoid fever, none, and none of the others named, except diphtheria. 
13. Notliing prevalent, except diphtheria in December. 

* The figures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 15, printed on pages 185-6 of 
this Report. 



DISEASES IN MICHIGAN DURING THE YEAR 1876. ^31 

14. — . 

15. Diphtheria. 

16. No. 

17. I liavc hoard or liiiowii of none. 

18. Rust in wheat, to some extent. 

19. Good. 

20. I think not; only corn ahout as usual. 

21. Yes. 

22. I do not know. 

23. Good order, remarkabl}^ good. 

24. 1876. — Feb. 9 to 13, unusual amount of rain; March 28, severest snow storm of 
the season; April 11 and 12, thunder showers; Maj' 5, very rainy day, much needed, — 
showery until May 11 ; June 14 to 20. showers; July 1 to 5, showers; September 6 to 
14, considerable rain; October 22 to 27, considerable rain; October 30, heavy thunder 
shower. 

For records and valuable facts given in answers "3" and "24" I am indebted to Rev. 
James Dabnar of this village. I can see no way by which I can communicate reliable 
information in answer to questions which are unnoticed. 

Very respectfully, 

Northville, Wayne Co., Mich., January 13, 1877. J. M. SWIFT. 

REPLIES BY WM. BROWNELL, M. D., OF UTICA, MICH. 

Secretary State Board of Health : 

Dear Sir: — In answer to Circular No. 15, I herewith send report for 1876, for 
Utica and vicinity. 

1. Less, bj^ one-third, as compared witli the last six years. 

2. Less, but not in proportion to decrease of sickness. 

3. None. 

4. There has been no unusual prevalence of any disease. 

5. Less malarial, and few or none that were contagious. 

6. Improved drainage, and good fortune. 

7. None. 

8. There has been no unusual mortality from any disease. 

9. Pneumonia, scarlet and typhoid fevers. 

10. To the fact that these diseases have been less prevalent. 

11. There has appeared none of the diseases named, except about one-half dozen 
cases of typhoid fever, and the endemic diseases incident to the locality, the number 
of cases of wliicii I am unable to give, but I am sure they have been less than usual. 

12. Small-pox, cholera, scarlet fever, measles, whooping-cough, cerebro-spinal men- 
ingitis. 

13. I have too little data to attempt the statement. 

14. None of that character has occurred during the year. 

15. Whooping-cough and catarrhal colds. 

16. None. 

17. None, that I am aware of. 

18. No crop disease in this quarter. 

19. Good. 

20. They were not. 

21. It was, 

22. Less, I should judge, as the millers saj- they have no reason to complain this 
year. 

23. The hay crop was secured in good condition. 

24. I have made no observations worth reporting. 

25. Very uniform throughout the year. 

26. As compared with the last five years, the soil moisture for 1876 has been 
greater, — at no time uiuisually dry or moist. 

27. Depth of earth above ground water, 14 feet; depth of water in wells, 2^2 feet; 
with very little variation throughout the year. Tlie water-supply generally, in 
wells and streams, was better than for several years, yet at no time what might be 
considered high, and very few, if any, wells or streams failed during the year. 

28. At no time. 

29. I have nothing new or important to report under this head. 

Yours respectfuUv, 
Vtica, Macomb Co., Mich., March, 2S77. " ^Vm. BROWNELL. 



232 STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH— KEPOET OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

REPLIES BY E. A. CHAPMAN, M. D,, OF WALLED LAKE, MICH. 

Secretary of the State Board of Health: 

Sir: — I herewith submit my answers to some of the questions in Circular No. 15. 
I have not sufficient data to warrant me in answering all of them. The locality for 
which I make this report is in the vicinity of Walled Lake, Oakland Co.* 

1. Less; diminished by 25 per cent. 

2. About the same as the average. 

3. Age. A number of the old inhabitants of this vicinity seemed calmly and quietly 
to pass away Avithout any appreciable reason. 

4. — . 

5. No diseases or causes of death have been less than usually prevalent. 

G, 7, 8, 9, 10. All modified by the answers given to the preceding questions. 

11. A few sporadic cases of scarlet fever, typhoid fever, measles, whooping-cough, 
diphtheria, and puerperal fever. 

12. Small-pox, cholera, and cerebro-spinal meningitis. 
13, 14.— 

15. Pneumonia and scai-let fever. 

16. None, to my knowledge. 

In regard to the remaining questions, I am unable to gain sufficient information to 
enable me to answer them. 

Respectfully yours, 
Walled Lake, Oakland Co., Jan. 18, 1877. E. A. CHAPMAN. 

replies by E. p. christian, M. D., of "WYANDOTTE, MICH. 

Secretary State Board of Health : 
In reply to queries in Circular No. 15, 1 transmit the following:* 

1. Much less; I should judge 25 to 30 per cent. 

2. Decidedly less; but how much, I cannot say. 

3. None. 

4. — . 

5. All epidemic and contagious diseases. 

6. I have no theory. It is more difficult to give an opinion as to reason of less 
prevalence than of an increased prevalence. 

7. From none. 

8. — . 

9. From all. 

10. To less sickness and milder forms of disease. 

11. No small-pox; an occasional sporadic case of scarlet fever last "Winter, and two 
or three this last December; very few cases of typhoid last Winter and this Fall and 
Winter; no measles; no cerebro-spinal meningitis; rarely a case of whooping-cough; 
probably a dozen mild cases of diphtheria; and no other epidemic or contagious 
disease. 

12. Small-pox, measles, cerebro-spinal meningitis. 

13. There has been no epidemic. 

14. Nothing of this kind, during past year. 

15. Scarlet fever made its appearance a Aveek or more since, of which there have 
been, to my knowledge, three cases, with one death (an infant 5 months old). 

16, 17, 18. None. 

19. Wheat, in this localitv, badly affected by rust. 

20. No. 

21. Yes. 

22. No. 

23. About an average. 

25. More than for several years past. 

26. Not as much as usual in Fall. 

27. Varies in localities; no wells became dry this Summer or Fall, which is unusual. 
In parts of the city situated on a sandy ridge, the average depth to water is from 
10 to 12 feet. On other parts, but little above level of Detroit river, the average 
depth to water is two feet. The river this past season has been higher than known for 
years, even submerging during the whole season some parts of the thoroughfare 

* The figures beginniug paragraphs refer to questioas ia Circular 15, printed on pages 185-6 of 
this Report. 



DISEASES IN MICHIGAN DURING THE YEAR 1875. 233 

along the river. This height of water in the river has aftected the supply in the 
wells; or, rather, the same causes which have raised the water in the lakes and river 
(deficient evaporation), has affected the amount of water in wells. 

28. Unusually high all the j^ear, but especially in Spring and Fall. 

29. The year has been one of unusual freedom from disease, — no epidemics, very 
few cases of contagious diseases, and less and milder forms of ordinary endemic 
diseases. 

Wyandotte, Wayne Co., Mich., Dec. 30, 1S7G. E. P. CHRISTIAN, M. D. 



DISEASES IN MICHIGAN IN 1875. 



Since the publication, in the last Eeport, of the replies to Circular 11, relative 
to Diseases in 1875, replies have been received from two other correspondents. 
They make a useful addition to what was published in last Report. They are, 
therefore, inserted here, that they may be accessible to all who are or may be 
engaged in the study of diseases or of the sanitary conditions and history of the 
State. The Circular to which they reply is also here printed. 



[11.] CIRCULAR TO CORRESPONDENTS RELATIVE TO PREVAILING 

DISEASES. 



Office op the State Board of Health, ) 
Lansing, Michigan, December, 1875. ) 

To the Correspondents of the State Board of Health: 

Gentlemen :— This Board desires to have, and to place upon record for purposes of 
future study in connection with records of deaths and of meteorological conditions, 
statements, for as many different localities in the State as possible, of the diseases pre- 
vailing during the year 1875. Will you have the kindness to send, as soon after Decem- 
ber 31, 1875, as is convenient, to the office of this Board at Lansing, your replies to the 
following questions? Please use the stamped envelope enclosed herewith, and leave 
all additional postage to be paid at this office. In replying it will not be necessary 
to repeat the questions, but simply to refer to the Circular and to each question by 
number. Please define the locality for which your replies are made. 

1. Among the people of your locality, and considering the increase or decrease of 
population, was the proportion of sickness from all causes during the year end- 
ing Dec. 31,1875, greater, less, or about the same as the average during previous 
years? If not the same, how much was it increased or diminished? 
30 



234 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1S77. 

2. Comparecl with previous years, and from all causes, was the proportion of 
deaths to inhabitants during the year 1875, greater, less, or about the same as 
the average ? If not tlie same, how much was it increased or diminished? 

3. What diseases, or causes of death, have been more tlian usually prevalent during 
the year 1875 ? 

4. "What diseases, or causes of death, have been less than usually prevalent? 

5. From what diseases or causes has there been more than the usual mortality 

during the year 1875 ? 

6. From what diseases or causes has there been less than the usual mortality? 

7. State number of cases of small-pox, cholera, scarlet fever, typhoid fever, measles, 
whooping-cough, cerebro-spinal meningitis, diphtheria, and of any epidemic, 
endemic, contagious, or infectious disease that has appeared. (Facts are espe- 
cially desired, but opinions are better than no statements, though it will be 
well to state them as opinions,) 

8. Of such diseases, name those of which no case has appeared during the year 
1875. 

9. Please give a summary statement of the diseases which have prevailed in each 
month of the year 1875. 

10. Please mention dates of the occurrence of any disease not usually occurring in 
your locality, and of any attended with an unusually high or low rate of 
mortality. 

11. What diseases are prevailing at the time you send this statement? 

12. Are any diseases now especially or unusually prevalent or fatal? If so. what 
diseases and to what extent? 

13. What diseases have prevailed, and to what extent, among animals? 

14. What diseases have prevailed, and to what extent, among the crops, as of pota- 

toes, hops, fruits, and especially cereals and grasses, whether affected by rust, 
smut, "bunt," mildew, or mould? 

15. As regards rye, oats, corn, buckwheat, and other grains, wheat in pai-ticular, it 
is desired to ascertain the actual condition when ready for market or use. 
Were any of these affected by any kind of fungus? 

16. Was the wheat generally allowed to get thoroughly dry before it was threshed? 

17. Do the wheat buyers or millers say that wheat this year is more or less than 
usually liable to "bank" in the bin? 

18. Was the hay crop, secured during the past season, more or less than usuallj' 
affected by mildew or mould? 

19. Please give a summary statement of the meteorological conditions during the 
year 1875, specifying if possible the general characters for each month, and 
noting any peculiar or unusual conditions. 

20. Please communicate facts bearing upon, or cases illustrating the causation or 
commuuicability of diseases. 

Any suggestions which you may feel inclined to make, concerning metiiods which 
seem practicable, for the prevention of sickness or deaths from removable causes, 
in your locality, or in this State, need not be withheld. 



DISEASES IN MICHIGAN DUKING THE YEAK 1875. 235- 

As stated parenthetically after question 7, in the absence of positive knowledge, 
opinions are desired. The fact that it will he difficult, and sometimes impossible to 
give the information asked for is well understood, but the importance of the subject 
warrants the effort, which it is believed will not always be barren of results, but will 
tend to accumulate data which will eventually be of great value to the people. 
By direction of the State Board of Health. 

Very respectfully, 

HENRY B. BAKER, 
Secretary. 

REPLIES TO CmCUL^VR 11, RELATIVE TO PREVAILING DISEASES IN 1875, BY JOHN S. 
CAULKINS, M. D., OF THORNVILLE, MICH. 

Secretary State Board of Health: 
Dear Sir: — Below please find replies to Circular 11.* 

1. Greater, during Winter; less, during Summer; average, for the year. 

2. Greater among old people than usual, during the cold months of the fore part of 
the year; very healthy during Summer and Fall; average, for the year. 

3. None in particular, except an unusual amount of sickness among very old people^ 

4. Hardly a case of dysentery. 

5. None, except an unusual number of deaths among very old people. 

6. No death from dysentery. 

7. Small-pox, no case; cholera, none; scarlet fever, not many, I remember 5 or 6;. 
typhoid fever, I remember G cases ; measles, an extensive epidemic, perhaps 100 cases ; 
whooping-cough, an epidemic, perhaps 50 cases; cerebro-spinal meningitis, no case; 
diphtheria, a few mild sporadic cases; dj'sentery, no case. No other contagious or 
infectious disease. 

8. Small-pox, Asiatic cholera, cerebro-spinal meningitis, dysentery. 

9. January, February, March, — Pneumonia and whooping-cough. 
April, May, — Measles. 

Afterwards only malarious complaints, till cold weather. 
The latter part of the year was very healthy. 

10. There were no diseases not usually prevalent, except the epidemics above men- 
tioned; nor was any attended with unusual mortality. 

11. Whooping-cough and bilious complaints (Nov. 15, 1876). 

12. None. 
13, 14. — . 

15. The actual condition of all the crops, except corn, at market time, was good^ 
That was very poor and soft, moulding badly in the crib. None of these crops was 
more than usually afiected by fungus growths. This year (187G) corn has the most 
smut I ever saw. 

IG. Yes; very dry. 

17,18. No. 

19. 1875 was a very cold year. Winter and Summer. 

20. I would suggest, under this head, the issuing of a circular to correspondents,, 
calling for information relative to the explosion of kerosene lamps. A very sad case 
occurred in this vicinity this current year. Three other cases have fallen under my 
notice, one of which was in the family of a near relative. 

Respectfully, 
Thornmlle, Mich., Nov. 15, 1S76. JOHN S. CAULKINS. 

REPLIES TO CIRCULAR 11, RELATIVE TO PREVAILING DISEASES IN 1875, BY ROBERT 
JOHNSTON, M. D., OF MILFORD, MICH. 

Secretary State Board of Health : 

Dear Sir: — I take pleasure in replying to Circular No. 11, relative to prevailing 
diseases. The following replies are for village and township of Milford, and for 
1875. 

* The figures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 11, printed on pages 233-5 of this- 
Report. 



236 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 

1. About tlie same as usual. 

2. About the same as the average. 

3. *Scarlet fever of a mild type has been prevalent. 

4. Typhoid fever; no case during the year. 

5. Scarlet fever. 

6. Typhoid fever. 

7. Scarlet fever, about 150 cases; measles, 50; whooping-cough, 75; diphtheria, 1 
case (imported from Kalamazoo). The case of diphtheria was isolated as soon as dis- 
covered. 

8. Small-pox, cholera, typhoid fever, cerebro-spinal meningitis. 

9. During January, — Typhoid pneumonia, scarlet fever, malarial fever. 
February, — Typhoid pneumonia, scarlet fever, malarial fever, rheumatism. 
March, — Pneumonia, scarlet fever, malarial fever, bronchitis. 

April, — Measles, scarlet fever, malarial fever, pneumonia, bronchitis. 

May, — Scarlet fever, measles, malarial fever. 

June, — Scarlet fever, malarial fever. 

July, — Malarial fever, diarrhea. 

August, — Malarial fever, cholera morbus. 

September, — Malarial fever, cholera infantum. 

October — Malarial fever, whooping-cough. 

November, — Whooping-cough, bronchitis, pneumonia, malarial fever. 

December,— Pneumonia, bronchitis, whooping-cough, scarlet fever, malarial fever. 

10. Diphtheria (see answer "7"), Dec. 3, 1875 ; scarlet fever reappeared Dec. 23, 1875. 

11. Malarial fever, pneumonia, bronchitis, (one case of scarlet fever). 

12. No. 

13. No unusual diseases have prevailed among animals. 

14-19. I have not sufficient data from which to answer questions 14 to 19 inclusive. 
20. [See, in index to this volume, "Johnston, M. D., Robert, of Milford, Replies to 
Circular 17, relative to Scarlet Fever."— H. B. B., Sec'y.] 

Very respectfully, 
Milford, Mich., Dec. 11, 1876. ROBERT JOHNSTON. 

* The figures beginning paragraphs refer to questions in Circular 11, printed on pages 233-5 of 
this Report. 



WEEKLY REPORTS OF DISEASES 



IN MICHIG-AN 



DURING THE 



YEAR ENDING SEPTEMBER 29, 1877, 



INCLUDING A 



Compilation of the Weekly Kepokts feom Health Officers of Cities 

AND FROM Regular Correspondents of the State 

Board of Health. 



Compiled in the OflSce of the Secretary of the Board, 



WEEKLY REPORTS OF DISEASES IN MICHI- 
GAN DURING THE FISCAL YEAR END- 
ING WITH SEPTEMBER, 1877. 



In the last Report was given an outline of a plan for securing a record and 
weekly reports of the diseases in Michigan ; and two tables were included for 
the single month of September, 1870, illustrating a few of the many valuable 
statements which can be worked out from such reports. 

In this article the compilation is continued and brought up to the latest time 
possible to include in this Report, which is for the fiscal year ending with Sep- 
tember, 1877. This makes the compilation for a full year, though not for the 
calendar year. It is expected that hereafter the compilation will be so man- 
aged that each Report shall exhibit the results for a calendar year; and if this 
is accomplished it will necessarily be for the calendar year preceding the fiscal 
year for which the Report is made, — the Report for the fiscal year ending with 
September, 1878, to include a summary for the calendar year, 1877, the Report 
for the fiscal year, 1879, to contain the compilation relating to the diseases in 
1878, etc. On this account and because of the great labor of making this first 
compilation for a full year, no elaborate study of the results for the year is 
attempted in this Report, but instead the attention of contributors is asked to 
such details as it is hoped may lead to improvements in the material for future 
compilations. It is believed, however, tliat the present results are as valuable 
as could have been expected, and that the Tables 1 and 2, Diseases in the 
State for tlie full year, will be found especially valuable and interesting to any 
one who will give them careful study. 

The blanks for the weekly reports upon which this compilation is based are 
printed on postal cards, which are supplied to such regular Correspondents of the 
Board as consent to make reports, and to the Ilealtii Oificers of all cities for 
which a return of the name of a Uealth Officer has been received. Blank 
record books in which to preserve a copy of the reports, together witii com- 
ments, etc. are also supplied to the Observers of Diseases, to be retained by 
them. The reports are forwarded weekly to the Secretary of the Board, at 
Lansing. In this compilation, Table 3 was compiled directly from the cards ; 
and Tables 1 and 3 were comi)iled from Table 3. 

In order to perfect the system, and to secure greater uniformity of action 
among those who make the weekly reports of diseases, the plan was very 
carefully studied, written out, criticised and rewritten, and embodied in a letter, 
to the Observers of Diseases, which is inserted here in order to enable the reader 
the better to study tlie tables which have been compiled from their valuable con- 
tributions. The letter is as follows : 



240 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH—REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 



PRINTED LETTER TO OBSERVERS OF DISEASES, STATING PLAN OF 

WEEKLY REPORTS. 

Office op the Secretary op the State Board of Health, } 

Lansing, Michigan, October, 1877. \ 

To the Observers of Diseases for the Stale Board of Health : 

Gentlemen: — When the registration of diseases was commenced, it was thought 
that the plan was sufficiently indicated on the postal blanks supplied by the State 
Board of Health; and even at the time of the last Annual Report, it was thought that 
sufficient correspondence had taken place to secure reports in accordance with the 
plan: but it has been found that there are a great many ways in which it is possible 
slightly to vary the method, and thus make much more difficult than it would other- 
wise be, the necessarily difficult task of compiling the reports. Some reports it has 
been impossible to bring into the compilation, because they were made in such an 
irregular manner. 

Aside from the consciousness of benevolent actions well performed, about the only 
recompense to be expected by the voluntary contributors to this work, is the prom- 
ised information to be derived from the combination of their reports. It is therefore 
in the interest of the Observers of Diseases, as well as in the public interest, that an 
attempt be made to secure, as soon as possible, such uniformity of method as will 
make it possible to combine the reports in a satisfactory manner. Accordingly, re- 
ferring to actual ii-regularities or to questions asked, I have prepared the following, — 

STATEMENT OF THE PLAN FOR MAKING WEEKLY REPORTS OF DISEiVSES. 

1. In the column headed "Prevalence, Order," opposite the disease of which there 
is the greatest number of cases, write the figure 1 ; opposite that of which there is the 
next greatest number of cases, write the figure 2; opposite that of which there is 
the next greatest number, write 3; and thus, according to the number of cases of 
each disease, apply consecutive numbers to all the diseases of which there have been 
cases in the locality during the week for which the report is made, — remembering, 
however, that two or more diseases of which there is the same number of cases should 
be marked with the same figure. 

2. Write "0" opposite each disease mentioned of which there is no case. 

3. If any disease not printed on the card has a greater number of cases, and is 
therefore, higher in the "order of prevalence," than some other disease printed on 
the card, it should be written on the card with its proper number opposite ; as should, 
also, any other important disease. 

4. Between the lowest and the highest numbers used, no number should be omit- 
ted, though some numbers may be repeated. 

5. All cases should be included, whether the patients were taken sick that week or 
previously, so long as they are actually sick with the given disease. 

6. It seems best that the report be made according to the Observer's best knowl- 
edge of the diseases in his localitj', without regard to who may have charge of the 
cases. 



VVEEKr.Y REPORTS OF DISEASES, FISCAL YEAR, 1877. 



241 



7. Some mark should be made opposite every disease mentioned. Two diseases 
should not be connected by a brace opposite one figure; to do this leads to confusion 
and inaccuracy in compiling the reports. 

8. The numbers given in the " order of prevalence" column do not show Avhether 
a disease is more or less than "usually" prevalent, or more or less prevalent than, 
during the preceding week.* 



* other columns are provideil lor the statement of botli these facts on the blank Records sunpliecl 
to Observers, and whenever the Observers feel inclined to tlo the additional work involved, it will 
probably be best to ])rovide for these statements on the reports. As to the use of these columns in 
the Records, a word may l)e stated here. 

a. The column headed "Prevalence, Order," remains as formerly and as explained in this 
printed letter. 

b. The column headed "Prevalence," " \Yeek," is designed to contain information whether the 
disease is increasing or decreasing in number of cases, and has no reference to the increase or de- 
crease in its severity. 

c. The column headed " Prevalence," "Year," is designed to contain information whether there 
is a greater or a less number of cases than usual, or about the same number as in former years. 
This column has no reference to severity. 

d. The column headed "Severity" is designed to include statements relative to the severity of 
the disease, compared with the experience in former years and in other places. 

[ 111 order to a better understanding of this part of the letter, by those not 
familiar with the Kecord book, a section of a page of the Eecord book, and the 
explanatory notes printed thereon, are here inserted : 



"^mH ''^i! "^ ^-5 

g«i^ Si "-" "Sl 

is|s 17 £s g"^ 

"3eo^ P. ^rt "■" 

0^c«^ C*j ^-^ .^— ' 

S.^ s.'" . ^ 2 c .2 cj *^ " 
■^ o o u o r, to 



o "".S 



^'^ ^ S o « 
2 tc^- g S m 






•?iSo 



C to i 



Q 5 ""jX 
. CI d 



5 :" m m c 
CO y ^ 



5: «i; 5q - jj, .- - 



+ - 



Please mail a copy of this to the Secretary of the State Board 
of Health, Lansing," Mich., as soon as convenient after close of 
week specified: 

Diseases in 


- .durinrj the v;eek ending 

Saturday, , 187 


Bronchitis 


Prevalence. 


Severity. 


Order, 
a. 


Week. 

b. 


Year, 
c. 


il. 


Cerebro-spinal Meningitis . 










Cliolera Infantum 


















1 










J 



9. A disease that one M-eek was " ;'>" or lower in the order, might be marked " 1 " 
the next week, and yet there be fewer cases of the disease the last week ; because other 
diseases had decreased more rapidly or had disappeared altogether. 

10. The numbers in the "order of prevalence" column have reference only to the 
relative number of cases, and have nothing to do with the severitj', malignancy, im- 
portance, or fatality of a disease. Yet they do not state the luimber of cases; they 
show simply of what disease there were the most cases during the Meek for which the 
report is made, of what disease the next highest mnnber, and so on. 

11. If the correspondent prefers to report the number of cases, there is no objec- 
tion to his doing so; provided that his method of reporting is clearly shown on every 
card by writing, on the right-hand margin of the card, the figures which denote the 
number of cases in his locality, "according to his best knowledge," and writing over 
them the word "cases." When the number of cases is very small or very large, the 

^ 1 



242 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— EEPORT OF SECRETARY, 1S77, 



exact uumber might be a fact of considerable interest, and well worth stating on tlie 
Biargin of the card, even if not generally reported. 

12. The following shows the correct marking in the "order of prevalence" cohmm, 
when the number of cases is as given on the margin of the card : 

Diseases in - during the v:eek ending 

Saturday, - , 1S7 ... 









•:: c o o 






Bronchitis .- - 

Cerebro-spinal Meningitis. 

Cholera Infantum 

Cholera Morbus 

Consumption, Pulmonary. 

Croup, Membraneous 

Diphtheria , 

Diarrhea.. 

Dysentery 

Erysipelas 

Fever, Intermittent 

Fever, Remittent 

Fever, Typhoid (Enteric). 

Fever, Typho-malarial 

Influenza 

Measles 

Pneumonia 

Puerperal Fever 

Kheumatism 

Scarlatina 

Small-pox 

"Whooping-cougli 



Prevalen»e. 
Order. See a. 
4 







C 







9 

9 

2 

8 

7 




9 

9 


1 



Rotheln (^German Measles). 

Croup, Spasmodic 

Puerperal Man la 



Cases. 
6 







4 







1 

1 

10 



M. D. 



13. In the column headed "Severity," the sign "=" denotes that the disease is ot 
the usual severity; the sign "+" denotes more, and the sign " — " less than the usual 
severity, compared with former years and other places. It is desirable that this 
column be filled. 

14. In order that reports lost through the mails may be replaced, it is desirable 
that correpondents make and preserve a record of diseases. That this may be done 
is one object in supplying the record books. 



WEEKLY i^EPOKTS OF DISEASES, FISCAL YEAIJ, 1877. 243 

15. If b}^ any ]ueans tlie postal-card blanks be mislaid, or anything occur which 
would interrupt the v.'cckly reports, timely notice should be given to this office, so 
that, if possible to prevent it, no break may occur. And when an Observer is to be 
absent from home for a short time, it would bo well to engage some competent phy- 
sician, either to make and forward the reports during his absence, or, better, to keep 
such a record as will enable the regular Observer to forward the reports on his 
return. 

IG. The name of the Correspondent, the locality for which the report is made, and 
the week for which it is a report, should be given on every card. 

17. In order to enable the central officer always to know the condition of the public 
health throughout the State, the weekly reports should be sent as soon as possible 
after the close of the week for which they are made; but no report should be sent 
before the close of the week for which it is a report. 

It is believed that the data thus collected will in time be of great value to human- 
ity; and, although there is as yet no provision whereby this imijortant work of the 
Correspondents of the Board can be proiierly remunerated by the State, an eflFort 
will be made to give due credit to those philanthropic Observers who thus contribute 
for the public good, and to prevent any necessity for outlay of money for postage, 
etc., by the Observer, except in the case of Health Officers, whose expenses should be 
paid by the local boards of health. The directed blank postal cards, and the stamped 
envelopes which the Observer may from time to time receive from the office of the 
State Board of Health, are intended for use in sending any information or suggestion 
which the Observer of Diseases may wish to convey, and which cannot conveniently 
be written at the bottom of the postal-card blanks. Any facts or suggestions bearing 
on the subject Avill, at any time, be thankfully received. 

Very respectfully, 

HEXEY B. BAKEE, 

Secretanj. ' 

IM'otwithstanding the intention that these weekly reports should include all 
the most prevalent diseases, as specified in paragriiph "3'' in the foregoing- 
sprinted letter," it seems probable that a reporter is a little less likely to re- 
port a disease not on the card,, even if its ])rcvalence is greater than that of 
some other disease printed on the card ; because the printed name of the 
disease is a constant reminder, and a disease not so printed may be forgotten. 
It is possible, therefore, that some disease not printed on the card may have been 
higher in the order of prevalence than some disease ?o printed, and here com- 
piled. Yet this is not very likely to occur throughout the whole State and 
during the entire month, as the diseases on the card were carefully chosen, with 
reference to their relative importance, and were intended to include those 
most prevalent as well as those most dangerous to the public health. 

Statements of some of the diseases which are reported at the bottom of cards 
do not appear on the tables in this compilation, for the reason that they have 
seemed to be of so slight importance as to be better left off. Eeports of other 
diseases, that to some persons may seem unimportant, are published, as foot- 
notes, because of the light they may throw on the study of more important 



244 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— KEPORT OF SECRETARY, 1S77. 

diseases with wliicli they seem to have relations. It is difficult to decide what 
diseases to include or to exclude, because an ailment which may seem to be en- 
tirely outside of the field of profitable investigation may at any time be found 
to be the very one concerning which it is desirable to have evidence. 

In reporting diseases not on the card, it is desirable that reporters should use 
the simplest exact terms, in order to be understood, so far as is practicable, by 
those who have not a knowledge of technical terms. 

By a study of the last four columns of Table 2 in this compilation, it will bo 
seen that the weekly reports often omit the statement whether a disease is more 
or less than usually severe. This is an important point in the study of the 
diseases of any year, and it is hoped that Observers will more generally take 
the slight trouble necessary to mark the cards in reference to this point. 

A reporter sometimes neglects for several Aveeks to send in his reports, and 
then brings them up to date. In this way he may forget and not report some 
disease, or entirely omit one or more reports. Besides, in this office the reports 
are studied by weeks as they come in, so that a considerable })ortion of their 
value is lost if they are received late. 

One correspondent has proposed to send monthly instead of weekly reports. It 
is not believed, however, that results of as great value could be Avorked out from 
monthly reports. Within a month there are often great changes in the diseases 
of a locality, changes, moreover, not always coincident with similar changes in 
other localities, so tliat knowing what the diseases of two localities had been for 
any niontli, it would not be possible to compare them for any given part of the 
month. The meteorological reports, also, contain records of observations made 
three times each da}^, so that a much closer and more satisfactory comparison 
of diseases with meteorological conditions can be made from weekly than from 
monthly reports of diseases. The compilations of meteorological observations, 
however, are usually made by months, and it facilitates the desired comparison 
to compile the reports of diseases as nearly as possible for the same periods of 
time. 

It usually happens that the month does not begin or end with the beginning 
or end of the week. In such cases, in this compilation, the week is compiled 
with the month in which the majority of its days come ; for instance, the 
week wliich ends on February 3, 1877, is compiled with January, because four 
of its daj^s come in tlie month of January. One exception to this rule occurs, 
in the case of the month of November, which, by an error not noticed till too 
late for correction, is made to end on November 25 instead of December 2, as 
the rule Avould require. If the whole number of reports received from an 
Observer, for any sucli month, is less than one-half of tlie number of Aveeks 
in the month, his reports are not compiled, because they might not give a fair 
expression for the entire time. It AA'ill be seen from the preceding statements, 
that it is possible for an Observer to report for all the weeks ending in any 
given month, and be represented in the compilation by only a part of the month. 
In the instance cited above, the Observer may have sent in a report for the 
Aveeks ending on every Saturday in February. The Aveek ending February 3 
Avould be included in January, and, if he had not reported for the month of 
January his report for that Aveek Avould not be compiled at all ; and, if he had 
not sent a report for the Aveek ending March 3, his record for February Avould 
shoAV only three reports. 

The cards from Avhich the tables in this compilation are made, are preserved, 
partly for the reason that new ideas may be advanced Avhich Avould need for 



WEEKF.Y REPORTS OF DISEASES, FISCAL YEAR, 1877. 245 

their establishment or overtlirow evidence \vhicli could not be oljtained from 
the tables, but might be found in tiie reports themselves. Tlie i)ossible meth- 
ods of compihxtioii are numerous, and at some future time one may be devised 
which shall be much more valuable than that now adopted. 

In the reports from which this compilation is made, there were some depart- 
ures from the plan adopted ; though Avhenever such have been found an effort 
has been made, by correspondence with the reporter and otlierwise, to amend 
the reports in harmony with the i)lan. 

In order to secure greater uniformity in future, examples of some of tlie 
variations from the plan, which have come to notice in the office, witli remarks 
on them as viewed from the stand-point of the office, are given, as follows : 

One correspondent wrote : "■' Enclosed please find the corrected copies. Pro- 
bably you see how the omissions of certain numbers came. It was because at 
the time the errors were made I held the view tliat the figures should represent 
the relative amount of sickness." Tliis probably means that the number 8, 
for instance, is to be applied to the disease of which there are twice as many 
cases as of that to which the number 4 is applied. This attempts to give more 
information than tlie plan contemplates, and information which is, at present, 
impossible of attainment. Cards marked thus could not well be compiled with 
those marked on the plan adopted. Others have tried thus by the numbers 
used to indicate the ratios of the number of cases of different diseases. 

One correspondent wrote: "AVeekly reports up to and inclusive of October 
20, 1877, have been made on the comparison of each week with its predecessor, 
which I see by your circular is a wrong construction of the foot-note." For the 
plan on this point the re£idor is referred to paragraph 8, and foot-note, in the 
''Printed Letter Stating Plan," on page 241 of this Keport. 

One correspondent said : "I have no record for April 1-4 ; there was nothing 
prevailing, except slight, incidental maladies not of sufficient importance to 
note." This may overlook the fact that in some other, or in several other local- 
ities these same "slight incidental maladies" may be more wide-spread and 
more severe, and that the knowledge of their existence, even in slight form, in 
any place, taken with their greater prevalence at other places might establish 
their relation to meteorological or other conditions. 

One correspondent said : "There is sickness, but no one disease can be said 
to be prevalent." It is not alone the knowledge of the special prevalence of 
diseases that is sought, but that of the presence even in mild form of all 
diseases between which and observable meteorological conditions, it may bo 
possible to find a causal relation. 

One correspondent reported severity "same as prevalence," showing a misap- 
prehension of what is meant to be indicated by the marks in the severity 
column. These marks are intended to indicate only whether a disease is as 
severe, more severe, or less severe than nsual. 

One correspondent wrote on his report for April 7, 1877: " Mij own, and 
only new cases, no case running over from previous week counted." Another 
says that he marks only new cases. Their reports therefore failed to give the 
desired infornnition : for there is no certainty that the order of prevalence of 
diseases breaking out during the week, as determined by the relative number 
of new cases of each disease, is the same as the order of prevalence of all the 
diseases present in the locality, as determined by the whole number of cases of 
each disease, — and the latter is the information sought. The practice of one 
man may or may not include all the diseases present in his locality, and may or 



24G STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY. 1877. 

may not show the relative number of cases of different diseases. This attempt 
to secure a record and report of diseases iu the State is iu no way an attempt to 
inquire into the practice of different physicians. No one is asked to say liow 
many patients he has from vreek to week. It is asked only that the Observer 
base his reports on the best available knowledge of the diseases in his locality. 
Whether that best knowledge is restricted to his own practice, each one must, 
of course, decide for himself. 

One correspondent, Oct. 3, 187?, says: ''The weekending March 24, bears 
diphtheria as 1 in order. I have marked it thus from the importance and ma- 
lignancy of the disease, not from the number of cases ; it was one sporadic case 
only." A compilation of cards marked thus would not well show, as it is 
desired to show by the present compilation, Avhat diseases are most wide-spread 
at any given month in the year, both as to the number of localities in which they 
occur and as to the number of cases in different localities. 

One correspondent marked consumption "13" in column "'Order of Preva- 
lence" on every card for March, — omitting, March 10, the numbers 9, 10, 11, 
12; March 17, the numbers 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12; March 24, the numbers 10, 
11, 12; March 31, the numbers 9, 10, 11, 12. His reason was that "As the 
number of cases of that disease is nearly unvarying from month to month, to 
make a change in the number denoting its 'order of prevalence', without 
having a change in the number of cases, would mislead ; inasmuch as all other 
changes which were made were based on changes in the number of cases actually 
occurring." This overlooks the fact that in the weekly reports the prevalence 
of any disease is denoted not according to an absolute standard, the same for 
every week and for every locality, but relatively to the number of cases of 
other diseases occurring in the same week and iu the same locality. A disease 
may stand higher in the "order of jDrevalence" — i. e. be denoted by a less num- 
ber — this week than last, though having no more or even fewer cases this week 
than last; simply because other diseases have decreased more rajiidly or dis- 
appeared altogether. Again, to quote from the last Annual Report: "The 
* order of prevalence', taken by itself, is not a uniform and exact measure of 
the actual prevalence." A given disease may prevail equally in two places, 
and in the first place be marked 5, and in the other 10, in the 'order of 
prevalence,' simply because at the latter place there was a greater numher of 
diseases of which there were more cases than of the given disease. If all 
correspondents could mark on the same absolute scale, the compilation would, 
of course, have greater value ; but until such a scale can be found and adopted 
by all, it will only produce confusion for any correspondent to adopt a method 
of marking different from that used by the rest. In compiling these cards 
from this correspondent the mark for consumption was changed to the lowest 
omitted number. Yet this may not have been correct; for the reason that 
some of the omitted numbers may have corresponded to diseases not mentioned 
on the card. 

One corresj)ondent wrote : "I apprehend we do not all report upon the same 
principle ; e, g., one reports leading diseases in his own practice, another in- 
cludes also what he knows of in the practice of other physicians. At one time 
there were more cases of whooping-cough than of any other disease, but very 
few of them taking advice from physicians. Again, I have sometimes written 
the same numeral opposite three or four diseases, while another never num- 
bers any two diseases alike. Then, what diseases, if any, are proper to fill the 
blanks? It may happen that the printed list will fail to cover half the business." 



WEEKLY REPORTS OF DISEASES, FISCAL YEAR, 1877. 247 

The plan is, probably, better understood by some than by others, and posi- 
tive and exact knowledge as to the relative numbers of cases of different dis- 
eases from week to week is difficult to obtain and sometimes impossible of 
attainment; but if each Observer will mark the cards, from week to week, 
''accordikg to his best knowledge of the diseases IX his locality," 
the statements of the compilation will be approximately correct and of great 
value. 

From the foregoing examples, it might be inferred that the correspondence 
relative to weekly reports of diseases has been wholly with reference to errors, 
and, therefore, not particularly pleasant ; but the truth is that the pains-taking 
care and the zeal and enthusiasm with which the Observers of J3isoases have 
performed the labor incident to tliis work, have been very gratifying, and the 
reports have been much more complete and accurate than could have been 
expected; these facts have established the practicability of securing reliable 
Aveekly reports of diseases. The following extract from a letter is here given 
as an example of the words of encouragement which have been sent in, and as 
furnishing an indication of the philantliropical spirit which seems to prevail 
among those who make weekly reports to this Board : 

LETTER FROM G. W. TOPPING, M, D., DE WITT, MICH. 

Secretary of the State Board of Health, Lansing, Mich.: 

Dear Doctor : — * * * i shall be glad if my eiforts contribute in any degree to 
show the relations existing between prevailing epidemics and meteorological condi- 
tions. I think the subject worthy of extended observation and of a careful analysis and 
comparison of facts collected, such an one as you are preeminently qualified to make ; 
yet I cannot but sec, what you have doubtless foreseen all along, viz., that many sources 
of error will occur for which you are not responsible and which you cannot prevent ; 
such as carelessness on the part of correspondents in ranking prevailing diseases, and 
in some instances, as in my own case, a misunderstanding of the plan of marking 
the cards. Another frequent source of error will be the fact that physicians are 
by no means uniform in naming the same disease. You are aware of the fact that one 
physician will name a disease Diphtheria which another would call Tonsilitis or 
Pharyngitis. A like discrepancy exists in naming fevers, the skin diseases, and many 
others; still, notwithstanding those unavoidable sources of error, there will remain 
enough reliable facts to nuike the deductions derived from them exceedingly valuable 
to the medical profession and to the comnumity at large. I trust your eflbrts in this 
particular field will shed much liglit on the causes of diseases and receive tlie aid and 
encouragement they so well deserve. 

Very respectfully, 

G. AV. TOPPING. 

De Witt, Mich., Oct. 7, 1577. 



248 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1S77. 



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WEEKLY PvEPORTS OF DISEASES, FJSCAL YEAE, 1877, 



249 



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WEEKLY REPORTS OF DISEASES, FISCAL YEAR, 1S77. 251 

By Exhibit 7, page 250, intiy be seen the distribution of the 08 Observers in 
different Divisions of the >State ; and by Exhibit 1, page 171, the counties 
inchided in each Division can be learned. The particular locality of each 
Observer is stated in Table 3. An examination of Exliil)it 7 Avill show that the 
numbers of Observers and of reports varies some from montli to month. The 
value of the compilation will be erihanced in j^i'oportion as the Observers come 
to report for full months, and for all the months of the year. 

Table 1 brings together, by months, the statements of the first two columns 
of Table 2, for the State, arranging, in order of greatest area of prevalence, 
the diseases in each month, thus facilitating a comparison of the diseases in 
any month, and in different months. 

The first four columns of Table 2 are compiled from Table 3. In giving 
the per cent of Observers who report a disease prevalent, the first column of 
Table 2 indicates, approximately, the area of prevalence of the disease. 
The second and fourth columns of figures combine for all the localities at 
which, within the Division or the State, a given disease is reported prevalent, 
the statements which, in Table 3, are given for those localities individually. 
In comparing the statements on different diseases in the '^ Average Order of 
Prevalence" column, it should be noticed that they give that average order 
only for the localities where the diseases are reported prevalent, and that the 
localities at which one disease is reported prevalent are not always the same as 
those at which another disease is so reported. While it is not claimed that in 
every case the statements in this column indicate the relative numbers of cases, 
within the Division or State, of the several diseases reported prevalent, it is 
believed that this column, taken in connection with the three preceding col- 
umns, goes far toward an approximate determination of that order. 

A few examples of the results which may be obtained by combinations of 
these columns, and which it is believed may be regarded as jirobably correct, 
are here given to illustrate some of the uses which may be made of the tables. 
(1.) In the statement for the Bay and Eastern Division for June, 1877 (page 
282), Intermittent Fever stands "1" in the "Av. Order of Prevalence"' col- 
umn. The statements in the three preceding columns are that it was reported 
prevalent by every Observer in the Division, on every card he sent. Though 
one other disease. Diarrhea, is stated to have been reported prevalent for this 
month by 100 per cent of the Observers, it was so reported on but G8 per cent 
of the cards received. Consumption was reported prevalent on 82 per cent of 
the cards received, but only by 86 per cent of the Observers. These facts, in 
connection with the fact that in the column *'Av. order of prevalence wiiere 
prevalent" Intermittent Fever stands two units higher — i. e. has its order of 
prevalence denoted by a number smaller by two units — than any other disease,, 
would seem to indicate that in this Division and during this month there were- 
more cases of Intermittent Fever than of any other disease. This indication 
is confirmed by the fact, seen by reference to Table 3 for June, that Intermit- 
tent Fever there stands <'l" iu the Average Order of prevalence for every 
locality represented within the division. (2.) In Table 2 for the State for 
June, p. 258, Intermittent Fever still stands " 1 " in the order of prevalence ; it 
is reported prevalent by 90 per cent of the Observers in the State, for an average 
of 93 per cent of the weeks of the month, and on 90 per cent of the cards 
received for the State. No other disease stands as high in the " Av. Order of 
prevalence where prevalent," none was reported prevalent by more than 70 per 
cent of the Observers, none was reported prevalent on more than 50 per cent 



253 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— EEPOET OF SECEETARY, 1877. 

of the cards received for the State. It, therefore;, seems jDrobable that thero 
were more cases of Intermittent Fever in the State, so far as the 54 localities 
from which reports were received represent the State, than of any other of 
the tabulated diseases. (3.) In Table 2 for the State for January, 1877, page 
257, Cholera Infantum stands "2" in the column '''Average order of preva- 
lence where prevalent." ]3nt as it was reported prevalent by but 3 per cent 
of the Observers, for but 20 per cent of the weeks of the month, and on but 1 
per cent of the cards received, the table must not be understood to mean that 
there were inore cases of Cholera Infantum in the State in Januar}', than 
of any other disease. Turning to Table 3 for January, it is seen that at each 
of the two localities where Cholera Infantum was reported prevalent there 
were several other diseases standing as high in tlie column " Av. order of 
prevalence where prevalent." This may in part acconnt for the exceptional 
prominence of Cholera Infantum in the "Order" column in Table 2 for 
January. In Table 2 for the State for January, Bronchitis, also, stands "2" 
in the "Order" column (and no disease stands higher); and Bronchitis Avas 
reported prevalent by 85 per cent of the Observers, for an average of 90 per 
cent of the weeks of the month, and on 76 per cent of the cards ; but Pneu- 
monia and Eheumatism were also so generally reported that while there can be 
but little doubt that each of these three diseases exceeded in number of cases 
any other disease tabulated, it is difficult to say what was their exact order of 
prevalence as compared with one another. It is noticeable, however, that 
while considered with reference to the per cent of Observers reporting preva- 
lence of each of these diseases. Pneumonia would lead, by a slight excess over 
Bronchitis, and considered with reference to average per cent of Aveeks re- 
ported prevalent where prevalent, Eheumatism exceeds Pneumonia but is below 
Bronchitis, — considered Avith reference to the per cent of cards stating preva- 
lence of these diseases, the order would be the same as denoted by the column 
"Av. order of prevalence Avhere prevalent;" viz., Bronchitis, Pneumonia, 
Rheumatism. 

The foregoing may serve to show that in interpreting the evidence in the 
column "Av. Order of Prevalence where Prevalent," the i:>receding columns 
should always be taken into account, because the preceding columns indicate 
the "where prevalent," so far as regards extent of area, as Avell as tlie time of 
prevalence. If the "Order" column of Table 2 could be made to state for 
the entire Division and for the State the exact Order of prevalence of the 
several diseases tabulated, the value of the compilation Avould be increased. 
But no method of compiling the statements Avhich it is practicable to obtain as 
to the number of cases of different diseases has thus far been devised which 
has seemed to indicate that order better than it is shown by a comparison of 
the first four columns in this table. 

The third column of Table 2 combines the statements of the two preceding 
columns in such a Avay as to show, for the State or Division, the average time, 
•combined with the average area, of prevalence of the several diseases reported 
prevalent. 

The last four columns in Table 2, which relate to the severity of the diseases, 
are compiled directly from the cards. The statements on the cards were not 
made for all diseases by all Observers. It is hoped that hereafter the value of 
this part of the table may be greatly increased by statements on this point for 
>every disease, for every week, by every Observer. 

The lessened range of the numbers in the "Average Order of Prevalence" 



WEEKLY REPOKTS OF DISEASES, FISCAL YEAR, 1877. 25^ 

column in Tabic 2 for the State for tlie year is partly due to the fact tliat no 
disease of great prevalence holds tliat prevalence uniformly throughout the 
year in all localities. The smallness of the numbers in that column is princi- 
pally due to the fact that there are but few localities at which many diseases 
are reported present at any given time. 

The line "Av. for Tabulated Diseases" is useful for compariug different 
Divisions with eacli other and with the State, and different montlis with each- 
other and with the year, as to relative amount of sickness. It is also of use 
for comparing the sickness from any given disease with that from all diseases 
in any given month. 

Table 3 gives a general idea of the diseases present each month in the localities 
represented, the relative order of prevalence at each locality, and what per cent 
of tlie weeks of the month each disease tabulated prevailed in the localities 
where it occurred. These localities are arranged alphabetically within the geo- 
graphical divisions of the State from which reports were received. In com- 
pariug statements by different Observers with each other, it must be remem- 
bered that the numbers in the "Order of Prevalence" columns do not refer 
to an absolute scale, applicable to all localities and to different weeks, but that 
they are, for any given disease, an average of the numbers denoting the order 
of prevalence of that disease, as reported, for the several weeks of the month, 
by oue Observer. It is not claimed that this average order is in every iustance 
the exact order, as to number of cases for the month of the different diseases 
reported by that Observer. A disease which was marked "2" in order of 
prevalence, on the card-reports, for 2 weeks of a month of 4 weeks, and ^'1"' 
for the other 2 weeks, would, under the rule adopted as to fractions, stand "2" 
in the ''Order" column of Table 3; while a disease that was marked '^1" 
for 3 weeks of the same montii, and '' 2 " for the other Aveek would stand " 1 " 
in that table. But of the former disease there may have been, during the 
month, more cases than of the latter. Yet it is believed that these numbers 
generally indicate, approximately, the relative order of prevalence, at any 
given locality, for tlie month; that they indicate that order as well as it could 
be shown by any method practicable, of compiling the cards by months, as 
seems most desirable. Did space permit, it would be a most interesting addi- 
tion to this compilation to publish the weekly reports themselves. It is believed, 
also, that to a considerable extent, useful comparison as to order of prevalence 
is possible, by means of Table 3, between the diseases of different localities. 



254 STATE EOxiRD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 



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H-l 


1^ 


Ph 


jiv 



•oxa 'siaojaa; io •o^J 



'saaAaasao •JO 'ox 



• «9E6'o 's?.iod3a JO -ox T«?ox ;g9 'tnnoui .lail s.iOA.iosqo JO -on -av 



WEEKLY REPOKTS OF DISEASES, FISCAL YEAE, 1877. 



!yo 






o rt 'Z "Z 

O X t-r ^ 

■" ^ i: 6 

— o ._ ~ 



~ o _ 



O !t-l ^ 



^ V -^ 



-rt< ^ t^ 



2 Q 






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■^ ^ .a 



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c= CO ts C) 
t^ o t^ t^ 



I7i -^ ^. 



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O J5 









o s ^ 



o —- •- 



43 rt -;; 



S =- t^ 



H S 



P. 2 S 



o S -^ *- 









tv *-> rt — ; 



ic o H 



3 5 > 



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.:3 !-< u 



rt ^ = i-i 



^ 2 CS S 



- o ^ 



^ •= •- 



.-J f-i s- •— 



o 2 



2 c P 



s o 



256 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1S77. 



/•aaaAog ,^8891,, 
ua9M}3q aouajogicj 



— ' -** L-^ iO 'M O O L-5 O h* 



■aj8A8g ;C[p!nsu unq; 
SS81 p.J.Jaa sauiix 



U1 <M l?< 



r-t O ir^ O Cl! 



•aja.vag jCkb 



<N CO O ^ 






lO -" CO 



aaoitp.lidaasarnix 



o o o 



O O CI 



-BAaj^ JO japjo 'AV 


-* 


51 


lO 


iO 


Th 


" 


o 


■* 


o 


•^ 


o 


C-5 


M 


lO 


^ 


CI 


CO 


CO 


o 


■^ 


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?rjoao,Aa.ia2n!}i!}S 
e)joda}j JO -ja js^l 


o 

CI 


t~ 


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gi 




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51 


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■s^AV JO *i3 jaj -AV 


t^ 


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o 


o 


s 


CO 


O 


o 


§ 


CO 


CD 


o 

00 


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C5 

1^ 


o 



Q"jo aa,Aajj;§,j,iIaa 
SJaAjasqo Jo ■%3 ja j 



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in in r^ 



"I'C^tOh-— <IOC^:20 



rH CO t- O 



CO 1-1 r~ -;< 



•aaaKaoaci 



/•ajaAag ,;SS3q,, 
puu ,,8J0I(,, saunx 
uaawjaq aauaaaj;!(i 


CO 


7 


o 


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SS91 p,a/Iaa s^stnix 


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CO 


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53 


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o 

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840 K Pi},da5l sauiiX 


2 


00 


o 


o 


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CO 


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1-i 


L. 


o 


o 


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a-Aa.i<j Sjailil aouaj 
-BAajj JO .lapjQ 'AV 



o -o CI 



lO CI o -* 



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sjjoday; jo -ja aOff 



— < CO CO -♦- Cl -^ CI 
O rH CI CO — ' CO CO 



to CO l.O o 



CO C5 O 



D '»'Aajj aaaqii 
jtiajBAajj pajjodaji 
•S31AV ;o -ja .laj -av 



CO -*■ to to c» 
CO -r -^ r- i-o 



~. — • lO O C-. o 



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SjaAjasqo JO 'ja aaj 



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— CO X o 



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C> ■« C2 to 



to o o o to 

t^ rH I- CI 



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pun naJOIS), saiajx 
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i 


7 


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7 


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CO 


o 


o 


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o 


1 


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V 


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SS8T Pjl.daji saraix 


o 


6i 


o 


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CO 


■"■ 


01 


x 


CO 

CI 


^ 


LO 


to 


lO 


f^ 


to 


lO 


o 


CI 


o 


o 

CO 


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•ajaAag A\\V 
-nsjl p,;,daa samjx 


o 

CI 


CO 


CI 


ira 


s 


?\ 


CI 


c: 


z 


^ 


X 


o 


to 


CI 

CO 


s 


LO 


CD 


f, 


CO 


LO 


r^ 


•ajaAag .C[i«nsti uuqj 
9J0H[p,j.daasara!x 


-* 


in 


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o 


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^ 


CO 


■^ 


CO 


CI 


CO 


CI 


'^ 


CO 


to 


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o 


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3'Aaj,i aJ3l]M. aouai 
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c> 


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o 


to 


CO 


^''^ 


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o 


LO 


CI 


CI 


-* 


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CO 


CD 


LO 


CO 


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CO 


p-joaD,Aaj<iSnpT!»g 
sjjodaa JO •ja jaj 


s 


lO 


CI 


CO 


!;: 


o 

CI 


•' 


CI 


o 


51 


CI 


g 


LO 


LO 

CO 


CI 


CO 

o 


CO 


CO 


CI 


o 


CO 


'a 'Aajj 3J3l(Ai 
}nai\JAajfi panodaa 


§ 


§ 


?: 


CO 




o 


CO 


CO 

CO 


^ 


LO 


CI 

CO 


CI 


LO 


lO 

to 


CO 


CO 


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to 


a 


Ir- 


o 


(J 'JO ao,Aaj<j S,i,da>i 
BjaAjasqo Jo "ja Jaj 


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CI 


§ 


iS 


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s 


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CO 


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lb 


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5 


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p rj cS 

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g 2 2 

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o 



c: "S S >> X rt 
"S ,1; K H H N 



.- ~ i>> •- <a <a o o j; 2 r 



*-aaaoxoo 






WEEKLY REPORTS OF DISEASES, FISCAL YEAR, 1877 



257 



1 


1 


=?■ 


1 


+ 


1 


in 


in 


c. 


2 
1 


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1 


1 


s ^ f. 


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+ 


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1 




^^ 
















00 


f^ 


00 


CO in CI 


CO 


^ 


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Ci 


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f^ 




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o 


c5 












1—1 










rH 












CI 




1—1 
























































o 


o 


n 


05 


3 








-*< 




1— 1 


CO 


Cl 




t^ 








CO 


in 












'-' 










"-I 




'-' 






Oi 


■"■ 




CI 
















































IN 


« 


01 


S« 


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o 


o 


^ 


o 


IN 


Ol 


'"' 


rs in to 


o 


CO 


?5 


o 


00 


CO 


o 


■>* 


o 


o 








<H 


lO 


■># 


CO 


IC 


to 


CO 


in 


CO 


to CO tK 


00 


CD 


CJ 


CO 


CO 


CO 


rll 


in 


i> 


■^ 


















































§ 




<M 


CO 


,—1 


(M 


r^ 


C-. 


c: 


-H 


CO 


S in CO 




CO 


IS 


Oi 


CO 


r~ 


•^ 


cl 


^ 


o 






t- 








"* 














CO 














d 






„^ 


O 


"¥ 


o 


•» 


o 


p-i 


to 


CO 


c^ 


r>i ,— I ,^ 


CI 


-* 




t~ 


■XI 


o 


O: 


.^it 


o 


X 






t^ 


00 


■* 


lO 




00 






lO 


in 


to 00 CO 


-* 


CO 


00 


o 


t^ 


CO 




CO 


o 


CO 




















































CO 


o 


CD 


i-{ 


to 


c: 


^■1 


lO 


1^ 


Cl 


O — 1 C5 




^-t 


CI 




„^ 


— K 


'-, 


,^ 


^^ 


* 






CO 










■o 


CJ 




CO 




-:!< (^ in 




CJ 


t^ 




00 


*-* 


'" 


CO 




Cl 




















*-HOHVIV[ 






















M 


«: 


o 


o 


7 


o 


o 


CO 


1 




o 
1 


r~ 


-H TO 05 
T T V 


=f 


c> 

1 


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+ 


f. 


CI 


CO 

CO 


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1 


1 






to 


t0 


CO 


o 










o 




CO r^ CO 


o 


CI 


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1— 1 


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'"' 


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s 


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o 


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o 


in CO ^ 


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in 

CI 


CO 


CO 


o 


tr- 


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r^ 


CO 


t~ 


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(N 


t^ 


o 


■* 


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in 


in 


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to CO •* 


in 


CO 


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cs 


CO 


CD 


■^ 


-* 


X 


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^1 




o 


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f^ 


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,,44 


_ 


rr 


00 <J) CO 


f^ 


CI 


in 


o 




■* 


oo 


-^ 


-m 


m 








1^ 








•* 




c> 


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d lO CO 






CO 




cs 




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,^ 




r^i 








_H 


— ^ 


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05 


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CO 


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GO 
1 


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CO 




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09 












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33 



258 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1877. 






•* i« c: o o 



^ yi Si 
I I 



~ o o 

^ rl 1-1 rt s< 



I^ t 



rt ec 'N 






^H ri ri ^H I— I C< ^ 



C» r-l r-c 



Ol t^ (M 



•nsflpj^d^aseiuix 



o<NMtoooioeo«o 



lO CI 05 OO lO 
>-i (S CO CO 



03 O l« (M -^ ■»* CO 
•-C M 1-1 <M CO 1-1 



•a.78A-ig A'liKiisn uiiqj 
9J0K IM/l'a sdmix 


00 


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m 


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CO 


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c 


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OS 


IX 


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CJ 


o 


t^ 


eo 


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o 


a •Aaj,i 3JdqiL ooua[ 
-UAajj jiuapJO'AV 


CO 
CO 


■* 


CO 


lO 


to 


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o 


US 


eo 


lO 


la 


" 


(N 


CO 


lO 


eo 


-* 


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lO 


■* 


■* 


p-j0 3,->,AajaSu!J«)S 
gjjoday JO -p jaj 


s 


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lO 


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g 


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o 


S 


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g 




t^ 


in 


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CD 


lua]HAa.i(j pajjiulaa 
•s5iAV;o •4JJ0J -AV 


§ 


s 


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c; 


■^4 

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g 


§ 


CO 


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g 


s? 


t^ 


CO 


t^ 


00 


g 


g 


s 


§ 


O 



q-jo ao,Aa.ij S.ijflaa 
sadAjasqo Jo 'lo jaj 



•SHi.MOre 



CO — CO (M -H 

■* 1-" e» eo CO 



la CO CO 



eo CO t^ !-> 
eo o> CO rH 



CO 1—1 CO 



*-aN:lf 



/•a.iaA3g ijSSai,, 
piiB ,,9J0I{,, eaiafx 
uaa.ttjaci oauajajjiij 


05 

o" 


IN 


o 


1" 


30 
1 


+ 


1 


CO 

1 


CO 


7 


53 


^ 


CO 


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T 


1 


in 
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§ 


s 


•aj3A3g .{[iijiisn uv-m 
SSai p,l,flaas9'n!X 




eo 


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C5 


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C5 


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s 


s? 


s 


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o 
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05 


n 


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88 


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la 


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ajavag .Cipnisn mu]} 
ajOH[p,l^<iaas.Jiaix 


eo' 


eo 


o 


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CO 


o 


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n 


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CO 


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t- 


CO 


e-i 


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d'Aa.ij ajaqil aauai 
-HAa.td JO japjQ 'AV 


55 
CO 


eo 


o 


00 


IS 


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lO 


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CO 


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(N 


eo 


■* 


in 


eo 


■♦ 


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CO 


■* 


^ 


p-|o aa.Aaj,] Suijujg 
sjjodaji JO JO jaj 


S 


o 


eo 


<M 


t^ 


5 


lO 


X 


g; 


o 


s 


12 


3 


CO 


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05 


s 


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g 


ei 


'»'Aaj(j aaaqM 
}uap!Aajd paijodoy; 


s 


s 


Ol 


g 


o 

CO 


f2 


CO 


CO 


in 


CO 


in 


CO 


t^ 


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g 


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la 


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s 


5g 


s 


in 

CO 



(}-joa3,Aajj3j,daa 
BjaAjasqo JO "JO Jaj 



•SHXKOIC 



or~r-cocoooineo 



OCOfMCOOt^l^t^OCOCO 

iac5i-*^^oiia<N»ni— "ooco 



/•a.iaAag „SS3q„ 
pai: ,,aj0H[,, saiuix 
uajAvjaq aoiia.i.ijjiQ 


in 




Ol 

1 


■ 


■* 


CO 

+ 


7 


CD 
1 


1 


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1 


1 


7 


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1 


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7 


O 


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